Catalogue Query Results


Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus theae Maskell, 1891: 6. Nomen nudum; discovered by Deitz & Tocker, 1980: 43.

Aspidiotus theae Maskell, 1891a: 59. Type data: INDIA: Assam, Kangra Valley, on tea plants. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Homonym of Aspidiotus theae Green, 1890; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 231.

Aspidiotus theae; Cockerell, 1896b: 334. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus duplex Cockerell, 1896h: 20. Type data: JAPAN: Tokyo, host plant not indicated, from Takahashi; in Japanese nursery at San Francisco, California, on Camellia; and on orange trees from Japan. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Junior synonym replacing a junior homonym Borchsenius, 1966: 231. Notes: Replacement name for Aspidiotus theae Maskell, 1891

Aspidiotus (Pseudaonidia) duplex; Cockerell, 1897i: 20. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Pseudaonidia) theae; Cockerell, 1897i: 28. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) duplex; Leonardi, 1898a: 77. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) theae; Leonardi, 1898a: 77. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus theae rhododendri Green, 1900a: 67. Type data: SRI LANKA: Nuwara Eliya, on leaves of Rhododendron arboreum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 231.

Pseudaonidia duplex; Fernald, 1903b: 283. Change of combination.

Pseudaonidia rhododendri; Fernald, 1903b: 283. Change of combination.

Pseudaonidia rhododendri thearum Fernald, 1903b: 283. Replacement name for Aspidiotus theae Maskell, 1891a: 59; synonymy by Danzig, 1993: 138.

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis; Borchsenius, 1935a: 19. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 231.

