Issues from 1996 to the present can be downloaded from the following web page: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/coccoidea/scaleframe.html. It also is possible to search National Coccoidea collection, and download recent publications.
Evelyna Danzig wrote a short note indicating that Bachriddin Bazarov died at the end of last year. He worked in Tadzhikistan for most of his career and was quite prolific with 43 papers listed in ScaleNet. He is best known for his work on mealybugs, but also worked on armored scales, soft scales, and eriococcids. He described 33 species in the families that are currently available in ScaleNet. Evelyna indicated that Roman Jashchenko was writing a more detailed account of Bazarov’s life and legacy.
Giuseppina Pellizzari and Yair Ben-Dov indicate that they have extra copies of the Proceedings of previous ISSIS meetings. They would be happy to send them to whomever would like them; for FREE. Contacts are:
Prof.ssa Giuseppina Pellizzari (ISSIS IX)
Dipartimento di Agronomia ambientale
e Produzioni vegetali
Università di Padova
Agripolis - Viale dell'Università 16
35020 Legnaro (Padova)
|Dr. Yair Ben-Dov (ISSIS VII)
Department of Entomology, A. R. O.
P.O. Box 6 Bet Dagan 50250 ISRAEL
This meeting is well on its way. It will be held in Adana, Turkey in April 19-23, 2004. Please see the Second Circular on the next page for more details.
X INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
ON SCALE INSECT STUDIES
19-23 April 2004 Adana / TURKEY
01 April 2003
You are cordially invited to participate in the meeting of the X th International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies (ISSIS-X) which will be held in Çukurova University in Adana / Turkey from 19 th to 23rd April 2004.
The purpose of this meeting is to bring together people who work on any aspects of “Scale Insect” studies, such as systematic, life history, ecology and pest management. Hopefully, the meeting will encourage cooperation among participants, allow the presentation of new research discoveries, promote their practical use and highlight research needs.
Location of Meeting
The meeting of ISSIS-X will be held at the congress facilities of the University of Çukurova, in the amphitheater building located on the university campus.
Monday 19th April 2004
08 00 – 10 00 Registration
10 00 –11 00 Opening
11 00 – 11 15 Coffee break
11 15 – 12 30 Presentations
12 30-13 30 Lunch
13 30 – 15 00 Presentations
15 00 – 15 15 Coffee break
15 15 – 17 00 Presentations
Tuesday 20th April 2004
09 00-10 30 Presentations
10 30-10 45 Coffee break
10 45- 12 30 Presentations
12 30 – 13 30 Lunch
13 30 – 15 00 Presentations
15 00 – 15 15 Coffee break
15 15 – 17 00 Presentations
Wednesday 21st April 2004
Field studies and trip to Antakya
Thursday 22nd April 2004
09 00-10 30 Presentations
10 30-10 45 Coffee break
10 45- 12 30 Presentations
12 30 – 13 30 Lunches
13 30 – 15 00 Presentations
15 00 – 15 15 Coffee break
15 15 – 17 00 Conclusion and outlook
Friday 23rd -24th April 2004
Field studies and 2 days trip to Capadocia
The main topics of the meeting are:
. Systematics of Scale Insects
. Biology of Scale Insects
. Scale Insect as Pests
. Zoogeography of Scale Insects
. Biological Control of Scale Insects
. Monitoring of Scale Insects
. Scale insect pest management
. Natural enemies of Scale Insects
As in previous meetings, there will be poster sessions and formal lectures.
You can find the registration form at the following internet site.
Until 15 February 2004
After 15 February 2004
200 US dollars
250 US dollars
100 US dollars
150 US dollars
75 US dollars
100 US dollars
Registration fees include documents of the meeting (distributed on arrival), coffee breaks, three lunches, excursion on Wednesday (21st April 2004) and a farewell dinner on Thursday night.
Instructions regarding methods of payment will be sent later.
In order to host the delegates and their partners, we have selected accommodation in a range of different price brackets. ALL delegates should fill in the form at the end of this circular and return it (either by post or email). Where the type of accommodation is limited (as in the Guest House) the first delegates applying for these rooms will be offered them. If you have any problems or special requirements, please do not hesitate to contact me, as the Organizing Committee are here to help you. The following accommodations are available:
Room rates (per room per night)
Single (US dollars)
Double (US dollars)
Triple (US dollars)
Princess Maya (***)B&B
(no breakfast provided)
15 (per person)
10 (per person)
10 (per person)
An official invitation to attend the ISSIS X will be sent to any delegate who requires it. If special wording is required in the invitation, please let us know when you ask for your invitation
Action and Timing
1. Please let us have the title of submitted papers and/or posters by October 2003.
2. Please let us have full abstract(s) by November 2003.
3. Manuscripts should be brought to the Symposium in a form ready for submittal. All manuscripts will be refereed and returned to authors for revision, if necessary.
4. Details regarding formatting and layout of manuscripts will be sent at a later date
Language. It is recommended that English will be the language in which lectures will delivered, posters will be presented, and of the papers to be published in the Proceedings.
Papers, Posters and Abstracts
Oral presentations will be restricted to 20 minutes, including discussion time. The maximum space available for each poster will be 100 x 90cm. Posters will be displayed throughout the Symposium. An abstract will be required for each poster. The same formatting instructions should be used for poster and paper abstract.
Abstracts are required for all papers and posters and will be included in the programme.
Each abstract must include the following as a separate paragraph.
1. Title: The title should summarize the papers or poster’s content and should clearly identified the subject and purpose of the study. Title: First letters in capitals (i.e. First record of the wax scale Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius) outdoors in Europe (Hemiptera, Coccidea)
2. Author(s): Give the author’s initials followed by a full stop then followed by the family name in capitals; a comma and with a space before the next author; underline the presenting author (i.e. L. B. ERKILIÇ, I. KARACA, N. UYGUN)
3. Institutions and Address: The address of the author(s) should be indicated using superscript numbers below first page of the text body as a footnote.
4. Text body: This should be no longer than 2000 characters.
5. Key words: Limited to 6 words
6. Save the document in Microsoft Word for Windows and send the text as an attachment by e-mail.
If you do not use e-mail, please send the text on a diskette using the above instructions.
We would greatly appreciate any suggestion for improving the organization of ISSIS-X.
If you have difficulties or special requests, please do not hesitate to contact me. Further information will be sent with the 3rd Circular.
We are sending this circular to all those contacted about ISSIS IX and also to a few other workers who might wish to attend. We would be grateful if you would circulate this letter to anyone who may be interested.
We are looking forward to meeting you in Adana.
(Zirai Mücadele Araştırma Enstitüsü)
Plant Protection Research Institute
P.K.21 01321 Adana/Turkey
Tel: + 90 322 321 9581-82/170
Fax: + 90 322 322 48 20
Mobile phone: 0 533 355 33 74
PRELIMINARY ACCOMMODATION FORM
(Mr. Ms, Dr, Prof, …etc):
Name of Partner or accompanying person(s):
Date of Arrival:
Date of Departure:
single room ( )
double room ( )
triple room ( )
NEWS FROM AROUND THE WORLD
Editor’s Note: If you have news that you would like to have included in the next edition of the Scale, we would be happy to receive it. E-mails are especially appreciated. The following are given in the order that they were received.
Michael Kosztarab, Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S.A.: THANK YOU AND GOODBYE. After 10 years of "semi-retirement" and more than 30 years of ”managing" the cataloging and indexing of the world scale insect literature, I have turned over this USDA-SEL supported project to Karen Veilleux. Karen did a splendid job on it for over 12 years, leaving very little work for me. I was fortunate to be assisted by talented women who did highly skilled work in our laboratory and made up for my shortcomings throughout my entire professional career. Therefore, I want to thank these ladies: Matilda (Tili), my wife, who did the initial cataloguing for over 16 years, followed by Akke Hulburt and Karen Veilleux. I also received much assistance for 17 years, from Mary Rhoades, who ran our Coccidology Lab. and assisted graduate students with our joint research projects. We have been fortunate to publish research bulletins and books from our cooperative efforts, that included a number of supplements to the scale insect bibliographies, the lists of genera, and, more recently, hard copies of the annual annotated bibliographies on scales for THE SCALE and for ScaleNet on the internet. I intend to remain available for consultation (email@example.com), but because I have no laboratory or access to microscopes, and have donated most of my library, I cannot slide-mount and determine scale insects for colleagues in the future. I would like to express my thanks to Dug Miller, Manya Stoetzel (the aphid literature project) and Louise Russell for sponsoring the projects and my other coccidologist colleagues and friends for the excellent assistance and cooperation received for over 50 years.
Carl-Axel Gertsson, Lund, Sweden: The following information may be of interest and use to readers of the Scale. The largest collection of Swedish scale insects is situated at the Agricultural University of Sweden, Department of Entomology, Uppsala. It is primarily material gathered by the late Prof. Ossiannilsson. Unfortunately, the collection is in a bad condition since Ossiannilsson used many different kinds of mounting media. Most of the slides are cracked and the media has crystalized under the cover slips. Ossiannilsson also used balsam and polyvinyl, and fortunately these slides are in good shape. It is important for as much of this material as possible to be remounted, but there currently are no funds for such an undertaking.
Gillian Watson, The Natural History Museum, Britain, UK: I have recently completed a project called “Armoured scale insects (Diaspididae) - identification and information.” The CD-ROM on armoured scale insects has just become available (more details below). It provides self-contained, illustrated information on the biology, distribution and taxonomy of armoured scales of economic and quarantine importance. Included is guidance on preparation of, and an illustrated identification aid to, armoured scales. It reproduces illustrations from out-of-print publications that have long been inaccessible to most workers, and provides an extensive bibliography. For users in developing countries, it provides access to information that would otherwise be accessible only via time-consuming library loans, if at all. For workers in museums, the CD-ROM saves repeated trips to the library. Details are provided below.
The CD-ROM can be used on PCs or Mac computers. It can be ordered by e-mail from firstname.lastname@example.org or via the Internet at: http://www.eti.uva.nl/Products/CD-catalogue.html [N.B. there is an opportunity to obtain a free CD-ROM on this site, in return for feedback!]
http://www.unesco.org or through good bookshops, using ISBN: 90-75000-48-0.
