Species: Pulvinaria floccifera    (Westwood) - Catalog

Common name: Cottony camellia scale

Field Characters: Body elongate oval; relatively flat in cross section; body cream or tan, with medial stripe and mottling near body margin on young females, dark brown in older females; without obvious wax covering; ovisac produced beneath and behind female, relatively flat, white, flocculent, about 2 times length of body. Occurring on leaves and stems; oviposition is normally on twigs. Males mentioned by Canard1969. Eggs laid inside ovisac.

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Validation characters - Diagnosis: Marginal setae expanded or swollen, rarely with setae with conspicuous fringing; ventral tubular ducts absent from marginal and submarginal areas of head; multilocular pores normally with 7 loculi; multiloculars present in vulvar area forward to segment 2, especially submarginally. Other characters: Dorsal tubular ducts present; tibio-tarsus articulated, with sclerosis; claw without denticle; claw digitules equal; 3 pair of prevulvar setae (posterior pair often obscured by anal plates); 4 to 12 submarginal tubercles around body margin; stigmatic setae differentiated from other marginal setae, middle seta longer than lateral setae; anal plates with posterior margin about equal in length to anterior margin; each anal plate with 4 apical setae, without a subdiscal seta; with 1 or 2 subapical setae on each plate; anal fold with 2 or 4 fringe setae; antennae 8-segmented; preopercular pores inconspicuous, restricted to area anterior of anal plates.

Comparison: Pulvinaria floccifera is similar to P. urbicola by having multilocular pores predominantly with 7 loculi. Pulvinaria floccifera differs by lacking ventral submarginal tubular duct on head (P. urbicola has a few tubular ducts in this area), by having dorsal tubular ducts (P. urbicola lacks these structure except rarely on head), and by having most marginal setae simple or slightly expanded, rarely with setae with more than 2 or 3 tines (P. urbicola has many marginal setae spatulate, with multiple tines).

U.S. quarantine notes: Between 1995 and 2005, this species was intercepted at U. S. ports-of-entry 1 time. We have examined specimens taken in quarantine from Belgium (Anthurium), British West Indies (Cypripedium), Canada (Camellia, Ilex, Oncidium), Czech Republic (Ilex), Colombia (Miltonia), Costa Rica (Brassia, Oncidium), France (Camellia, Dendrobium, Hoya, Ilex, Oncidium, Vanda), Germany (Camellia), Guatemala (Lycaste), India (Crypripedium), Italy (Laurus, Pittosporum), Japan (Anthurium, Eurya, Taonabo), Madeira (Camellia), Mexico (Chamaedorea, Epidendrum, Odontoglossum, Oncidium), Myanmar (Dendrobium), Netherlands (Ilex, Taxus), Panama (Brassia), Portugal (Camellia), United Kingdom (Ansellia, Camellia, Cattleya, Codiaeum, Cymbidium, Cypripedium, Miltonia, Odontonia, Phalaenopsis). We have not examined quarantine records for the following interception recorded in the APHIS database St. Lucia (unknown host). ScaleNet includes hosts in over 35 plant families from all zoogeographic regions. Several other species of Pulvinaria have been taken in quarantine in addition to P. floccifera, P. hydrangeae, P. ixorae, P. polygonata, P. psidii, and P. urbicola including Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell (Japan on Citrus), P. citricola Kuwana (Japan on Diospyros), P. elongata Newstead (Colombia on Oryza, Saccharum), P. grabhami Cockerell (South Africa, West Africa on unknown host), P. horii (Kuwana) (Japan on Acer), and P. vitis (Canada on Tilia).

References: Canard1969; Gill1988; HamonWi1984; Hodgso1994a; HodgsoHe2000.

All references mentioning: Pulvinaria floccifera

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