Pseudaonidia duplax; Chou, 1985: 249. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: camphor scale [Dekle1965c, Borchs1966]; escama alcanfor [CoronaRuMo1997]; Japanese camphor scale [Borchs1966]; Yaponskaya kamphornaya shitovka [Borchs1966].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus kuwanae [Muraka1970], Chilocorus similis Rossi [Nakaya1912]. FUNGI Ascomycotina: Nectria aurantiicola [EvansPr1990], Nectria flammea [EvansPr1990]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis cylindratus Compere [Tachik1956, Tachik1962b, RosenDe1979], Aphytis longicaudus Rosen & DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis proclia (Walker) [Gordh1979], Aphytis theae [RehmatAnKh2011], Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw) [Gordh1979], Aspidiotiphagus pseudoaonidiae [Muraka1970], Azotus perspeciosus [Muraka1970], Prospaltella aurantii (Howard) [Gordh1979], Prospaltella fsciata Malenotti [Gordh1979]. Encyrtidae: Adelencyrtus bifasciata (Ishii) [Shiao1978], Anabrolepis lindingaspidis [Muraka1970], Comperiella bifasciata Howard [Flande1944a], Comperiella unifsciata Ishii [Trjapi1989]. Signiphoridae: Signiphora flavopalliata Ashmead [Gordh1979]. LEPIDOPTERA : Platoeceticus gloveri [Koszta1996]. THYSANOPTERA Phlaeothripidae: Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones) [PalmerMo1990].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer palmatum matsumurae [TakahaTa1956]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Moghad2013a], Rhus succedanea [Kuwana1902, Kuwana1907, Marlat1908, Kuwana1933]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex [Kawai1977]. Betulaceae: Alnus hirsuta [TakahaTa1956]. Ericaceae: Rhododendron [Marlat1908, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Kuwana1933, Balach1951], Rhododendron arboreum [Green1900a, Green1937]. Fagaceae: Castanea pubinervis [TakahaTa1956], Castanopsis cuspidata [Kawai1977], Quercus [Kawai1977], Quercus phillyraeoides [TakahaTa1956]. Illiciaceae: Illicium religiosum [TakahaTa1956]. Lauraceae: Cinnamomum camphor [Kuwana1933, Takagi1970]. Magnoliaceae: Michelia fuscata [Takaha1929, Takagi1970]. Moraceae: Ficus carica [TakahaTa1956], Ficus kingiana [Takaha1955f]. Myricaceae: Myrica rubra [Marlat1908, Kuwana1933, TakahaTa1956]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum [Kawai1977], Olea fragrans [Marlat1908], Osmanthus [Kawai1977], Osmanthus fragrans [Kuwana1933]. Rosaceae: Photinia glabra [TakahaTa1956], Pyracantha angustifolia [TakahaTa1956]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Kuwana1927, Green1937], Citrus junos [TakahaTa1956], Citrus natsudaidai [TakahaTa1956]. Sapindaceae: Nephelium litchi [Takaha1955f]. Theaceae: Camellia [Green1937, Balach1951, Dekle1965c, McDani1970], Camellia japonica [Marlat1908, Borchs1936, TakahaTa1956], Camellia sinensis [Marlat1908, Takagi1970], Eurya japonica [TakahaTa1956], Eurya ochracea [Kuwana1902, Kuwana1907, Marlat1908, Kuwana1933], Ternstroemia japonica [TakahaTa1956], Thea japonica [Maskel1891a, Green1900c, Kuwana1902, Kuwana1933, Balach1951], Thea sasanqua [Kuwana1933], Thea sinensis [Kuwana1933, TakahaTa1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Marlat1908, Green1937]). Nearctic: United States of America (Alabama [Ferris1938a], California [Marlat1908], Florida [Dekle1965c], Georgia [Nakaha1982], Louisiana [Ferris1938a], Mississippi [Ferris1938a], Texas [Ferris1938a, McDani1970], Virginia [Nakaha1982]). Oriental: China (Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [FengWe2011], Guangxi (=Kwangsi) [FengWe2011], Guizhou (=Kweichow) [FengWe2011], Hubei (=Hupei) [FengWe2011], Hunan [FengWe2011], Shanghai [FengWe2011], Sichuan (=Szechwan) [FengWe2011], Yunnan [FengWe2011], Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [FengWe2011]); Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Green1900c, Marlat1908, Ramakr1921a, Green1937] (Assam [Maskel1891a]); Indonesia (Java [Balach1951]); Sri Lanka [Green1900a, Green1922, Balach1951]; Taiwan [Takaha1929, TakahaTa1956, Takagi1970, WongChCh1999]. Palaearctic: China [Kuwana1927] (Hebei (=Hopei) [FengWe2011], Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993, Wu1999b]); Georgia (Abkhaz ASSR [Nakaha1982], Adzhar ASSR [Danzig1993, Borchs1936]); Iran [Moghad2013a]; Japan [Marlat1908, Kuwana1917a, Kuwana1933, Green1937, Takaha1955f, Takagi1970, Kawai1977, Kawai1980] (Honshu [TakahaTa1956], Kyushu [Kuwana1902, TakahaTa1956], Shikoku [TakahaTa1956]); South Korea [TakahaTa1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Maskell (1891a), Leonardi (1898c), Green (1900a), Kuwana (1933), Borchsenius (1937, 1950b), Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1951, 1953i), McDaniel (1978), Chou (1985, 1986), Danzig (1993) and by Kosztarab (1996). Feng & Wei, 2011, listed this species as occurring in the Hawaiian Islands and the United States, but this distribution record needs to be verified.

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female dark brown, circular, high convex, exuviae submarginal; scale of the male somewhat elongate oval, exuvia at one end (Ferris, 1938a). Colour photograph of scale cover by Wong et al. (1999).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The camphor scale has been recorded as a pest of ornamental plants (Schmutterer et al., 1957; Beardsley & Gonzalez, 1975; Dekle, 1976; Kosztarab, 1996) and of citrus (Ebeling, 1959; Talhouk, 1975).