Samir Awad El-Serwy, Plant Protection Institute, Egypt: A publication that may be of interest. El-Serwy, S. A. (2001/ 2002). Ecology, biology and natural enemies of the red-striped soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a pest of sugarcane in Egypt. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, 79: 13-35. Notes: Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) has become an important pest on sugarcane in Egypt in recent years. Two sites in Middle Egypt, were sampled from August 1999 to July 2000. By early August, between 25%-47% of plants in old fields and 12%-16% in new fields were infested. By late September all the plants were infested with up to 110 adult females per leaf. Eight generations occurred during the year; a multiple correlation was found between temperature and relative humidity and the generation period. Each female produced 34-1191 progeny, but parasitism reduced fecundity by 39.2%, and development on heavily infested leaves reduced it by 15.3%. No discernable host effect on fecundity was found between females reared on sugarcane and on maize. Five hymenopterous parasitoids were identified attacking P. tenuivalvata: Coccophagus semicircularis (Foerster) (Aphelinidae); Metaphycus flavus (Howard), Microterys sp., Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky) and Diversinervus elegans Silvestri (Encyrtidae) emerging from adult females; the first three species were recorded also emerging from nymphs. Biological control could be retarded by multi- and polyparasitism, and by hyperparasitism by the Pachyneuron muscarum (Linnaeus) (Pteromalidae) and the encyrtid Cheiloneurus sp. Seven insect predators were recorded attacking the scales: Scymnus glivifrons Mulsant and Stethorus punctillum Wiese (Coccinellidae); Phaleria sp. (Phalacridae); Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Chrysopidae); Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Anthocoridae); Anatrachyntis rileyi (Walsingham) (Cosmopterigidae) and an unidentified Cecidomyiidae. Four predaceous mites were also recorded: Amblyseius swirski Athias-Henroit and Typhlodromus pelargonicus (Phytoseiidae); Agistemus exsertus Gonzaez (Stigmaeidae) and sp. (Anystidae). Cutting of the old infested fields and removal of other host grasses by March, and employment of crop rotation, were found to be useful cultural practices to control this pest.
Greg Hodges, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.: The past year has been busy and brought about much change for myself and for Florida. For myself, I began 2002 by relocating to the peach belt of middle Georgia. I accepted a position as a research scientist at the University of Georgia. My main responsibilities were to conduct research on white peach scale and San Jose scale. My wife took it upon herself to get involved in a study investigating the life history of plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) while finishing writing her dissertation. In September 2002, my wife and I were once again moving but this time to Gainesville, Florida in a more permanent position with the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS), Division of Plant Industry (DPI). On a side note, my wife completed her dissertation and graduated from the University of Georgia in December 2002. For Florida, Dr. Avas Hamon retired from FDACS-DPI in August 2002. He is currently enjoying his retirement at his new home in West Virginia. This past year also saw the introduction of pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) into Florida. The first specimens were collected June 6, 2002 on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis from Miami (Dade County) Florida. Since the initial collection, samples have been collected on a variety of hosts throughout Dade and Broward counties in south Florida. Currently controls are focusing solely on the release of parasitoids (Anagyrus kamali and Gyranusoidea indica). The mealybug destroyer (Cryptolaemus sp.) has also been seen feeding on PHMB in many of the infested areas. The year 2002 also marked the return of stellate scale (Vinsonia stellifera) to Florida. This scale was previously eradicated from Florida in 1954. It was collected in Miami Lakes, Dade County on July 16, 2002 on Ixora sp. Since the initial collection, we have had it reported from several different hosts and its current range is limited to Broward and Dade Counties in south Florida. A newly introduced mealybug of bamboo (Palmicultor lumpurensis (Takahashi)) was also recorded for 2002. Division of Plant Industry personnel found this new Continental US record on August 12, 2002 in Lake Buena Vista, Orange County on Bambusa olehammi. Additional finds have occurred within Orange County and in neighboring Seminole County on Bambusa sp. and Arundinaria sp.. Current control methods have been aimed at use of systemics, destruction of infested stalks and drenches of insecticidal soaps into infested sheaths. Lastly, the lobate lac scale (Paratachardina lobata) has established itself in southern Florida and is steadily becoming one of Florida’s worst tree-shrub pests. It currently has been reported from over 130 species of plants ranging from 45 families. Current known distribution in Florida includes, Broward, Collier, Dade and Palm Beach counties. Control of this pest is still being investigated but long-term control will probably have to rely on natural enemies. For further information on our current scale pests in Florida please visit our website: “http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/~pi/enpp/pi-pest-alert.html.” As you can see, Florida has been a busy place this past year with new introductions. I would like to add additional species to our collection to prepare for future “invasions.” I would be more than willing to trade specimens from both our Coccoidea collection as well as our Aleyrodidae collection. You can view many of the species we have on hand at: “http://www.fsca-dpi.org/homoptera_Hemiptera/homopterahemipteraframe.htm.” If you have further questions or requests from our collection, please contact me at: “email@example.com"
Yair Ben-Dov, Department of Entomology, Agricultural Research Organization,
Bet Dagan, Israel: My studies during 2002 were centered mainly on various aspects of ScaleNet the joint project with Dug Miller. I have been working on the Diaspididae (subfamilies Aspidiotinae, Comstockiellinae and Odonaspidinae), Margarodidae and Asterolecaniidae. In addition I have been updating the database on the Aclerdidae, Beesoniidae, Carayonemidae,
Coccidae, Dactylopiidae, Kerriidae, Lecanodiaspididae and Pseudococcidae, families that are already available in ScaleNet. Currently I am preparing a hard-copy catalogue of the Diaspididae (subfamilies Aspidiotinae, Comstockiellinae and Odonaspidinae), which I expect to finalize during 2003. Various systematic and nomenclatural issues, that involve some old or almost forgotten taxa, were encountered in the course of the work on ScaleNet. These cases were settled in several notes that I have published jointly with Imre Foldi, Jan Koteja, Salvatore Marotta, Agatino Russo and Douglas Williams.
Ian Millar, National Collection of Insects, Pretoria, South Africa: My key to the South African mealybug genera was recently published in African Entomology, the journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. Until now, there has been no key to all the Pseudococcidae genera that occur here, so this work should make the South African fauna much more accessible to anyone wanting to identify the local mealybugs. Another project which has come to fruition is a study of South African Aclerdidae, which I did as junior collaborator with Chris Hodgson (National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, U.K.). This work was published last year, with Chris as senior author, in Systematic Entomology.
Takumasa Kondo (Demian), University of California, Davis:. I am trying to finish up my dissertation (Ph.D. thesis) at Auburn University, Alabama, USA on a taxonomic review of the subfamily Myzolecaniinae (Hemiptera: Coccidae). The group I work with is very interesting. These myrmecophilous scale insects have become so adapted to a symbiotic life with ants that many morphological characters are reduced or entirely absent, i.e. legs and antennae. The Myzolecaniinae has a worldwide distribution, however I am noticing morphological differences between New World and Old World taxa, especially in the crawler stage or first instar nymphs. Usually New World Myzolecaniinae crawlers have a 5-segmented antenna in contrast with Old World taxa which have 6-segmented antennae. Please visit my Soft Scale web-site at: http://www.auburn.edu/~kondota/scaleinsects.html . Ed’s note: He completed his dissertation at Auburn with Mike Williams and is now working in Davis as part of the Gullan Laboratory.
Jan Koteja, Institute of Applied Zoology, Krakow, Poland: Collecting fossil scale insects is still my main business. On December 2002, the number of registered fossils on the world list exceeded 1990 items. It is remarkable that the number of fossils in private collections (1443 in 24 collections, i.e. 75 %) is much higher than that in the public ones (500 specimens in 15 institutions). My own collection contains 1064 specimens (most Baltic amber inclusions). Obviously, the list is far from complete. The general opinion that the Eocene Baltic amber fauna is almost identical with the recent one is not quite true. There are some peculiar forms not found today, for instance, males that bear a well developed pterostigma (occurring only in the Margarodini s. Morrison), bilobate halteres (unique feature), a tail tuft and a pair of apical processes (unique). Perhaps you have noted the paper co-authored by Douglas Williams (2001) on ants carrying mealybugs (Rhizoecinae) in their swarming flight in the Oligocene/Miocene Dominican Republic amber. Although thousands of ants have been found in Eocene Baltic amber, no one instance of ant-coccid symbiosis has been observed. It means that intimate relations between ants and scale insects originated between these two geological periods, i. e., not earlier than about 30 mill. years ago. Much older is the gall-inducing behaviour which existed already in Lower Cretaceous (130 mill. years ago, indirect evidence from Lebanese amber), and certainly must have originated earlier (for details consult the very interesting paper by Takagi, 2001). My request: Please give more attention to adult males in your studies on recent scale insects, and describe (draw) the wings more accurately. Wings are the main basis of paleoentomology; and the main problem is that we know very little about the extant forms. And please remember that wings are greatly deformed by the KOH-treatment. It is good to draw them from dry or alcohol preserved specimens.
