Catalogue Query Results


Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus hirsutus Green, 1908a: 25. Type data: INDIA: on undetermined shrub, attended by ants (Crematogaster rogenhoferi). Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1985: 194. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Pseudococcus hibisci Hall, 1921: 17. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus quarternus Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1921a: 345. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus glomeratus Green, 1922: 389. Type data: SRI LANKA: Paradeniya, on Hibiscus esculentus. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1985: 194. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Williams, 1985: 194.

Pseudococcus crotolariae Miller, 1932: 9. Nomen nudum; discovered by Williams, 2004a: 405.

Spilococcus perforatus De Lotto, 1954: 114. Type data: KENYA: Mombasa, on Zizyphus mucronata. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Williams, 1986a: 352.

Maconellicoccus hirsutus; Ezzat, 1958a: 380. Change of combination.

Paracoccus pasaniae Borchsenius, 1962: 590. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, Kunming, on Pasania sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Williams, 1996b: 621.

Maconellicoccus perforatus; De Lotto, 1964: 355. Change of combination.

Pseudococcus crotolariae Yunus & Ho, 1980: 52. Nomen nudum; discovered by Williams, 2004a: 405.

Phenacoccus quarternus Shafee et al., 1989: 65. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus quarternus Varshney, 1992: 45. Nomen nudum.