KEYS: Feng & Wei 2011: 174-175 (female) [Key to the species of the genus Pseudaonidia in Oriental Region (Adult female)]; Kosztarab 1996: 562 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Kosztarab 1996: 562 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Danzig 1993: 136 (female) [Europe]; Kawai 1980: 204 (female) [Japan]; McDaniel 1970: 427 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Balachowsky 1951: 681 (female) [Mediterranean]; Ferris 1942: 39 (female) [North America]; Kuwana 1933: 20-21 (female) [Japan]; Kuwana 1933b: 49 (female) [Japan]; Marlatt 1908: 134 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 681-684]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 103]; BeardsGo1975 [economic importance: 49]; BenDov1990c [taxonomy: 114]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 708-712]; BerlesLe1898a [taxonomy: 104]; Borchs1935a [taxonomy: 19]; Borchs1936 [host, distribution: 138]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136]; Borchs1939 [taxonomy: 46]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy: 231]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 212-214,219]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 231]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; CatchiWh1924 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 604-606]; Cendan1937 [host, distribution]; Chen1936 [taxonomy: 211,224]; ChenWo1936 [host, distribution]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 249-250]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 652]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 24]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 333,334]; Cocker1896h [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20,28]; Comper1926 [host, distribution, biological control: 33-50]; Comper1961a [biological control: 17-71]; ComperAn1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 17]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; Craw1906 [host, distribution: 139-158]; CressmBlKe1935 [life history, ecology, host: 267-283]; CressmDa1936 [chemical control: 865-878]; CressmKe1933 [life history: 1177-1179]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 220]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 138-139]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 338]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 43]; Dekle1964a [host, distribution: 1-2]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 117]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 134]; DooleyEv2012 [illustration: 13]; Dozier1923 [host, distribution, taxonomy, life history, natural enemies: 1-15]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control]; EHG1897 [host, distribution: 67-85]; EnglisTu1933 [chemical control: 987-989]; EvansPr1990 [biological control: 3-17]; FDACSB1982 [host, distribution: 5-11]; FDACSB1987 [host, distribution: 4-7]; FengWe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 173-175]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 283-284]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy, illustration: 52,90]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43,48]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:39]; Flande1944a [biological control: 365-371]; Flande1971 [biological control, life history: 957-872]; Fleury1934 [host, distribution: 483-500]; FoxWil1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 2296]; Gordh1979 [biological control: 896,900,907,908,911]; Green1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-68]; Green1900c [host, distribution: 3]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 463]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 334]; GreenMa1907 [taxonomy, distribution: 344]; HanksDe1998 [life history, ecology: 239-262]; HorticInNo1923a [host, distribution: 237-239]; Kawai1977 [host, distribution, economic importance: 158,161]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 205]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 563-565]; Kuwana1902 [host, distribution: 66]; Kuwana1907 [host, distribution: 194]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 175]; Kuwana1927 [host, distribution: 71]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 21-23]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 285]; Leonar1898a [taxonomy: 77]; Leonar1898c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-82]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 173]; Lindin1943a [taxonomy: 151]; Lobdel1937 [taxonomy: 78]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 454]; MaChZh1995 [host, distribution: 117-119]; Marlat1908 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 134,136-137]; MartinLa2011 [distribution, host: 38]; Maskel1891 [taxonomy: 6]; Maskel1891a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59-60]; Maskel1892 [taxonomy: 11]; Maskel1893b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 207]; Maskew1914 [host, distribution: 193-194]; McDani1970 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 427-428]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 304]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 346-349]; Miyosh1926 [host, distribution: 303-326]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 49]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution, life history: 76]; NagarkSa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 553-542]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 72-73]; Nakaya1912 [host, distribution, biological control: 932-936]; PalmerMo1990 [biological control: 67-76]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 357]; RehmatAnKh2011 [biological control, distribution, host]; Rose1990c [distribution, economic importance: 535-542]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 604-607,681-684]; Sassce1923 [host, distribution: 152-158]; SassceWe1923 [chemical control: 84-87]; SassceWe1924 [chemical control: 214-222]; SchildSc1928 [biological control]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 493]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 59]; Shiao1978 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 65-77]; ShiLi1991 [host, distribution: 166]; Silves1929 [host, distribution: 897-904]; Tachik1956 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-6]; Tachik1962b [host, distribution, biological control: 565-566]; Takagi1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 140]; Takagi2000 [taxonomy: 59]; TakagiRo1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 314-321]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 79]; Takaha1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10-13]; Takaha1955f [host, distribution: 242]; TakahaTa1956 [host, distribution: 16]; Tanaka1966 [biological control: 1-42]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 74,111]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 296]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 36-37]; Watson1926 [host, distribution]; WatsonBe1937 [host, distribution, control]; Whitne1933 [host, distribution: 59-70]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 33,76]; Woodwo1909 [host, distribution: 359-360]; Wu1999b [host, distribution: 234].




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