F. William Howard, University of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale, USA: I participated in a short course Nov. 25-Nov. 29 that was designed to increase awareness of Coccoidea, a diverse taxonomic group of insects. Most of the course was taught at the Ministry of Agriculture, Land, and Marine Resources’ Central Experiment Station in Centeno. The 15 students who attended were agricultural officers, scientists or technicians representing agricultural ministries of Antigua, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Granada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Surinam, and Trinidad & Tobago. Many species of Coccoidea are pests of agriculture and horticulture that cause severe damage to plants. They are among the most difficult insect pests to control. The students learned the basic principles of identifying families and species of scale insects, laboratory procedures for preserving specimens, procedures for shipping them to specialists for identification, storage of specimens, and information retrieval. The course provided participants with information to enhance communication among Caribbean agricultural officers and scientists. A goal of the course was to strengthen ties between the agricultural agencies and the University of Florida. The course was organized by CARINET, a non-profit organization building a network of Caribbean organizations and individuals involved in biosystematics of arthropods, nematodes, microorganisms, non-vascular and vascular plants, and to strengthen taxonomic resources in the Caribbean. Parathachardina lobata (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), a species native to southern India and Sri Lanka, was found by the Division of Plant Industry (DPI), Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, in southeastern Florida in 1999, and since then has become widely spread in both urban and natural areas of that region. It has come to be known by the vernacular name, lobate lac scale. It is not a pest in its native range, and in fact may be a rare species there. In its new home, it has thus far been found on more than 120 plant species, including natives of southern Florida and exotic species. Infestations are very severe on some hosts. In addition to its damage to ornamental plants in urban areas, it is spreading rampantly in natural areas, including the Everglades. No natural controls have been identified for this species in Florida. Research is being conducted by entomologists at the University of Florida's Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, the USDA Invasive Plant Laboratory (which is housed at the Fort Lauderdale Center), and the Division of Plant Industry in Gainesville to elucidate the biology of this species and develop control methods, including chemical control for the short term, and biological control for the long term. An article on this species and its importance in Florida has been posted at http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/orn/scales/lobate_lac.htm
Ferenc Kozar, Plant Protection Institute, Budapest, Hungary: My monograph of the Ortheziidae is almost ready for printing. I have spent considerable time and effort trying to find funding for publication costs. I also have been having some difficulty sorting out the large amount of variation that occurs in Orthezia urticae. Because of this, my project on Rhizoecus has not made as much progress as I had hoped.
Chris Hodgson, National Museum of Wales, UK: Amazingly I have now been retired for three and a half years and so have been able to work reasonably full time on scale insects. During this time I have broadened my interests somewhat and now work on several groups other than the Coccidae. The last two years have been quite active. In the Spring of 2001, I was lucky enough to accompany a party from the Museum to the Galapagos Islands and Ecuador to give some training in Coccidology to the technicians on the islands and to collect scale insects. The results of this and a review of the Coccoidea now known from the islands will be published eventually. At the end of last year (2002), Hassan Vahedi, my PhD student working on a revision of the margarodid genus Porphyrophora in the Middle East, graduated. We are working to publish this at the moment, although he is now back in Iran. At the last ISSIS, I outlined some preliminary cladistic analyses of the lecanoid Coccoidea, based on adult male characters. This work is still continuing although, towards the end of last year, I was persuaded by Imre Foldi to join him in a revision of the "Margarodidae" based on adult male characters and this work is also progressing well and is now taking up much more of my time. Preliminary analyses suggest that Phenacoleachia, Puto and Steingelia all fall outside the Margarodidae; also that many of the current groups within the Margarodidae probably justify family status (as has been suggested previously). A number of other papers have been published with a variety of co-authors, perhaps the most significant of which was on some new Aclerdidae from southern Africa (with Ian Millar in Pretoria), which described the first aclerdid genus and species with fully-developed legs, and which also confirmed the inclusion of the genus Rhodesaclerda in this family; the Aclerdidae now has two subfamilies, the Aclerdinae (including the fully-legged genus) and a new subfamily, the Rhodesaclerdinae. Work on the adult males of New Zealand Coccidae has continued (with Rosa Henderson) and all known males, pupae and prepupae have now been described and this is now very close to publication in the Fauna of New Zealand Series. We are yet hoping to produce a similar publication on all the other immature stages (at least 50% done). Current interests lie in phylogeny of the Coccoidea based on adult males; on a revision of Australian Coccidae (with Penny Gullan - has been started but currently in abeyance) and (perhaps) a revision of the eriococcids of South America (with Dug Miller). No doubt other exciting things will come along.....
Evelyna Danzig, Institute of Zoology, St. Petersburg, Russia: Last year I constructed the database for my project on the insects of Europe. It includes 2 files on the systematics and distribution for all European countries, including general subdivisions of Russia. 15 families, 139 genera, 619 species and 24 subspecies are included. The foundation of the project was "ScaleNet" with the addition of new dates. It will be available through the Internet next year and will eventually be published as hard copy. I also am very pleased that we were finally able to publish a paper on a new genus and species of soft scale from Central America with Chris Hodgson and Mike Williams. We began this article many years ago. The 1st part of my revision of the genus Phenacoccus of the former USSR will be published soon, and I hope to finish the second and last part this year. It is my pleasure to introduce my postgraduate student Ilya Gavrilov to the coccidological community. He graduated from the University of Voronezh (Central Russia) and began a study of coccids and aleyrodids for the 1st course of the University. From that time I have maintained scientific contact with him. His Ph.D in the Zoological Institute is "Systematics and cytogenetics of coccids (Homoptera: Coccinea) of European Russia". Coccids of this region are relatively poorly known and I hope the Ilya’s research will interesting and important new information to science. He finished a review of the fauna of Central Russia with a description of a new species of Longicoccus Danzig (Entom. Obozr., 2003). He also discovered a new species of Antonina on bamboo on the Black Sea coast and is revising Antonina and related genera from Russia (Ann. Zool., 2003). He now is preparing a list of species from the vicinity of Volgograd and will include a description of a new genus and species of mealybug. We are in constant consultation with Doug Williams and Daniele Matile who examine illustrations of new species. Ilya also will revise the genus Mirococcopsis Borchs., a very difficult genus of mealybug. He is quite interested in cytogenetics of European coccid species and is applying cytological characters to his classification systems. He has a strong educational background in genetics and his second supervisor, Valentina Kuznetsova, is a well-known specialist in cytogenetics and karyosystematics of different insect groups. His research will utilize modern cytogenetic techniques such as Ag-NOR and C-Banding to study the karyotypes and chromosome behaviour in mitosis and meiosis. We hope that Ilya’s studies on the numerous and unique chromosomal systems of coccids will broaden our knowledge of the relationships among Coccinea taxa. He has already examinated the karyotypes of Porphyrophora polonica, Trionymus aberrans, Luzulaspis luzulae, Pulvinaria vitis, Gossyparia spuria, Diaspidiotus gigas, and Chionaspis salicis.
Penny Gullan, University of California, Davis, USA: 2002 seems to have whizzed by and the Gullan-Cranston systematic entomology lab at UCD is getting busier. Cory Unruh joined our NSF PEET-funded (Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy) scale insect team in September 2002 to do a Masters on iceryine margarodids. Currently she is taking various courses and also learning DNA techniques and phylogenetic analysis. Cory would like to include as many iceryine species as possible in her molecular phylogenetic analysis and would especially like to obtain Gueriniella serratulae. So if anyone can collect iceryine species into 95-100%
ethanol for Cory, please send them to her or to Penny Gullan. Ph.D. student Nam Nguyen continued his graduate course work and investigation of mealybug relationships based on morphology. Nam's research will complement the molecular phylogenetic results of Doug Downie, a postdoctoral researcher, and Penny Gullan. Doug has sequenced more than 80 mealybug species and populations for several genes, both nuclear and mitochondrial, as well as several Puto species to use as outgroups. The molecular data are still being analyzed and Doug is racing to complete the work before departing for a faculty position at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa. We'd like to thank everyone who assisted us by sending mealybug specimens for this molecular phylogeny, but special thanks go to Ray Gill, Dug Miller and Demian Kondo. Meredith Chalfant joined the PEET scale insect team in early 2002 as an undergraduate lab assistant working on Lachnodius (Eriococcidae). She has been using her entomological knowledge and her artistic skills to prepare taxonomic illustrations of the species of Lachnodius from Jack Beardsley's unpublished manuscript on the genus. A second undergraduate lab assistant, Sarah Thrasher, will join the PEET team in April. Like Meredith, Sarah has a strong interest in biological illustration and probably will be working with Demian Kondo on taxonomic illustrations of soft scales. Demian moves to Davis in April as a postdoctoral researcher studying Myzolecaniinae on the PEET funding. If you wish to know more about what members of our lab are doing, then please go to: http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/gullanandcranstonlab/ . During 2002, I worked on a Ferrisia manuscript that describes most instars of a species that has become a pest of pistachio trees in southern California. As part of this study, Doug Downie sequenced a number of Ferrisia samples and species from all over the world, and so thank you to those coccidologists who generously collected and sent Ferrisia mealybugs. As part of this Ferrisia work, I made my first visit to Beltsville to study specimens held in the USNM coccoid collection in Dug Miller's USDA lab. The slide and reprint collections were amazing and I very much enjoyed the Millers' hospitality. Throughout 2002, I also spent a lot of time collecting or soliciting mealybug specimens for the larger mealybug project with Doug Downie and I prepared slide-mounted vouchers of about 100 mealybug samples. In early 2002, Dug Miller, Lyn Cook and I completed a chapter on gall-inducing scale insects for a forthcoming book on gall-inducing arthropods, edited by A. Raman, C.W. Schaefer and T.M. Whithers and to be published soon by Science Publishers, Inc., New Hampshire, USA. In late December 2002, I headed for my old haunt at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, to work on manuscripts with Lyn Cook and to do some scale collecting around Canberra. Fieldwork was severely hampered by the horrific bush fires that ravaged Canberra and surrounding forests but, prior to the fires, I did manage to collect specimens for Demian's research on the Myzolecaniinae and Cory's iceryine work. In late January 2003, Peter Cranston and I visited New Caledonia for the first time and made some interesting collections. I've only just started to make slide-mounts, but I was impressed by the diversity of gall-inducing taxa and was delighted to find living eriococcids of Daniéle Matile-Ferrero's genus Chazeauana (in Noumea I even met Dr. Chazeau, in whose honorthis species was named). Also I collected two species of the margarodid genus Tessarobelus. The latter genus was revised in a 1991 publication by one of my first Ph.D. students, Sunita Bhatti, who never saw living specimens of Tessarobelus. One of the species described as new by Sunita is bright pink when alive and truly beautiful. I sent a photograph to Sunita, who now works in Chicago in the IT industry, but she was very pleased to have a memento from her former life as a coccidologist.
Benjamin Normark, Department of Entomology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA: Currently there are two graduate students in my lab working on armored scale insects. Lisa Provencher is finishing a master’s thesis on molecular systematics of the Aspidiotus nerii complex. Matt Gruwell is working on higher-level molecular systematics of Diaspididae
(funded by a USDA-NRI grant) and for his PhD thesis is interested in investigating their endosymbionts. We are very grateful to our many colleagues who have sent us specimens. Lisa presented her work at the Entomology Society of America meetings in 2001 and 2002, and Matt is planning to present some results at the Society of the Study of Evolution meetings this June. A delegation from our lab spent a great day in South Florida collecting scale insects with Dug Miler, Ray Gill, and Demian Kondo in November, and we are looking forward to meeting with Penny Gullan and her other PEET collaborators in Davis this June. In addition to our lab’s molecular systematic work, I have been developing some strange ideas about the origins and adaptive significance of haplodiploidy in scale insects and other taxa. Ultimately my goal is to put the systematic results and the theoretical work together into a coherent picture of the evolution of genetic systems of scale insects, but it’s going to take a lot of years and a lot of help.
Maren Gimpel, Gary Miller, and Dug Miller, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Maryland, USA: The sad news is that Maren has left the ScaleNet project to pursue her passion for ornithology. She completed the task that she set out to do, i.e., enter all of the initial data for the families that are the U.S. team’s responsibility. She did a wonderful job of managing our end of this project and I can assure you that we miss her enormously. Gary and I continue to update the system, but it is much more productive when there is one person who is dedicated to ScaleNet. As for the future of ScaleNet, we are trying to find funds to add character data, images, and identifications systems. We still have two hard-copy catalogs to complete and hopefully be published by Intercept soon – namely our half of the armored scales (Diapididinae and Luecaspidinae) and the Cerococcidae, Halimococcidae, Kermesidae, Micrococcidae, Ortheziidae, Phenacoleachiidae, Phoenicococcidae, and Stictococcidae. This year the Miller Hotel had few outside residents, but we did have a nice visit with Penny Gullan who came to Beltsville for the first time. We have now completed the first draft of the book on the economic armored scale of the United States and it has been submitted to Cornell University Press. We are hopeful that they will be the publisher and is currently is out for review. The book chapter on scale insects that induce galls with Penny Gullan and Lyn Cook has finally been submitted thanks to major efforts of Penny. Gary and I continue to look at invasive scale insects with a paper in press on the soft scales and a manuscript nearly complete on all of the invasive scale insects in the United States. I am helping with a publication on an gall inducing eriococcid from Brazil with Chris Hodgson and a paper on some interesting new mealybugs from Argentina has been submitted with Cristina Granara de Willink. Douglas Williams and I continue work on our Furcaspis revision, but progress is slow. I had one interesting experience while I was in Puerto Rico participating in a work shop on the papaya mealybug. A chalcidologist (Michael Gates) and I were fortunate to have some extra time to collect around the island. Through the efforts of Pedro Millan of USDA/APHIS we had a wonderful group of guides who took us to localities most likely to have cool scale insects. We were fortunate to find many interesting things, but on the last day (actually about 2 hours before we were to leave) someone broke the window of our rental care and took the ice chest and some other items that were in the back seat. Unfortunately all of the scale collections were in the ice chest. You have to wonder what the thieves thought when they found plastic bags full of little vials with tiny blobs in them. Maybe they were some new kind of drug? Needless to say, they didn’t send them to us here in Beltsville. They also took my record book which had considerable research data for several ongoing papers. Fortunately, this information was mostly available elsewhere as well. This past summer, we have had the pleasure of having Erica Limones working with our laboratory. Erica is a high school student who has been very involved with our new Coccoidea photographic data base/ web page. With more than 1,000 scanned images available, one can easily search the photographic data base, select from a series of thumbnail images, and view a detailed picture. A trial web page is still under construction and there are lots of typos and mistakes (we’re in the process of correcting them) but, you can see what has been done to date if you are interested: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov:8080/scale_slide/slide_frame.htm You will also see in the photographer credit section that Ray Gill is primarily responsible for many of the photographs.
Douglas J. Williams, The Natural History Museum, Britain: Continues toward his goal of finishing his book on the mealybugs of southern Asia. The illustrations and descriptions are complete and he has nearly finished entering the text of the manuscript in his computer. He is looking forward to finishing the project; it will be a monumental work and will be an enormous help to those of us who have to determine mealybugs from that part of the world. He will be joining us in Beltsville for a couple of weeks before we both go to Davis to join in the PEET session in the Gullan Laboratory.
Compiled by Karen Veilleux
We are truly grateful for the outstanding job that Karen does with the scale insect reference file! It is a huge, challenging and tedious job. Without her dedication and careful attention to detail this project would be of much lower quality. We also wish to thank Michael Kosztarab, who spends considerable time each year proofing the manuscript before it appears in The Scale.
The total number of reference records on ScaleNet now is 17,614 (that's 1,387 new records this year). Maybe some of you have been searching ScaleNet to retrieve a list of your own publications when needed. If you do, we would appreciate it if you would draw our attention to any inadvertent errors or omissions that you may notice. Thanks to those of you who have already taken the time to help us improve the database in this way. Many of you have also been sending reprints to Michael Kosztarab, who continues to forward them to me. He asked me to request that these be sent directly to me in the future, either to 710 Cedarview Dr., Blacksburg, VA 24060 or, electronically, to firstname.lastname@example.org. I give priority to entering records into the database from actual papers received from the authors directly; other papers are entered as I learn of them.
Abd Rabou, S. 2001. Parasitoids attacking soft scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidea) in Egypt. (In English;
Summary In Arabic). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 79(3): 859-880. [AbdRab2001b]
Notes: The parasitoids (including Coccophagus, Encarsia, Marietta, Baeoanusia, Blastothrix, Bothriophryne, Cheiloneurus, Cowperia, Diversinervus, Encyrtus, and Metaphycus spp.) attacking soft scales in Egypt are described. A key to these species is presented.
Abd Rabou, S. 2001. The species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) recorded from Egypt. (In
English; Summary In Arabic). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 79(2): 463-470. [AbdRab2001c]
Notes: Six Anagyrus species recorded for Egypt (A. aegyptiacus, A. greeni, A. kamali, A. pseudococci, A. saccharicola and A. shahidi), which are endoparasitoids of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae), are described and a key to species is provided. Information on host and geographical distribution is included.
Abd Rabou, S. 2002 (2001). The effect of augmentative releases of indigenous parasitoids on populations of
Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in olive groves in Egypt. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di
Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 473-481. [AbdRab2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The aphelinid parasitoids, Aphytis paramaculicornis, A. chrysomphali and Encarsia aurantii were mass reared and released at monthly intervals in olive groves infested with Parlatoria oleae at five locations in Egypt. A total of about 115000 adult parasitoids were augmentatively released between March 2000 and February 2001. Although the percentage parasitism of the scale increased in the experimental plots compared with the control plots after parasitoid release, there was no apparent reduction in the scale population at any site. Only E. aurantii populations continued to increase during March to September and this appeared to be the parasitoid best adapted to attack the P. oleae populations when they were near their peak; however, it did not become established at two of the sites. It is concluded that further augmentative releases are unlikely to improve the present biological control of P. oleae at any of these sites.
Abd Rabou, S. 2002 (2001). Biological control of the Mediterranean black scale Saissetia oleae (Olivier)
(Hemiptera: Coccidae) on olive in Egypt. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 483.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The Mediterranean black scale, Saissetia oleae is the most important pest of olive in Egypt. Indigenous parasitoids of S. oleae from different localities were collected, reared and mass produced; about 113,000 parasitoids were released for augmentative biological control. At three locations in Egypt, several releases of the following indigenous parasitoids were made: Alaptus sp., Baeoanuisa sp., Coccophagus lycimnia, Diversinervus elegans, Metaphycus bartletti, Metaphycus flavus, Metaphycus helvolus, Metaphycus zebratus, Microterys flavus, Parechthrodryinus coccidiphagus and Scutellista caerulea. The indigenous parasitoid Metaphycus bartletti plays an important role in controlling S. oleae in Egypt. Maximum parasitism rates by this species reached 83, 56, and 33% on the Northern Coast, at Mersa Matruh and El-Arish, respectively.
Abd Rabou, S. 2002. The role of Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the biological control of
soft scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Egypt. (In Chinese; Summary In English). Entomologia Sinica 9(3): 39-44. [AbdRab2002b]
Notes: Coccophagus scutellaris is one of the specific parasitoids that attack soft scale insects in Egypt. In the present study, Coccophagus scutellaris was reared from 6 species of soft scale insects. These are Ceroplastes floridensis, Coccus hesperidum, Pulvinaria floccifera [Chloropulvinaria floccifera], P. psidii, Saissetia coffeae and S. oleae. The abundance of Coccophagus scutellaris was monitored from July 1999 to November 2000 in five localities (Beni-Suef, Cairo, Giza, Gharbiya, Northern coast) in Egypt. Coccophagus scutellaris is considered an effective parasitoid of S. coffeae and S. oleae with maximum parasitism rates reaching 26% and 22% in November and August 1999, respectively.
Abd Rabou, S. 2002. Efficacy of the imported parasitoid, Anagyrus saccharicola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for
the biological control of Saccharicoccus sacchari (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) attacking sugar cane in Egypt.
Sugar Cane International Sept/Oct: 24-26. [AbdRab2002c]
Notes: Saccharicoccus sacchari (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the most important pests attacking sugar cane in Egypt. An attempt was made to control it biologically with the known effective parasitoid A. saccharicola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). A total of 146,163 parasitoid adults was released in five governorates in upper Egypt during March 1999-May 2000. Surveys to evaluate parasitoid effects were conducted during June 2000-June 2001. A. saccharicola established readily and spread rapidly. The rate of parasitism increased gradually from 0.5-13.2, 3.7-19.9, 4.4-24.4, 0.8-26.6 and 8.9-50.0% in Sohag, Qena, Assuit, Beni-Suef and El-Minya, respectively. Climatic conditions seemed to play an important role in promoting the establishment of the parasitoids.
Abdallah, S.A., Al Jboory, I.J., Ali, A.S. & Yousif, E.T. 2001. Susceptibility of wheat varieties to infestation with
the soft scale insect Exaeretopus tritici (Williams) (Coccidae: Homoptera) and its control by Cruiser insecticide in
Nineveh Province (Iraq). (In Arabic; Summary In English). Arab Journal of Plant Protection 19(2): 113-118.
Notes: Susceptibility of five wheat cultivars (Um Rabee, Intisar, Abu-Ghraib, Qaruniya and Waha) to infestation of the soft scale insect E. tritici and the effect of wheat seed treatment with Cruiser 350 SL [thiamethoxam] insecticide on pest susceptibility were investigated. Results indicated that Um Rabee was the most susceptible cultivar, whereas Qaruniya was the least susceptible. The relative number of living insect pests on the untreated plants was more than that of treated plant by 23.45, 11.86, 8.11, 2.28 and 7.19 times, respectively. The insecticide effect was observed by the fourth week of March where a percentage mortality of 61.16% was recorded. The mortality percentage increased until the third week of April when it reached a maximum of 88.4%. The above wheat cultivars treated by the insecticide provided a percentage increase in yield of 3.74, 2.17, 1.99, 1.89 and 2.46 times, respectively, compared to the untreated control. The treated Qaruniya recorded the highest yield, with an average of 950 kg per donum. The untreated Um Rabee plants recorded the least yield (205 kg per donum), with the highest number of living insect pests (average 72.87 insects per plant).
Ackonor, J.B. 2002. Current levels of incidence of parasitism and predation in Planococcus citri Risso (Homoptera:
Pseudococcidae) in Ghanaian cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) farms. (In English; Summary In French). Insect Science
and its Application 22(2): 105-112. [Ackono2002]
Notes: From August 1988 to January 1997, natural enemies were reared from 335 colonies of P. citri sampled for 87 months from 225 randomly selected cocoa farms in the six cocoa-growing regions in Ghana. A total of 20,408 P. citri individuals were recorded, comprising adult females, third instar nymphs, and mummified individuals harbouring parasitoids. Observed predators were larvae of Coccodiplosis coffeae, nymphs and adults of Hyperaspis egregia, and Scymnus (Pullus) sp., as well as an unidentified lepidopteran. Twelve parasitic Hymenoptera were also reared, including Aenasius abengouroui, Leptomastix dactylopii, Anagyrus beneficians, Tropidophryne melvillei, Anagyrus amoenus and Chryptochetum (Lestophonus) spp. Also recorded were a hyperparasitoid, Cheiloneurus carinatus, parasitizing Coccodiplosis coffeae, Xyphigaster pseudococci, and six rare, undetermined parasitoids. Coccodiplosis coffeae was the most common parasitoid, occurring throughout the year and infesting 72.8% of the P. citri colonies. Parasitism levels were generally low, the highest mean being 4.6+2.6% for Aenasius abengouroui. Simultaneous parasitism by more than one species was common and this gave rise to mean monthly parasitism levels ranging from 0.8 to 4.5%. Aenasius abengouroui, Anagyrus amoenus and H. egregia are thought to be reported for the first time in P. citri on cocoa in Ghana, and the recovery of L. dactylopii suggests its establishment in the country, where it was introduced in 1949.
Addison, P. 2002. Chemical stem barriers for the control of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards. South
African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 23(1): 1-8. [Addiso2002]
Notes: Ants significantly reduce the efficacy of biological control of the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) in vines. Two trials were conducted to find a cost-effective method for ant control that is environmentally friendly, practicable and acceptable in an integrated pest management programme. Thirteen chemical stem barriers were assessed for the control of two ant species, Linepithema humile (Mayr) and Anoplolepis custodiens (Smith), in two field trials during two seasons. Four of the treatments that showed high efficacy in the field trials were also evaluated in two simulated field trials for the control of L. humile and Anoplolepis steingroeveri (Forel) due to high variability in pre-treatment counts that occurred in the field trials. Treatments showing the highest efficacy against L. humile and A. custodiens in field trials were the chlorpyrifos-impregnated band and the terbufos slow-release band. Alphacypermethrin SC at 10 mL/L was effective against L. humile and has subsequently been registered as a chemical stem barrier on vines. The treatment showing the highest efficacy against A. steingroeveri in the simulated field trial was alphacypermethrin SC at 20 mL/L. In the simulated field trial, a decline in ant infestation was observed five to six weeks after application of treatments. The most likely explanation is that chemical stem barriers result in ant mortality, although other reasons for this decline are discussed. It is recommended that suitable bioassay techniques, which expose ants to the treated substrate for a limited period, thereby simulating field conditions, be developed in order to determine if chemical stem barriers result in ant mortality.
Al Khateeb, N. & Raie, A. 2001. A study of some biological parameters of the predator Cryptolaemus
montrouzieri (Mulsant) introduced to Planococcus citri (Risso) in Syria, and estimate of its predation rate in the
laboratory. (In Arabic; Summary In English). Arab Journal of Plant Protection 19(2): 131-134. [AlKhatRa2001]
Notes: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri introduced to control Planococcus citri was reared in Lattakia Center for Rearing and Application of Natural Enemies. The study investigated the generation duration under laboratory conditions at (i) temperature of 30+2̊C and 75+-5% RH and (ii) 25+1̊C and 65+5% RH, with a light duration of 16 h. The generation time was 28.80+1.48 and 33.8+1.3 days, under the above-mentioned conditions, respectively. Under field conditions, during the summer months, the generation time reached 30.6+2.3 days. The average longevity of males and females was 67.40+6.38 and 70.6+6.7 days, respectively. Sex ratio was 48.61+9.90% males and 51.39+9.90% females. The percentage of adult emergence was 90.19+2.29%. Predation rate of the males and females of the predator on the third larval stage of the pest was 37.47+3.51 and 32.89+2.33 larvae per day, respectively; whereas, the predation rate of the predator third instar on the first and second nymphal instars of the pest, was 57.47+4.86 and 30.87+3.76 nymphs per day, respectively.
Anat, Z., Dunkelblum, E., Harel, M., Assael, F. & Mendel, Z. 2002. Studies on the sex pheromone of the vine
mealybug Planococcus ficus. (In Hebrew; Summary In English). Alon Hanotea 56(1): 38-41. [AnatDuHa2002]
Notes: The vine mealybug P. ficus is a serious pest of vineyards in the Mediterranean, California (USA) and South Africa. In an attempt to develop a monitoring system for this mealybug, research teams in California and Israel have studied, independently, its pheromone system. (S)-lavandulyl senecioate was identified as the female sex pheromone of the mealybug. Two additional compounds, (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate and (S)-lavandulyl, probably precursors of the component, were identified. However, trials in a vineyard indicated that only lavandulyl senecioate was active. Further tests are in progress to apply lavandulyl senecioate for practical use and to elucidate the role of lavandulyl isovalerate in the pheromone system of the vine mealybug.
Angeles Martínez, M. 2001. New hosts of Ferrisia virgata (Cokerell) Homoptera: Pseudococcidae in Cuba.
Revista de Protección Vegetal 12(1): 68. [Angele2001]
Notes: F. virgata is recorded for the first time on Persea americana and Annona reticulata in Trinidad, Santi Spiritus; A. squamosa and Phyllanthus acidus in Caimanera, Guantanamo; and Mangifera indica in Jobabo, Las Tunas, Cuba.
Arai, T. 2002. Attractiveness of sex pheromone of Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel (Homoptera : Pseudococcidae) to
adult males in a citrus orchard. Applied Entomology and Zoology. Tokyo 37(1): 69-72. [Arai2002]
Notes: The attractiveness of the sex pheromone of Pseudococcus cryptus to adult males and natural enemies was tested in citrus orchards in 1999 and 2000. Males were caught by the pheromone trap during two periods in 1999 and three periods in 2000, whereas natural enemies were not attracted in either year. When seasonal degree-day accumulations reached 302 DD above a base of 10degreesC from the periods that males were trapped, the first instars emerged.
Araujo, S.M.S.R., Pompolo, S.G., Perfectti, F. & Camacho, J.P.M. 2002. Integration of a B chromosome into the
A genome of a wasp, revisited. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 269
(1499): 1475-1478. [AraujoPoPe2002]
Notes: A previous study showed that in the haplodiploid solitary wasp Trypoxylon albitarse, most individuals carry one B chromosome per haploid genome, the same dosage as the standard (A) chromosomes, indicating a possible regularization of B-chromosome meiotic behaviour and its integration into the A genome. In a new sampling, we have analysed 15 populations (including 9 out of the 10 previously analysed) to test the evolution of this integration process. The new results provide a direct report of the invasion process in the Porto Firme population, where B frequency has dramatically increased in only four generations. In the populations from the Viqosa region, however, B frequency has remained stable, although the principal B type, the metacentric one, has increased in frequency at the expense of the acrocentric one in several populations. The implications of these new results on the hypothesis of the integration of these B chromosomes, as regular members of the A genome, are discussed. Pseudococcus affinis is mentioned.
Arnold, C. & Sengonca, C. 2001. [Use of the fluorescent vital dye Acridinorange as an internal marker to
investigate the exact larval stage of parasitation of Pulvinaria regalis Canard (Hom., Coccidae) by two parasitic
wasps. (In German; Summary In English). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur allgemeine und angewandte
Entomologie 13(1-6): 121-124. [ArnoldSe2001]
Notes: [Original title: Ermittlung des exakten Parasitierungsstadiums von Nymphen der Wolligen Napfschildlaus Pulvinaria regalis Canard (Hom.; Coccidae) durch Schlupfwespenarten mit Hilfe des internen Markierungsfarbstoffes Acridinorange.] In the present paper the fluorescent vital dye Acridinorange was used to investigate the correlation between scale size and parasitization of the parasitic wasps Coccophagus lycimnia and C. semicircularis. Therefore, one- to three-day-old adult wasps were fed with diluted solutions of honey water and the internal dye Acridinorange with a concentration ranging from 0.00001 to 1%. P. regalis-nymphs of different developmental stages and sizes were exposed to 15 of these female wasps for 24 hours, giving them the opportunity to lay eggs. Afterwards, the scales were removed from their host plants, measured and scanned for parasitization, using a fluorescent microscope. Additionally five adult females for each dye concentration were dissected and examined for labelling of different body tissues. The minimum scale size necessary for parasitization by the two wasp species was 0.92 mm for C. lycimnia and 0.98 mm for C. semicircularis, respectively. The anal plates measured 0.064 mm and 0.070 mm. A body size of 1.78 mm for C. lycimnia and 1.96 mm for C. semicircularis was needed when a second egg should be deposited within the scales. More than two eggs were laid in scales only when their size exceeded 2.35 mm and 2.47 mm, respectively. A combination of the obtained results with the knowledge about actual developmental stage and size of the scales led to a recalibration of the releasing time of the two parasitic wasps.
Arruda, G.P. de 2002. [Integrated management of scale Diaspis echinocacti pest of forage palm in Brazil.] Manejo
integrado da cochonilha Diaspis echinocacti praga da palma forrageira em Brasil. (In Spanish). Manejo Integrado de
Plagas y Agroecología No.64: i-vi. [Arruda2002]
Notes: Notes are given on the taxonomy, morphology and biology of Diaspis echinocacti, a pest of forage palms in Brazil. The parasitoids and predators of D. echinocacti in Pernambuco and Alagoas are listed. The integrated control of this pest is outlined.
Artyukhov, V.F., Mishineva, V.K. & Filippov, A.V. 2002. [Activities and plans of Volgograd quarantine
Inspectorate.] (In Russian). Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii No. 4: 25. [ArtyukMiFi2002]
Asplanato, G. & Garcia Mari, F. 2001. [Seasonal history of the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)
(Homoptera: Diaspididae) on orange trees of southern Uruguay.] (In Spanish; Summary In English). Agrociencia
Montevideo 5(1): 54-67. [AsplanGa2001]
Notes: [Original title: Ciclo estacional de la cochinilla roja California, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) en naranjos del sur de Uruguay.] Studies were carried out in two Navel orange groves in the southern citrus production area of Uruguay during two seasons: 1995/96 and 1996/97, in order to study the seasonal history of Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.), the number of generations, the occurrence of immature stage peaks and the generational thermal constant. In our conditions, the scale showed three complete generations with peaks of first-instar larvae (L1) at the end of spring (November-December), in summer (January-February) and in fall (April), this one was less marked. There could be a fourth partial generation. In winter, the immature stages (L1 and L2) predominated, although almost all developmental stages occurred. During this period, reproduction was not detected. Three or four flight peaks were observed per year. The first flight of spring (October) was numerically very small and the second flight of summer (January) had the highest numbers. The thermal constant was estimated at 667+15 degree-days (̊D) from field data, considering a developmental threshold of 11.7̊C. The degree-day accumulation from 1 July to the first male flight was from 300 to 400̊D. The second flight was observed between 900 and 1000̊D. Approximately 250̊D elapsed between male catch peaks and first-stadium peaks.
Ba M'hamed, T. & Chemseddine, M. 2001. Assessment of temperature effects on the development and fecundity
of Pullus mediterraneus (Col., Coccinellidae) and consumption of Saissetia oleae eggs (Hom., Coccoidae). Journal
of Applied Entomology 125(9-10): 527-531. [BaMhamCh2001]
Notes: Eggs, larval and nymphal periods and fecundity of P. mediterraneus [? Scymnus mediterraneus] were examined under 16 h light:8 h dark combined with six constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40̊C. Eggs of S. oleae were used as prey. The developmental time at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35̊C was 17.23, 4.5, 2.64, 1.67, 1.28 days for eggs and 98.47, 68.88, 53.94, 28.96, 36.51 days for larval-pupal duration, respectively. At 7̊C no eggs hatched, and at 40̊C all the stages died after 36 h of maximum exposure except the three last stages. The fecundity of females rearing at different temperatures ranged between 1.7 eggs at 15̊C and 601.86 eggs at 30̊C. The pre-oviposition period ranged between 23.75 days at 15̊C and 3.47 days at 35̊C. The consumption of S. oleae eggs by the larvae reached 597.69 eggs during the pre-imaginal development. Females attacked more eggs than males averaging 77.69+22.34 eggs per 4-day period compared with 46.97+10.12 eggs per 4-day period for males.
Ba M'hamed, T. & Chemseddine, M. 2002. Selective toxicity of some pesticides to Pullus mediterraneas Fabr.
(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of Saissetia oleae Bern. (Homoptera: Coccoideae). Agricultural and Forest
Entomology 4(3): 173-178. [BaMhamCh2002]
Notes: The selectivity of several insecticides to P. mediterraneus was investigated in the laboratory to contribute to the development of IPM strategies in olive groves.
Babcock, C.S., Heraty, J.M., De Barro, P.J., Driver, F. & Schmidt, S. 2001. Preliminary phylogeny of Encarsia
Forster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) based on morphology and 28S rDNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
18(2): 306-323. [BabcocHeDe2001]
Notes: Species of Encarsia Forster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Coccophaginae) are economically important for the biological control of whitefly and armored scale pests (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Diaspididae). Whereas some regional keys for identification of Encarsia species are now available, few studies have addressed relationships within this diverse and cosmopolitan genus because of unreliable morphological data. Nuclear sequences of the D2 expansion region of 28S rDNA were determined from 67 strains of 24 species representing 10 species groups of Encarsia, 2 strains of Encarsiella noyesi Hayat, and 1 strain of Coccophagoides fuscipennis Girault. Analysis of molecular data alone and combined with morphological data resolves many nodes not resolved by morphology alone and offer insights into which morphological characters are useful for supporting group relationships. All analyses that include molecular data reveal Encarsia to be paraphyletic with respect to Encarsiella. If monophyly of Encarsia is constrained, the relationships are the same but with a different root within Encarsia, and these trees are presented as an alternate hypothesis. The luteola and strenua species groups are shown by both morphological and molecular data to be monophyletic, whereas the inaron group, the E. nigricephala + luteola group, and the E. quericola + strenua group are supported only by molecular data. The aurantii and parvella species groups are not supported in any of the analyses. The utility of morphological characters for defining species group relationships is discussed.
Bacandritsos, N. 2002. A scientific note on the first successful establishment of the monophlebine coccid
Marchalina hellenica (Coccoidea, Margarodidae) on the fir tree (Abies cephalonica). (In English). Apidologie 33:
Notes: This paper reviews the hosts and biology of this scale species in Greece, which is a honey producer. Other scale insects mentioned include Physokermes hemicryphus and Eulecanium sericeum.
Badenes-Perez, F.R., Zalom, F.G. & Bentley, W.J. 2002. Are San José scale (Hom., Diaspididae) pheromone trap
captures predictive of crawler densities? Journal of Applied Entomology 126(10): 545-549. [BadeneZaBe2002]
Notes: Abundance of San José scale (SJS), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock), adult males and crawlers were monitored with pheromone traps checked weekly and associated sticky tape traps monitored biweekly, respectively, in commercial almond orchards in Kern County, California, USA, during 1999 and 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine if SJS crawler abundance could be predicted from SJS males captured on pheromone traps. No significant relationship ( P > 0.05) was indicated for any generation or for all SJS captured for the season in 1999. With greater replication in 2000, statistically significant relationships were indicated for the first generation (r = 0.727; F = 25.712; P < 0.0001; n = 25) and for all generations (r = 0.777; F = 63.239; P < 0.0001; n = 25). An additional orchard in 2000 was divided into 18 1.21-ha plots with different treatments applied. A statistically significant relationship was indicated for the first generation (r = 0.507; F = 11.769; P = 0.0016; n = 36) and second generation (r = 0.436; F = 7.972; p = 0.0079; n = 36). These results suggest that relative densities of SJS crawlers on sticky tapes can be estimated using SJS male trap captures for the first generation, and that this approximation is appropriate for whole orchards or for subplots within orchards as small as 1.21-ha.
Badenes-Perez, F.R., Zalom, F.G. & Bentley, W.J. 2002. Effects of dormant insecticide treatments on the San
José scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitoids Encarsia perniciosi and Aphytis spp. (Hymenoptera :
Aphelinidae). International Journal of Pest Management 48(4): 291-296. [BadeneZaBe2002a]
Notes: Populations of the San José scale (SJS), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock), and its parasitoids, Encarsia perniciosi (Tower) and Aphytis spp. were monitored with double-sided sticky tape and pheromone traps in an almond orchard. A total of 1.21 ha plots within the orchard were treated during winter dormancy with several insecticides, including horticultural mineral oil alone, oil combined with the organophosphate diazinon at different dilution rates, and oil combined with the pyrethroid esfenvalerate in a completely randomized block design. Higher volume diazinon applications (3750 and 1870 l ha(-1)) proved effective against SJS crawlers, as did esfenvalerate. The higher volume applications had greater deposition on Kromecoat(R) cards placed in the top of the tree canopy, where SJS is most abundant. The lower-volume (935 l ha(-1)) application of diazinon provided control of first-generation crawlers similar to the other diazinon applications, but it was generally less effective in controlling subsequent generations. All insecticide treatments were associated with a reduction of parasitoid numbers, especially the esfenvalerate application.
Baghel, C.L. & Dutta, S. 2001. Morphological study of mature male Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead). Flora and
Fauna (Jhansi) 7(2): 76-78. [BaghelDu2001]
Notes: A detailed morphological description of the male adult of A. orientalis, collected from different localities in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India, is presented. The main host of A. orientalis is the commercial tree, Dalbergia sissoo.
Baldanza, F., Aceto, S., Gaudio, L. & Viggiani, G. 2001. Soluble protein profile variability in four populations of
Encarsia citrina (Craw) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) obtained by SDS-PAGE technique. (In Italian; Summary In
English). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri'. Portici 56: 5-14. [BaldanAcGa2001]
Notes: The variability of total protein profiles obtained by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique was investigated on 4 populations of Encarsia citrina compared with 6 other species of parasitoids of the genus Encarsia, developing on different diaspidid host species. Intra and inter-taxa average percentage differences were assessed from the electrophoregrams and the distance matrix was analysed by UPGMA cluster analysis. Moreover, RAPD-PCR profiles on the same populations of E. citrina were also obtained using 10 primers and the UPGMA was conducted on the whole set of reliable observed bands. The results obtained suggest that SDS-PAGE could be considered an interesting tool for easy and rapid characterization and identification of different biotypes of parasitoid Hymenoptera.
Baskaran, R.K.M., Srinivasan, T.R., Muthumeena, K., Muthulakshmi, S. & Mahadevan, N.R. 2001. Life table
of Australian ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) feeding on mealybugs (Maconellicoccus hirsutus and
Dactylopius tomentosus). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 72(1): 54-56. [BaskarSrMu2001]
Notes: A laboratory experiment was conducted from November 1999 to January 2000 to study the relative survival and multiplication of C. montrouzieri on mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus and Dactylopius tomentosus, under 27.8+2.2̊C and 63.3+9.2% relative humidity. The innate capacity for the increase in the population of C. montrouzieri (rm) was 0.0876 and 0.0806, with finite rate of increase of 1.0942 and 1.0833 females female-1 day-1, on M. hirsutus and D. tomentosus, respectively. The population multiplied 100.65 and 57.74-fold between two successive generations. The mean time for completing a generation was 50.35 and 59.52 days on M. hirsutus and D. tomentosus, respectively. Reaching the stable age distribution, the population of C. montrouzieri eggs, grubs, pupae, and adults contributed 38.16, 45.65, 8.75, and 7.44% and 35.01, 52.24, 6.97, and 5.79% for M. hirsutus and D. tomentosus, respectively.
Baumann, L., Thao, M.L., Hess, J.M., Johnson, M.W. & Baumann, P. 2002. The genetic properties of the
primary endosymbionts of mealybugs differ from those of other endosymbionts of plant sap-sucking insects. Applied
and Environmental Microbiology 68(7): 3198-3205. [BaumanThHe2002]
Notes: Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae), like aphids and psyllids, are plant sap-sucking insects that have an obligate association with prokaryotic endosymbionts that are acquired through vertical, maternal transmission. We sequenced two fragments of the genome of Tremblaya princeps, the endosymbiont of mealybugs, which is a member of the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Each of the fragments (35 and 30 kb) contains a copy of 16S-23S-5S rRNA genes. A total of 37 open reading frames were detected, which corresponded to putative rRNA proteins, chaperones, and enzymes of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA replication, protein translation, and RNA synthesis. The genome of T. princeps has a number of properties that distinguish it from the genomes of Buchnera aphidicola and Carsonella ruddii, the endosymbionts of aphids and psyllids, respectively. Among these properties are a high G+C content (57.1 mol%), the same G+C content in intergenic spaces and structural genes, and similar G+C contents of the genes encoding highly and poorly conserved proteins. The high G+C content has a substantial effect on protein composition; about one-third of the residues consist of four amino acids with high-G+C-content codons. Sequence analysis of DNA fragments containing the rRNA operon and adjacent regions from endosymbionts of several mealybug species suggested that there was a single duplication of the rRNA operon and the adjacent genes in an ancestor of the present T. princeps. Subsequently, in one mealybug lineage rpS15, one of the duplicated genes, was retained, while in another lineage it decayed. These results extend the diversity of the types of endosymbiotic associations found in plant sap-sucking insects.
Beardsley, J.W. 2002. Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, an armored scale insect new to the Hawaiian fauna
(Homoptera: Diaspididae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 35: 149. [Beards2002]
Notes: This scale was identified on Citrus reticulata for the first time in Hawaii. A brief field description is given and a list of hosts from the literature.
Beardsley, J.W. & Trjapitsin, S. 2002. The discovery of Anagyrus agraensis Saraswat in Hawaii (Hymenoptera:
Encyrtidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 35: 141-142. [BeardsTr2002]
Notes: This parasitoid feeds on Nipaecoccus viridis.
Behera, L., Sahu, S.C., Rajamani, S. & Mohan, M. 2001. Molecular evidence for Wolbachia in rice insects.
Current Science (India) 81(10): 1299-1300. [BeheraSaRa2001]
Notes: This article describes heritable, extra-chromosomal factors in rice insect pests that might have great influence on parasite reproduction, evolution of parasitism, speciation and biological control. Genomic DNA from 10 rice insect pests and mosquitoes were analysed. Wolbachia sp. 16S rRNA gene was detected by PCR in various pests including mealy bug (Brevennia rehi).
Bellows, T.S. 2001. Restoring population balance through natural enemy introductions. Biological Control 21(3):
Notes: This paper concentrates on biological control as a tool for restoring natural balance to disturbed populations. The focus is on using natural enemies against adventive pests. Of 1200 cases of biological control worldwide, ca. 200 have proved completely successful. In these cases, pest population densities have been reduced 100- to 10,000-fold. These reductions in density required from 6 to 13 host generations. Addition of natural enemies to pest-dominated systems also improves system diversity by reducing unnatural competition from the pest species. Aonidiella aurantii and Parlatoria oleae are among the pests mentioned.
Ben Dov, Y., Matile Ferrero, D. & Stathas, G. 2002. New records of Hypogeococcus pungens in the Palaearctic
region (Hem., Pseudococcidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 107(2): 186. [BenDovMaSt2002]
Ben-Dov, Y. & Koteja, J. 2002. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Matsucoccus Cockerell, 1909, and of Acreagris
Koch & Berendt, 1854 (Hem., Margarodidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 107(4): 379-380;
Notes: A justification is made to establish precedence of Matsucoccus Cockerell, 1909, over its senior synonym Acreagris Koch & Berendt, 1854, n. syn.
Ben-Dov, Y. & Marotta, S. 2001. Addenda to "Stabilizing the name Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hem.,
Coccoidea, Diaspididae)". Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 106(4): 426-427. [BenDovMa2001Sb]
Notes: This note is for the purpose of providing citations to 25 publications in which A. nerii Bouché, 1833 has been used as the valid name of the taxon commonly named oleander scale to fulfill requirements for nomenclatural status.
Ben-Dov, Y. & Williams, D.J. 2002. Taxonomic status of Villigera Karsch, 1877 (Hem., Coccoidea,
Margarodidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 107(3): 338. [BenDovWi2002]
Notes: Discussion on the taxonomy of Villigera Karsch, 1877, and its type species Villigera frauenfeldi Karsch. Synonymy with Drosicha Walker, 1858, is confirmed.
Benfatto, D. & Carroccio, A. 2002. [Simpler monitoring of the red scale insect of citrus (Aonidiella aurantii).] Piu
semplice il monitoraggio della cocciniglia rossa forte degli agrumi. (In Italian). Informatore Agrario 58(21):73-75.
Notes: In an attempt to reduce the amount of time spent counting the number of flying males of A. aurantii captured in pheromone traps, a modification was introduced, in which both faces of the trap are divided into 60 equal parts and some of the resulting squares are outlined, equivalent to 1/5 of the whole surface area. By counting only the males within the outlined squares and multiplying the result by 5, a sufficiently accurate picture of the infestation is obtained with a considerable saving of time and money. Trials at 2 sites in Sicily, Italy, one near the coast and the other inland, showed no substantial difference in numbers between the 2 sites. This opens the possibility of region-wide monitoring run by the local agricultural service.
Bishop, D.B. & Bristow, C.M. 2001. Effect of Allegheny mound ant (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) presence on
homopteran and predator populations in Michigan jack pine forests. Annals of the Entomological Society of America
94(1): 33-40. [BishopBr2001]
Notes: The impact of different densities of Allegheny mound ant, Formica exsectoides, populations on myrmecophilous (tended) and nonmyrmecophilous (untended) aphid and scale species and their potential predators was examined in jack pine forests of north-central Michigan. A summer-long survey indicated that areas with large populations of F. exsectoides had larger populations of the aphid Cinara banksiana and the soft scale Toumeyella parvicornis, two obligate myrmecophiles, than areas with low or no F. exsectoides populations. Cinara ontarioensis was also obligately tended by ants but did not show a significant response to F. exsectoides densities, having a patchy distribution. In contrast, in areas without F. exsectoides, these homopterans were replaced by the woolly aphid Schizolachnus piniradiatae, a species that never forms ant associations. Mound ant exclusion experiments and observations indicated that F. exsectoides preyed upon S. piniradiatae potentially reducing their numbers in areas with this ant. Aphid and scale predators showed a mixed response to F. exsectoides presence: densities of lacewing larvae and salticid spiders were inversely related to F. exsectoides populations, whereas mirid populations did not show a response to different F. exsectoides densities. This study suggests that the presence of large populations of aggressive, honeydew seeking F. exsectoides can shift the homopteran community from one composed predominantly of nonmyrmecophilous species to one composed of myrmecophilous species.
Blumberg, D., Franco, J.C., Suma, P., Russo, A. & Mendel, Z. 2002 (2001). Parasitoid encapsulation in
mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as affected by the host-parasitoid association and superparasitism.
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 385-395. [BlumbeFrSu2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The encapsulation rates recorded for four species of mealybugs, when attacked by some of their principal and accidental encyrtid parasitoids, were studied under controlled conditions in no-choice assays. The encapsulation intensity was measured as effective encapsulation (EE) a value representing the percentage of parasitized mealybugs that encapsulated all parasitoid eggs and therefore prevented parasitoid development; and as aggregate encapsulation (AE) a value representing the percentage of eggs encapsulated. None or low rates (up to 12%) of EE by Planococcus citri, P. ficus, and Pseudococcus longispinus were recorded when parasitization was conducted by principal parasitoids. Parasitization of P. citri, P. longispinus, and Pseudococcus viburni by accidental parasitoids was characterized by high rates of AE and EE (86-100% for both values), suggesting that these mealybug species are unsuitable for the development of these parasitoids. The effects of cross parasitization of allopatric and sympatric ecotypes on the encapsulation values were investigated with P. citri and A. pseudococci, from Israel, Portugal and Sicily. EE was affected by the ecotype of both the host and the parasitoid. Thus, the lowest (17%) and the highest (70%) EE were recorded when Portuguese, and Sicilian of P. citri, respectively, were attacked by the Israeli A. pseudococci. Increasing egg load (superparasitism) was evident for several of the tested parasitoids when they attacked unsuitable hosts. When P. citri was attacked by A. pseudococci, EE values for superparasitized hosts were much lower than for solitary parasitized hosts. It is suggested that this oviposition strategy aims at reducing values of EE, thereby increasing offspring survival.
Bluthgen, N. & Fiedler, K. 2002. Interactions between weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina, homopterans, trees
and lianas in an Australian rain forest canopy. Journal of Animal Ecology 71(5): 793-801. [BluthgFi2002]
Notes: 1. Tritrophic interactions between the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), plants and honeydew-producing trophobionts (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha, Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were studied in a rain forest canopy in Northern Queensland, Australia. 2. Most commonly attended trophobionts by O. smaragdina at this study site were Coccidae (Coccus sp., Milviscutulus sp.) and Membracidae (Sextius sp.), followed by Toxoptera aurantii (Aphidae), Planococcus citri (Pseudococcidae), Icerya sp. (Margarodidae), an unidentified species of Eriococcidae, Austrotartessus sp. (Cicadellidae), and lycaenid butterfly larvae (Anthene seltuttus, Arhopala centaurus group). 3. Most trophobionts were highly polyphagous, and trees and lianas from many plant species and families acted as homopteran hosts. However, lianas were found to play a key role. First, the majority (68%) of aggregation sites was found on lianas, especially on the legumes Entada phaseoloides and Caesalpinia traceyi, and secondly, per capita ant visitation rate (VR) at coccoids was significantly higher on lianas compared to trees. In total, VR to homopterans was 64% higher on lianas. 4. Sites of ant-homopteran aggregations were regularly replaced by new locations on fresh plant growth. The mean longevity of nests of this polydomous ant species was 131 days, of individual aggregation sites with membracids 54 days and with coccoids 130 days. 5. Our results suggest that plant-specific differences in suitability for honeydew production (especially the availability of lianas) and the availability of preferred trophobionts have a strong influence on the vigour of Oecophylla colonies.
Bokonon-Ganta, A.H., de Groote, H. & Neuenschwander, P. 2002. Socio-economic impact of biological control
of mango mealybug in Benin. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 93(1-3): 367-378. [BokonoDeNe2002]
Notes: Mango mealybug (Rastrococcus invadens), an exotic pest of mango, was first observed in Benin in 1986. In a biological control programme, natural enemies were successfully released in the following years. The present study is the first attempt to measure the impact of the biological control of mango mealybug over a large area, through a survey of mango producers. Most producers attributed the observed improvement of mango production to the success of biological control. Based on production estimates by producers, the negative impact of the pest on plant production and the positive impact of the introduced natural enemy were demonstrated. Interviewed mango producers gained on average 328 US dollars per year by the biological control programme. Extrapolated to all producers of Benin, a yearly gain of 50 million US dollars in mango production can be estimated. The present value of accrued benefits is estimated at 531 million US dollars over a period of 20 years. The total cost of the biological control of mango mealybug is estimated at 3.66 million US dollars, which includes initial costs in other African countries and the introduction of the natural enemy from India, resulting in a benefit-cost ratio of 45:1 for benefits in Benin alone.
Borer, E.T. 2002. Intraguild predation in larval parasitoids: implications for coexistence. Journal of Animal Ecology
71(6): 957-965. [Borer2002]
Notes: Many coexisting parasitoids interact via intraguild predation (IGP); however, in IGP theory without stage structure the intraguild predator and intraguild prey coexist via this mechanism over only a relatively narrow region of parameter space. A recent formulation of IGP theory with a stage of the intraguild prey species that is invulnerable to attack by the intraguild predator shows that coexistence between guild members can occur across a much broader range of resource productivity than is predicted by IGP theory without stage structure. These general theoretical predictions are used to explore the implications for coexistence of Aphytis melinus (DeBach) and Encarsia perniciosi (Tower), a pair of parasitoids that coexist on California red scale. Reanalysis of a published laboratory competition experiment between two parasitoid species suggests that Aphytis, an ectoparasitoid, survives at a lower rate when the reparasitized host contains a more developed juvenile endoparasitoid (Encarsia). This pattern is contrary to a common assumption that ectoparasitoids always consume endoparasitoids in a shared host, and may affect coexistence. In addition, Encarsia is capable of parasitizing much younger hosts than is Aphytis, which the experiment did not examine. Aphytis juvenile survival was found to decrease as a function of the age of the juvenile Encarsia onto which it was laid. When Encarsia parasitized very young hosts, it was increasingly invulnerable to attack by Aphytis and increasingly more likely to survive to emergence. However, until the formation of an invulnerable pseudomoult, Encarsia was always killed in larger hosts, regardless of its age at the time of Aphytis attack. According to stage-structured IGP theory, the decline in Aphytis success combined with an invulnerable Encarsia stage may promote coexistence in this system.
Boulila, M. 2001. Olive diseases in Tunisia: state of the art. Olivae No. 85: 22-25. [Boulil2001]
Notes: An account is given of the most important fungal and bacterial diseases that cause serious economic damage to olives in Tunisia, indicating separately those that occur in adult and young trees. Olive scab, dieback, Armillaria root rot, sooty moulds, leaf yellowing, anthracnose and olive knot are classic diseases that affect olive crops in the Mediterranean area. Recently more problems caused by soil-borne fungi were encountered in nurseries and newly established groves. Short descriptions are given of symptoms, pathogens and control strategies. It is recommended that the best control for the fungal diseases is to improve the growing conditions by ensuring balanced tree nutrition and chemical insect control.
Bowie, M.H. 2001. Ecology and morphology of Allograpta ventralis (Diptera: Syrphidae) a predator of the cabbage
tree mealybug Balanococcus cordylinidis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). New Zealand Natural Sciences 26: 1-11.
Notes: Syrphid larvae collected from the bases of leaves of cabbage trees Cordyline australis (G. Forst.) Endl. and C. indivisa (G. Forst.) Steud. in the presence of their potential prey, the mealybug Balanococcus cordylinidis (Britten), were reared to adults. The syrphids were identified as Allograpta ventralis (Miller). Adult and larval numbers were monitored using pan traps. Most adults were caught in early November, whereas larval numbers peaked in mid December. Adults dissected to assess the range of plant pollens eaten showed eight plant families were exploited, with some flies travelling 75 m from the nearest potential pollen source to the pan traps. Larvae and pupae were dissected and assessed for the presence of parasitoid larvae. Megaspilidae (Hymenoptera) were found in 8.3% of the pupae. One syrphid adult contained 52 phoretic mites. Gravid female syrphids contained between nine and 63 eggs per individual.
Branco, M., Brito, O., Jactel, H., Mendel, Z. & Franco, J.C. 2002 (2001). Seasonal history of the Maritime Pine
Bast Scale Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) in Portugal. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e
di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 319-329. [BrancoBrJa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Seasonal history of members of the Matsucoccidae varies between a two-year cycle on the one hand and multivoltine development on the other; most of the investigated species display bivoltine development. Epidemic populations of M. feytaudi in the Mediterranean coast of France and Italy display univoltine development, with a male flight limited to few weeks in the early spring. Pheromone traps have revealed that in central Portugal males of M. feytaudi fly throughout the year. The question raised was whether the latter seasonal flight pattern implies multivoltine development of the Portuguese scale population or not. To address the question we compared the pattern of male flight with the occurrence of immature developmental stages of the scale during 1998-2000. The main peak of male flight was observed in February and a smaller one in summer. This pattern coincides with the age structure of the immature stages of the scale. While the development of most of the nymphs does last about 10 months, a smaller portion completes the feeding cycle in about 5-6 months. It is suggested that due to the notable extension of the early spring oviposition period in the studied areas, the first egg masses that occur in December give rise to a second annual generation. The early first instar nymphs escape the aestivation, to which the major nymph population is subject, by developing into second nymphal stage before daily average temperature reaches an upper threshold of 15̊C. It is suggested that high plasticity displayed by populations of both M. feytaudi and its host Pinus pinaster in the Iberian Peninsula allows the variation in both seasonal occurrence of the egg masses and rate of development of the nymphs, resulting in a non-uniform seasonal age structure. The outcome is two overlapping generations allowing male flight all year round.
Branco, M., Franco, J.C., Carvalho, C.J. & Mendel, Z. 2002 (2001). Occurrence of Hemerobius stigma
Stephens in pine bast scale (Matsucoccus spp.) populations: opportunistic predation or obligatory association?
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 397-407. [BrancoFrCa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Hemerobius stigma occurs naturally in coniferous forests of western and central Europe. Based on field and laboratory observations conducted mainly by European researchers, H. stigma has been accurately defined as predator of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea), often observed on spruce and fir trees. Hemerobius species were among several insect predators collected from epidemic populations of Matsucoccus (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae). Collection of H. stigma from pine trees infested with M. pini in the 1970s and M. feytaudi in the early 1990s suggests for the first time a close relationship between H. stigma, Matsucoccus, and pine. However, there was no data confirming that these Hemerobius spp. feed and successfully develop on Matsucoccus. The first evidence of interrelationship between H. stigma and Matsucoccus was obtained using pheromone traps in field studies conducted in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands in central Portugal which show that H. stigma is highly attracted to sex pheromone of maritime pine bast scale M. feytaudi. It was also lured by the pheromone of M. matsumurae, originating in the pine forest of the southern Asia, but not by the sex pheromone of M. josephi, occurring in the East Mediterranean. The frequent occurrence of H. stigma in aphid colonies, documented as suitable feed for the brown lacewing on the one hand and the strong specific kairomonal response of the lacewing to certain sex pheromone of Matsucoccus on the other, raise the question about the essence of the lacewing and the scale predator-prey relationship. To address this question, we tested the capability of H. stigma to prey and develop on Matsucoccus, using M. josephi and Cinara palaestinensis (Hemiptera: Lachnidae) as prey models. