Diagnosis.--As listed in the results, the three synapomorphies for the tribe are 1) presence of antennal carinae; 2) presence of tibial carinae on all tibiae; and 3) abruptly rounded anterior projection of the mesonotum. These synapomorphies are of little help for identifying Elaphidiini because they occur sporadically in related tribes and undergo some reversals within Elaphidiini. More useful recognition characters for the tribe are: mesally-spined antennae (lost in some taxa); narrow metepisternum with a centrally positioned keel with strong sclerotization below and membranous above; prosternal process between procoxae slightly to strongly expanded at apex (rarely linear and unexpanded); terminal palpomeres much wider at apex than base; and coarsely faceted eyes (with few exceptions). These characters and aspects will in most cases separate Elaphidiini from the closely related tribes of Hesperophanini, Ibidionini, Achrysonini, Cerambycini, and Eburiini. Brief characterizations of these tribes are presented here: Hesperophanini, probably polyphyletic but generally can be recognized by having: unspined antennae; a broad metepisternum with nearly uniform sclerotization; and unexpanded (or slightly expanded) prosternal process between the procoxae. Ibidionini can be recognized by unspined antennae and antennomeres not at all expanded at apices; elongate pronotum and mesonotum; and pronotum glabrous or nearly so, without calli. Achrysonini, which may also be a polyphyletic tribe, typically have unspined antennae; unexpanded, linear prosternal process between procoxae; broad metepisternum with dorsally positioned keel; terminal palpomeres only slightly more expanded at apex than base. Cerambycini generally have mesal antennal spines (but these are somewhat rotated in most taxa, nearly ventral and strongly recurved with broad bases); broad metepisternum; generally glabrous (or very short and inconspicuous pubescence). Eburiini are differentiated by their unspined antennae; unexpanded terminal palpomeres; presence in most species of raised, eburneous fasciae on the elytra; and prosternal process between procoxae with median expansion and sometimes a slight apical expansion.