Maconellicoccus pasaniae; Tang, 1992: 502. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: grape mealybug [ManiTh1987a]; hirsutus mealybug [Brooke1964, Bartle1978e, LitCa1994a]; La cochenille de l'Hibiscus [MatileEtTi2000]; pink hibiscus mealybug [Bartle1978e]; pink Hibiscus mealybug [Charle1997]; pink mealybug.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant [ManiTh1987a, JayaraChGo1988, ShrikeSa1996], Nephus [SanthaChSa1994a], Scymnus coccivora Aiyar [JayaraChGo1988, PersadKh2000, PadmajBaRe1995]. DIPTERA Cecidomyidae: Diadiplosis coccidivora (Felt) [Barnes1930]. Drosophilidae: Cacoxenus (Gitonides) multidentatus Tsacas & Chassagnard [TsacasCh1999], Cacoxenus (Gitonides) oligodous Tsacas & Chassagnard [TsacasCh1999]. HYMENOPTERA Apheleinidae: Coccophagus pseudococci Compere [FallahShOs2007]. Aphelinidae: Marietta leopardiana Motschulsky. Encyrtidae: Achrysopophagus [Moore1988], Anagyrus agraensis Saraswat [FallahShOs2007], Anagyrus davtylopii (Howard) [FallahShOs2007], Anagyrus greeni (Howard) [AbdRab2001d], Anagyrus kamali Moursi [Moursi1948, Moore1988, MeyerdWa1999, Sagarr1999, SagarrPeVi2000, SagarrViSt2001], Anagyrus mirzai (Agarwal & Alam), Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) [AbdRab2001d, FallahShOs2007], Clausenia josefi Rosen [AbdRabHe2005], Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal [MeyerdWa1999, AbdRab2001d], Hambletonia pseudococcina Compere [CeballGr2004], Homalotylus vicinus Silvestri [AbdRab2001d], Leptomastidea abnormis [AbdRabHe2005], Leptomastix algirica [AbdRabHe2005], Leptomastix nigrocoxallis Compere [AbdRab2001d, AbdRabHe2005], Leptomastix phenacocci Compere [Comper1939c], Rhopus nigriclavus (Girault) [AbdRab2001d, AbdRabHe2005]. Platygasteridae: Allotropa mecrida Walker [FallahShOs2007]. Pteromalidae: Pachyneuron muscarum (L.) [FallahShOs2007]. Signiphoridae: Chartocerus kurdjumovi (Nikolskaya) [FallahShOs2007], Chartocerus subaeneus (Foerster) [AbdRab2001d]. LEPIDOPTERA Lycaenidae: Spalgius epius [PatilPaPa2011].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Acanthus ilicifolius [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Eranthemum pulchellum [ChangMi1996], Pachystachys lutea [ChangMi1996], Thunbergia erecta [ChangMi1996]. Amaranthaceae: Achyranthes indica [ChangMi1996], Amaranthus [ChangMi1996], Celosia cristata [ChangMi1996]. Amaryllidaceae: Calostemma [Hall1923]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Willia1986a, Mani1989, KinjoNaHi1996, ChangMi1996], Schinus molle [ChangMi1996], Schinus terebinthifolius [ChangMi1996], Spondias chili [ChangMi1996], Spondias cytherea [ChangMi1996], Spondias dulcis [Mani1989], Spondias mombin [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Spondias purpurea [ChangMi1996]. Annonaceae: Annona [Ezzat1958a, Willia1986a, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996, KondoRaVe2008], Annona cherimola [Matile1984c, ChangMi1996], Annona muricata [Reyne1961, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Annona reticulata [ChangMi1996], Annona squamosa [Reyne1961, Willia1985, AvasthSh1987, Mani1989, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Cananga odorata [ChangMi1996]. Apiaceae: Daucus carota [ChangMi1996], Eryngium foetidum [ChangMi1996]. Apocynaceae: Acokanthera [Hall1923, ChangMi1996], Allamanda [ChangMi1996], Allamanda cathartica [ChangMi1996], Carissa bispinosa [ChangMi1996], Carissa macrocarpa [ChangMi1996], Catharanthus roseus [ChangMi1996], Ervatamia coronaria [ChangMi1996], Nerium odorum [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Nerium oleander [ChangMi1996], Tabernamontana divaricata [ChangMi1996], Vinca minor [ChangMi1996]. Araceae: Aglaonema [ChangMi1996], Alocasia cucullata [ChangMi1996], Anthurium andraeanum [ChangMi1996], Colocasia esculenta [ChangMi1996], Dieffenbachia [ChangMi1996], Philodendron [ChangMi1996], Scindapsus aureus [ChangMi1996], Syngonium podophyllum [ChangMi1996], Xanthosoma [ChangMi1996]. Araliaceae: Aralia [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Brassaia actinophylla [ChangMi1996], Schefflera [ChangMi1996], Schefflera actinophylla [ChangMi1996], Schefflera elegantissima [ChangMi1996], Sciadophyllum pulchrum [ChangMi1996]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [ChangMi1996], Phoenix dactylifera [Matile1984c, ChangMi1996], Phoenix sylvestris [Mani1989, ChangMi1996]. Asteraceae: Bidens pilesa [ChangMi1996], Chrysanthemum coronarium [Hall1923, ChangMi1996], Cosmos [Hall1923, ChangMi1996], Dahlia [Hall1923, ChangMi1996], Emilia [ChangMi1996], Gerbera [ChangMi1996], Helianthus annuus [Hall1923, ChangMi1996], Lactuca sativa [ChangMi1996], Mikania cordata [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Parthenium hysterophorus [Willia1985, ChangMi1996], Symedrella nodifloa [ChangMi1996], Tithonia urticifolia [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996]. Basellaceae: Basella alba [ChangMi1996]. Begoniaceae: Begonia [ChangMi1996]. Bignoniaceae: Bignonia [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Crescentia cujete [ChangMi1996], Jacaranda mimusifolia [Hall1922, ChangMi1996], Kigelia [ChangMi1996], Tabebuia [ChangMi1996], Tabebuia heterophylla [ChangMi1996], Tecoma capensis [ChangMi1996], Tecoma grandiflora [Hall1922, Mani1989], Tecoma stans [ChangMi1996]. Bombacaceae: Ceiba pentandra [DeLott1964, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996]. Boraginaceae: Cordia curassavica [ChangMi1996]. Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus [HodgsoLa2011]. Cactaceae: Opuntia [Hall1923, ChangMi1996], Pereskia bleo [ChangMi1996]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [ChangMi1996]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Varshn1992, ChangMi1996]. Chenopodiaceae: Beta vulgaris [ChangMi1996], Chenopodium album [Hall1923, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996]. Combretaceae: Quisqualis [Hall1923, ChangMi1996], Rhoeo [ChangMi1996], Terminalia [ChangMi1996], Terminalia catappa [Matile1984c, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Terminalia mantaly [Willia1986a, ChangMi1996]. Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea [ChangMi1996], Ipomoea batatas [ChangMi1996]. Crassulaceae: Kalanchoe [ChangMi1996]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucumis sativus [ChangMi1996], Cucurbita maxima [ChangMi1996], Cucurbita moschata [ChangMi1996], Cucurbita pepo. Cyperaceae: Cyperus [ChangMi1996]. Dilleniaceae: Tetracera [WilliaWa1988a]. Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea [ChangMi1996]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [Hall1922, ChangMi1996]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus [ChangMi1996]. Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha [Hall1922, Matile1984c, Willia1986a, BenDov1994], Acalypha hispida [ChangMi1996], Acalypha indica [ChangMi1996], Acalypha marginata [ChangMi1996], Codiaeum [ChangMi1996], Croton [ChangMi1996], Croton flavens [ChangMi1996], Euphorbia [ChangMi1996], Euphorbia hypercifolia [Ali1967a], Euphorbia pulcherimma [ChangMi1996], Hevea [Betrem1937], Macaranga [WilliaWa1988a], Manihot esculenta [Willia1970DJ, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Ohyllanthus amarus [ChangMi1996], Phyllanthus acidus [ChangMi1996], Phyllanthus amarus [ChangMi1996], Phyllanthus niruri [Mani1989], Ricinus communis [ChangMi1996]. Fabaceae: Acacia arabica [Hall1922, BenDov1994], Albizia caribaea [ChangMi1996], Albizia lebbeck [Hall1922, Ezzat1958a, Matile1984c, Willia1986a, BenDov1994], Albizia nipoides [ChangMi1996], Albizia saman [ChangMi1996], Arachis hypogaea [Hall1923, Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Bauhinia [Hall1922, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Bauhinia candicans [ChangMi1996], Bauhinia forficata [ChangMi1996], Bauhinia racemosa [ChangMi1996], Bauhinia vahlii [ChangMi1996], Bauhinia variegata [ChangMi1996], Caesalpinia coriaria [ChangMi1996], Caesalpinia decapetala [ChangMi1996], Caesalpinia pulcherrima [ChangMi1996], Caesalpinia sepiaria [ChangMi1996], Cajanus cajan [ChangMi1996], Cajanus indicus [Hall1922, Mani1989], Calliandra [ChangMi1996], Cassia [ChangMi1996], Cassia glauca [ChangMi1996], Cassia obovata [ChangMi1996], Cassia renigera [ChangMi1996], Cassia siamea [Willia1986a, Mani1989, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Ceratonia siliqua [Hall1922, Matile1984c, ChangMi1996], Clitoria ternatea [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Crotalaria [Betrem1937], Delonix regia [ChangMi1996], Erythrina [Willia1985, Willia1986a, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Erythrina corralodendrum [ChangMi1996], Erythrina crista-galli [ChangMi1996], Erythrina resinifera [ChangMi1996], Erythrina speciosa [ChangMi1996], Erythrina stricta [ChangMi1996], Erythrina variegata [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Erythrina vespertilio [ChangMi1996], Gliricidium sepium [ChangMi1996], Glycine max [Willia1985, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Grewia [ChangMi1996], Inga [ChangMi1996], Leucaena glauca [Betrem1937, ChangMi1996], Medicago sativa [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Mimosa pudica [TuWuLe1988, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Parkinsonia aculeata [Hall1922, Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Phaseolus mungo [ChangMi1996], Phaseolus vulgaris [ChangMi1996], Poinciana regia [ChangMi1996], Prosopis sp. [Moghad2013a], Prosopis spicigera [Moghad2013a], Robinia pseudacacia [Hall1922, Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Samanea saman [Morris1920, Ali1968, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Sena italica [ChangMi1996], Sena obtusifolia [ChangMi1996], Sena siamea [ChangMi1996], Sena sulfurea [ChangMi1996], Sesbania aegyptiaca [ChangMi1996], Tamarindus indica [ChangMi1996], Templetonia [ChangMi1996], Tephrosia [Betrem1937], Vigna unguiculata [ChangMi1996]. Fagaceae: Pasania [Borchs1962, BenDov1994], Quercus [Wang1981TC, BenDov1994]. Flacourtiaceae: Flacourtis indica [ChangMi1996]. Gesneriaceae: Chrysothemis pulchella [ChangMi1996]. Lamiaceae: Clerodendrum aculeatum [ChangMi1996], Leonotis nepetifolia [ChangMi1996]. Lauraceae: Persea americana [ChangMi1996]. Lecythidaceae: Courouptia guianensis [ChangMi1996]. Liliaceae: Asparagus [ChangMi1996], Asparagus densiflorus [ChangMi1996], Asparagus officinalis [Hall1923, ChangMi1996], Asparagus setaceus [ChangMi1996], Cordyline terminalis [ChangMi1996], Dracaena [ChangMi1996]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia speciosa [ChangMi1996], Lawsonia [ChangMi1996], Lawsonia inermis [Moghad2013a]. Malpighiaceae: Malpighia glabra [ChangMi1996]. Malvaceae: Abelmoschus esculentus [Mani1989], Abutilon indicum [AvasthSh1987, BenDov1994], Althaea [ChangMi1996], Gossypium [Ezzat1958a, Brooke1964, DeLott1964, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Gossypium arboreum [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Gossypium herbaceum [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus [Morris1920, Takaha1942b, DeLott1964, Ali1968, Willia1986a, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus acetosella [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus boryanus [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus cannabinus [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus elatus [ChangMi1996], Hibiscus esculentus [Matile1984c, Willia1986a, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus manihot [WilliaWa1988a, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus mutabilis [TuWuLe1988, Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [Matile1984c, Willia1985, Willia1986a, WilliaWa1988a, Mani1989, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus sabdariffa [Willia1986a, Mani1989, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus schizopetalus [Ezzat1958a, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus surattensis [DeLott1964, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Hibiscus syriacus [ChangMi1996], Hibiscus tiliaceus [WilliaWa1988a, ChangMi1996, WilliaMi2010], Holmskia sanguinea [ChangMi1996], Malvaviscus arboreus [ChangMi1996], Paritium [ChangMi1996], Pavonia [ChangMi1996], Sida acuta [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Thespesia lampas [Green1922, BenDov1994], Thespesia propulnea [WilliaWa1988a]. Melastomataceae: Miconia cornifolia [ChangMi1996]. Meliaceae: Azadirachta indica [Willia1986a, ChangMi1996], Melia azedarach [ChangMi1996]. Moraceae: Artocarpus altilis [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Ficus [AvasthSh1987, WilliaWa1988a], Ficus benghalensis [ChangMi1996], Ficus benjamina [TuWuLe1988, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Ficus carica [Matile1984c, ChangMi1996], Ficus cunia [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Ficus elastica [ChangMi1996], Ficus indica [Mani1989], Ficus infectoria [ChangMi1996], Ficus platyphylla [Hall1922, ChangMi1996], Ficus religiosa [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Ficus virens [ChangMi1996], Morus [Ali1968, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Morus alba [Takaha1928, Matile1984c, TuWuLe1988, Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Morus nigra [ChangMi1996]. Musaceae: Heliconia [ChangMi1996], Musa [Willia1985, ChangMi1996]. Myrtaceae: Callistemon [ChangMi1996], Eugenia jambolana [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Eugenia malaccensis [ChangMi1996], Myrtus communis [Matile1984c, ChangMi1996], Psidium guajava [Hall1922, Ezzat1958a, DeLott1964, Matile1984c, Willia1986a, Mani1989, BenDov1994, KondoRaVe2008], Syzygium aromaticum [Moghad2013a], Syzygium cumini [ChangMi1996], Syzygium malaccense [ChangMi1996]. Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea [Hall1922, ChangMi1996], Bougainvillea spectabilis [ChangMi1996]. Oleaceae: Jasminum [ChangMi1996], Jasminum sambac [Mani1989, ChangMi1996]. Orchidaceae: Dendrobium [ChangMi1996]. Oxalidaceae: Averrhoa carambola [ChangMi1996]. Passifloraceae: Passiflora edulis [ChangMi1996], Passiflora grandiflora [ChangMi1996], Passiflora quadrangularis [ChangMi1996]. Phytolacaceae: Rivina humilis [ChangMi1996]. Phytolaccaceae: Petiveria alliacea [ChangMi1996]. Piperaceae: Peperomia pellucida [ChangMi1996], Piper tuberculatum [ChangMi1996]. Plumbaginaceae: Plumbago auriculata [ChangMi1996]. Poaceae: Saccharum officinarum [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Zea mays [Hall1923, ChangMi1996]. Polygonaceae: Cocoloba uvifera [ChangMi1996]. Polypodiaceae: Nephrolepis biserrata furcans [ChangMi1996], Nephrolepis exaltata [ChangMi1996]. Portulacaceae: Portulaca oleraceae [ChangMi1996], Portulaca pilosa [ChangMi1996]. Proteaceae: Grevillea robusta [Hall1922, Mani1989, ChangMi1996]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Matile1984c, AvasthSh1987, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996]. Rhamnaceae: Colubrina arborescens [ChangMi1996], Ziziphus [ChangMi1996], Ziziphus jujuba [Willia2005], Ziziphus mucronata [DeLott1954, Willia1986a, BenDov1994], Ziziphus spina-christi [Matile1984c]. Rosaceae: Crataegus [ChangMi1996], Cydonia oblonga [ChangMi1996], Eriobotrya japonia [ChangMi1996], Prunus armeniaca [ChangMi1996], Prunus domestica [ChangMi1996], Prunus persica [ChangMi1996], Pyrus communis [ChangMi1996], Pyrus malus [Matile1984c], Rosa [ChangMi1996]. Rubiaceae: Adina cordifolia [ChangMi1996], Coffea [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Coffea arabica [BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Haldina cordifolia [ChangMi1996], Hamelia [ChangMi1996], Ixora [ChangMi1996]. Rutaceae: Aegle marmelos [ChangMi1996], Citrus [Matile1984c, Willia1986a, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996, KondoRaVe2008], Citrus aurantifolia [Willia1985], Citrus aurantium [ChangMi1996], Citrus medica acida [Brooke1964], Citrus noblis [ChangMi1996], Citrus paradisi [ChangMi1996], Citrus sinensis [Moghad2013a], Murraya exotica [ChangMi1996], Murraya koenigii [ChangMi1996], Murraya paniculata [ChangMi1996], Mussaenda [ChangMi1996]. Salicaceae: Salix [ChangMi1996]. Sapindaceae: Blighia sapida [ChangMi1996], Dimocarpus longan [MartinLa2011], Dodonaea viscosa [Matile1984c, BenDov1994], Melicocca arvense [ChangMi1996], Melicocca bijuga [ChangMi1996]. Sapotaceae: Manilkara zapota [ChangMi1996]. Scrophulariaceae: Russelia equisetifolia [ChangMi1996], Scoparia dulcis [ChangMi1996]. Solanaceae: Capsicum [ChangMi1996], Capsicum annum [ChangMi1996], Capsicum frutescens [ChangMi1996], Cestrum nocturnum [ChangMi1996], Datura [ChangMi1996], Lycopersicon esculentum [ChangMi1996], Solanum aethiopicum [Willia1986a, BenDov1994], Solanum bicolor [ChangMi1996], Solanum melongena [ChangMi1996], Solanum verbascifolium [TuWuLe1988, BenDov1994]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [DeLott1964, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996]. Tamaricaceae [Moghad2013], Tamarix sp. [Moghad2013a]. Tiliaceae: Corchorus olitorius [Hall1922, ChangMi1996]. Urticaceae: Boehmeria nivea [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Laportea aestuans [ChangMi1996]. Verbenaceae: Clerodendrun infortunatum [Mani1989, ChangMi1996], Duranta [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996], Duranta repens [ChangMi1996], Lantana [ChangMi1996], Lantana camara [Matile1984c], Petrea arborea [ChangMi1996], Stachytarpheta jamaicensis [ChangMi1996], Tectona grandis [Reyne1961, Willia1986a, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994, ChangMi1996]. Vitaceae: Cissus verticillata [ChangMi1996], Vitis vinifera [Matile1984c, Mani1989, ChangMi1996, AminYo2005]. Zingiberaceae: Alpinia [ChangMi1996]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Marieta picta Andre [FallahShOs2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Benin [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, Willia1996b]; Burkina Faso [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Cameroon [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Central African Republic [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Chad [Willia1986a, BenDov1994, Willia1996b]; Congo [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [Willia1996b]; Gabon [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Kenya [DeLott1954, Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Liberia [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Niger [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Nigeria [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Senegal [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Seychelles [BenDov1994]; Socotra Island [BenDov1994]; Somalia [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Sudan [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Tanzania [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; United Arab Emirates [Willia1996b]; Yemen [Willia1996b]; Zaire [Willia1986a, BenDov1994]; Zambia [Willia1996b]; Zanzibar [BenDov1994, WilliaMa2005a]. Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [BenDov1994], Queensland [BenDov1994], South Australia [Brooke1964, BenDov1994], Western Australia [BenDov1994]); Fiji [HodgsoLa2011]; Guam [BenDov1994, ReddyMuCr2009]; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [BenDov1994]); Papua New Guinea [BuckleGu1991, BenDov1994]; Tonga [BenDov1994]; Tuvalu [BenDov1994]. Nearctic: United States of America (California [GeigerDaBe2001], Florida [HoyHaNg2006, HallRoLa2008], Georgia [AristiMaBe2012], Louisiana [AristiMaBe2012], South Carolina [AristiMaBe2012], Texas [AristiMaBe2012]). Neotropical: Colombia [KondoRaVe2008, KondoGuPo2012]; Cuba [CeballGr2004]; French Guiana [MatileEtTi2000]; Grenada [Charle1997, EtiennMaLe1998]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guyana [TambasSaNa2000]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Martinique [MatileEt2006]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Charle1997, MichauEv2000]); Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands [Charle1997, EtiennMaLe1998]; Saint Lucia [Malump2012b]; Saint Martin & St. Barthelemy (Saint Barthelemy [EtiennMaLe1998, MatileEt2006], Saint Martin [MatileEt2006]); Trinidad and Tobago (Tobago [Charle1997], Trinidad [Charle1997, EtiennMaLe1998]); U.S. Virgin Islands [Charle1997]; Venezuela [CermelMoGo2002]. Oriental: Andaman Islands [BenDov1994, Willia1996b]; Bangladesh [BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Brunei [BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Burma (=Myanmar) [Crowe1985, BenDov1994]; Hong Kong [BenDov1994, Willia1996b]; India [Ali1967a, ShafeeKhAh1989, Willia2004a, NagrarKrBi2009] (Andhra Pradesh [SivaRaSr1987, AvasthSh1987, Willia2004a], Assam [Willia1996b], Bihar [Willia1996b, Willia2004a], Delhi [Willia1996b], Gujarat [Willia2004a], Karnataka [Balika1999c, Willia2004a], Kerala [Willia1996b, Willia2004a], Madhya Pradesh [Willia1996b, Willia2004a], Maharashtra [Willia1996b, Willia2004a], Odisha [Willia1996b, Willia2004a], Punjab [Willia1996b, Willia2004a], Tamil Nadu [AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Tripura [Willia1996b, Willia2004a], Uttar Pradesh [AvasthSh1987, BenDov1994], West Bengal [Willia1996b, Willia2004a]); Indonesia [Willia2004a] (Bali [Willia2004a], Irian Jaya [Willia1996b], Java [Betrem1937, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Lombok [Willia1996b, Willia2004a], Sulawesi (=Celebes) [Willia1996b], Sumatra [Willia1996b]); Kampuchea (=Cambodia) [Willia1996b, Willia2004a]; Laos [BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Malaysia [Willia1996b, Willia2004a] (Malaya [Willia2004a]); Maldives [Willia1996b, Willia2004a]; Nepal [BenDov1994]; Pakistan [BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Philippines [Willia2004a] (Luzon [Morris1920, LitCa1994a, BenDov1994]); Singapore [Willia1996b, Willia2004a]; Sri Lanka [BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Taiwan [Takaha1928, TuWuLe1988, BenDov1994, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Takaha1942b, Willia2004a, DownieGu2004]; Vietnam [Willia2004a]. Palaearctic: China [Borchs1962, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994] (Xizang (=Tibet) [Wang1981TC, BenDov1994]); Egypt [Hall1922, Hall1923, Ezzat1958a, Willia1986a, BenDov1994, AminYo2005]; Iran [FallahShOs2007, Moghad2009]; Japan [KinjoNaHi1996]; Jordan [HalayeKa2010]; Lebanon [Willia1996b]; Oman [BenDov1994]; Saudi Arabia [Beccar1971, Matile1984c].

BIOLOGY: The life history was studied by Ghose (1972a). Causes stunted or malformed stems and leaves and can kill the plant. On Hibiscus this mealybug causes gall-like deformations of the terminal growth characterized by internode shortening, deformed leaves and thickened twigs (Ghose, 1972b; Beardsley, 1985). A female can lay more than 500 eggs at one time. Modes of transport include crawler and egg sack dispersion through wind and by movement, attaching or sticking to animals or transported objects. Nursery plants and trade of infested commodities also lead to its spread. Sometimes, ants that are attracted to its honeydew may act as protectors and movers of PHM. (Halaybeh & Katbeh-Bader, 2010) Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), developed equally well on Cucurbita pepo L. and C. maxima (Qin, et al., 2011) Aristizabal, et al., (2012) investigated the relationship between life history (fitness) of M. hirsutus and "bunchy top" symptom development on 3 hibiscus cultivars expected to have high (‘President’), low (‘Double Red’), and intermediate (‘Joanne’) levels of susceptibility. They found no major differences in the response of M. hirsutus among the 3 cultivars in terms of their survival, development rate, size, or oviposition period in laboratory tests at a temperature conducive for mealybug development.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Morrison (1920), Betrem (1937), Ezzat (1958), Williams (1958a, 1985), Williams & Watson (1988a), Williams (1996b) and by Williams (2004a). Data on the distribution, external appearance, host plants, life cycle, damage and control is available at web site: http://gnv.ifas.ufl.edu/~insect

STRUCTURE: The dermal pores, ducts and wax secretion were studied by Kumar et al. (1997). Zhang et al. (2004) isolated, identified and synthesized two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone.

SYSTEMATICS: The male of M. hirsutus is typical of the Pseudococcinae except that there are no ventral lobes along the margin of the ventral slit on the penial sheath, In the analysis of Hardy et al. (2008), Maconellicoccus was sister to all of the other genera included in the Pseudococcinae. (Hodgson, 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: In 1997, the pink hibiscus mealybug has invaded the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Trinidad, Tobago, Grenada and several other Caribbean islands, where it is damaging coffee, cotton, soybeans, citrus and some other crops (Charlet, 1997; USDA- APHIS Pamphlet, 1997). The introduction of the entomophagous Coccinellid Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and the parasitoid wasp Anagyrus kamali are recommended (Etienne et al., 1998). For 11 sets of interacting species near Madang, Papua New Guinea, coccoids attended by relatively inoffensive ants were more heavily parasitized than those attended by more aggressive ants. This has not been demonstrated previously. Ant exclusion experiments for four of these sets showed that this correlation was due to active protection of the coccoids from both predation and parazitation, though the precise form and effectiveness of this protection differed between different sets of interacting species. (Buckley & Gullan, 1991). Data on the distribution, external appearance, host plants, life cycle, damage and control is available at web site: http://gnv.ifas.ufl.edu/~insect Susikaran, et al. (2013), fount that fish oil products and C. montrouzieri can safely be used for the effective management of pink mealybug in the mulberry ecosystem.

KEYS: Parsa et al. 2012: 8-10 (adult, female) [Key to mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) recorded on Manihot spp. (Euphorbiaceae) in the World]; Williams 2004a: 405 (female) [Maconellicoccus species of southern Asia]; Williams 1996b: 621 (female) [world]; Williams 1985: 191 (female) [Australia].

CITATIONS: AbdelMFaAb2005 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 245-255]; AbdRab2001d [distribution, biological control: 1359]; AbdRab2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 129-132]; AbdRabHe2005 [biological control, distribution: 1135-1139]; AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; Afifi1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 118-122]; AhamedChMa1999 [economic importance, life history, ecology: 265-273]; AlemanMaMi2005 [biological control: 71-72]; Ali1967a [host, distribution: 34]; Ali1968 [host, distribution: 127]; Allen2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 301-303]; AminEm1996a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 721]; AminEmYo1994 [host, structure, life history: 221-226]; AminYo2005 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 199-210]; AristiMaBe2012 [life history: 89-94]; AvasthSh1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; Balach1926 [taxonomy, economic importance: 7]; Balika1999 [host, distribution: 81]; Balika1999a [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 148-149]; Balika1999b [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 149]; Balika1999c [host, distribution: 67-69]; BalikaBa2000 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 62-63]; Barnes1930 [host, distribution, biological control]; Bartle1978e [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 144, 145]; BaskarLaUt1999a [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 28-31]; BaskarSrMu2002 [biological control: 54-56]; Beards1986 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 9]; Beccar1971 [host, distribution: 194]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 217-218,276]; Betrem1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-84]; Bliss2005 [life history, chemical ecology: 18]; Borchs1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 590]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Brooke1964 [host, distribution: 15]; BuckleGu1991 [biological control, host, distribution: 282-286]; CaicedSu2000 [host, distribution, economic importance: 2-5]; CeballGr2004 [host, distribution, biological control: 1010]; CermelMoGo2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 103-105]; ChakraSaSe1999 [biological control: 193-203]; ChangMi1996 [economic importance, host, distribution: 1-66]; ChongOe2006 [biological control: 16-19]; ChongRoMa2008 [life history: 323-332]; Cock2003 [economic importance: 25-33]; Comper1939c [host, distribution, biological control: 36-38]; Crowe1985 [distribution]; DaaneCoTr2008a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 167-171]; DahlstHa1999 [biological control: 919-933]; DeChiGaMa1996 [biological control: 1-6]; DeLott1954 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 113-114]; DeLott1964 [host, distribution: 355]; DineshVe2011 [host, distribution, biological control: 11-17]; DownieGu2004 [host, distribution, phylogeny, molecular data: 258-259]; Dutt1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 59-71]; DuttMuSe1951 [host, distribution, ecology, economic importance: 231-237]; EtiennMaLe1998 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 173-174]; Ezzat1958a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 379-382]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 89]; FallahShOs2007 [host, distribution, biological control: 563-609]; FlaherWi1999 [biological control: 853-869]; Flores2005 [host, distribution, biological control]; Follet1999 [distribution, chemical control: 213-217]; Follet2004 [chemical control: 1263-1268]; FranciBlRo2007 [chemical ecology, economic importance, life history, chemistry: 440-446]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Gautam1997 [biological control]; Gautam2003 [chemical control, fumigation: 193-201]; Gautam2003a [host, distribution, biological control: 1-8]; Gautam2004 [biological control, chemical control: 338-342]; GautamCo2003 [chemical control: 259-263]; GautamDeCh1998 [biological control]; GautamDeLe1997 [biological control]; GautamPu2002 [economic importance, biological control, distribution: 87-99]; GeigerDaBe2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, ecology: 19-27]; Ghose1972 [economic importance: 329-334]; Ghose1972a [life history: 323-332]; Goel1994 [biological control, host, distribution: 1-280]; Goel1996 [life history, biological control]; Gomez2006 [host, life history, ecology: 1]; GonzalElMo2003 [biological control, host, distribution: 1-5]; GoolsbKiMe2002 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 494-498]; Green1908a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25]; Green1922 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 389-390]; Gullan2000 [taxonomy, description: 160-166]; HalayeKa2010 [distribution, life history: 67-71]; Hall1921 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1-28]; Hall1922 [host, distribution: 43-52]; Hall1923 [host, distribution: 57-61]; HallRoLa2008 [life history, phenology, host, distribution: 305-310]; HandiqBa2000 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 79-80]; HaraJa2005 [control, mechanical control: 284-288]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; Hawkin1994 [biological control: 3]; HodgesHo2004 [host, distribution: 396-397]; HodgesHo2006 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 1-7]; Hodgso2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 67-68]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 8]; HoyHaNg1998 [host, distribution, economic importance, taxonomy: 29]; HoyHaNg2006 [host, distribution]; Hunsbe2003 [host, distribution: 343-345]; JacobsHa2003 [life history, ecology, economic importance: 1334-1339]; JalaliSiBi1999 [biological control: 293-296]; JayaraChGo1988 [biological control: 77-78]; Jones1997 [host, distribution, economic importance]; KairoPoPe2000 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 241-254]; KaydanCaUl2013 [economic importance: 169]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 126]; Klasse1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1-292]; KondoGuPo2012 [biological control, distribution: 2, 14-15]; KondoRaVe2008 [host, distribution: 36-37]; KumarTeDa1997 [taxonomy, structure, economic importance: 307-311]; LePell1968 [life history, biological control]; Lewis1997 [host, distribution, economic importance]; LitCa1994a [host, distribution: 391, 392]; Lopez1997 [host, biological control, economic importance]; Luttebico1999 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-3]; Malump2012b [distribution, host, illustration: 207,211,213]; Malump2012b [distribution, illustration: 208.211]; MalumpHaMa2012 [distribution, economic importance: 114]; Mani1988a [life history, ecology, host, distribution, biological control: 32]; ManiKr1991a [host, distribution: 103]; ManiKr1999 [host, distribution: 73-74]; ManiKr2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 152]; ManiTh1987a [biological control: 19-22]; ManiTh1987c [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 89-92]; Manjun1985a [host, distribution, economic importance: 71-76]; ManjunRaSa1996 [host, distribution, economic importance: 487-495]; MaribaReVe1998 [economic importance, biological control: 222-224]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 47]; Matile1984c [host, distribution: 225]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 179]; MatileEtTi2000 [host, distribution, economic importance: 485-486]; McComi1996 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-5]; McComi1997 [distribution, economic importance]; McComi2000 [distribution, economic importance]; Meyerd1999 [distribution, economic importance, control: 115-120]; MeyerdWa1999 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 49]; Michau2003 [biological control: 335-342]; MichauEv2000 [economic importance, host, distribution, biological control: 97-101]; Miller2001DR [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 189-202]; Moffit1999 [economic importance, distribution, host: 1-15]; Moghad2008 [host, distribution, economic importance: 155-156]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 20-21]; Moghad2013 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 31-32, 34, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 65]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy, structure: 48]; Moore1988 [biological control: 212]; Morais1997 [biological control]; Morris1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 169-170]; Moursi1948 [biological control, host, distribution: 9-16]; MuraliBa2000 [host, distribution, economic importance: 705-706]; MuthukMaTh2005 [host, distribution, chemical control: 339-344]; NagrarKrBi2009 [economic importance, host, distribution: 537-541]; NeelanCh2004 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Ni1998 [taxonomy, economic importance, host, distribution, biological control: 3-11]; Nowier2005 [economic importance, control]; OliveiNaSi2001 [economic importance: 161-173]; OuvrarKoGu2013 [biological control, distribution: 2]; PadmajBaRe1995 [host, distribution, biological control: 79-81]; ParidaMo1982 [taxonomy, structure: 19]; ParsaKoWi2012 [taxonomy: 9]; PatilPaPa2011 [biological control: 693]; PatilPaSa2011 [life history: 1553-1556]; Pena1997 [economic importance: 5]; PenaBa1999 [economic importance: 97-104]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 216]; Persad1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1]; Persad1998 [host, distribution]; PersadKh2000 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 170-173]; PersadKh2002 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 137-149]; Pinkhime1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-2]; PlanaSaBu2004 [economic importance: 13-18]; QinWuQi2011 [life history: 1127]; RaguraPr2006 [chemical control, biological control: 28-30]; Raicho1958 [structure, life history, economic importance: 315-318]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 345]; Ramakr1941 [host, distribution: 107-113]; Ranjan2006 [economic importance: 1-10]; ReddyMuCr2009 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 1431-1439]; Reyne1961 [host, distribution: 125]; RoltscErMe2007 [biological control: 977-981]; RoltscMeWa2006 [host, distribution, biological control: 155-166]; RosasGSaVi2010 [taxonomy, host, distribution, molecular data , polymorphism, genetic structure: 1043-1050]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Sagarr1999 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 1-179]; SagarrPeVi2000 [biological control: 647-653]; SagarrViSt2001 [life history, host, distribution, biological control: 363-367]; SagarrViSt2001a [biological control: 112-116]; SagarrViSt2002 [biological control: 400-404]; SanthaChSa1994a [host, distribution, biological control: 91-95]; SaTaLu2001 [biological control: 154-160]; SatyanBaMa2003 [chemical control, biological control: 114-115]; Schmut1969 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance, control: 101-102]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; SeeperGaZi2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 99-103]; SerranLa2002 [host, distribution, biological control: 417-425]; SerranLaMe2001 [host, distribution, life history, physiology, economic importance: 339-345]; ShafeeKhAh1989 [host, distribution: 65]; ShiLi1991 [host, distribution: 161]; ShreeMa2005 [physiology, chemistry: 173-186]; ShrikeSa1996 [life history, biological control: 301-302]; SinghGh1970 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 99-105]; SivaRaSr1987 [host, distribution, economic importance: 115-119]; Sohi1964 [host, distribution: 111]; SusikaMaSr2013 [biological control, chemical control, economic importance, host: 196-199]; Takaha1928 [host, distribution: 336]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 14]; Talhou2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 86-87]; TambasNaLu2001 [economic importance: 149-153]; TambasSaNa2000 [host, distribution, economic importance: 85-93]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 502-503]; Tang2001 [distribution: 3]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 18]; Tourne1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 97-107]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 128, 131, 136]; TsacasCh1999 [biological control: 102, 107]; TuWuLe1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77-78, 90]; UneliuElTw2011 [molecular data: 170]; Varshn1992 [host, distribution: 45]; VilelaZuCa2001 [economic importance]; VitullWaZh2007 [chemical ecology, life history, economic importance: 405-410]; Wang1981TC [host, distribution: 285]; Watson1997 [distribution, economic importance: 2]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 194-196]; Willia1986a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 352-354]; Willia1986c [host: 54]; Willia1996b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 621-623]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 405-408]; Willia2005 [host, distribution: 168]; WilliaMa2005a [host, distribution: 146]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 82]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, host: 88]; WilliaMi1999 [taxonomy, life history: 524]; WilliaMi2010 [host, distribution: 47]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 101-103]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 5,43]; YocumLu1997 [host, distribution, economic importance]; ZamanQaIs1996 [host, distribution, life history: 169-171]; ZettleFoGi2002 [chemical control: 1169-1173]; ZhangAm2005 [chemical ecology, chemistry, life history, physiology: 264-270]; ZhangAmSh2004 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 9601-9606]; ZhangNi2005 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 2451-2455]; ZhangNiKh2004 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 9401-9403]; ZhangWaVi2006 [life history, physiology, chemistry, chemical ecology: 621-626]; ZouChMi2013 [chemistry: 136].




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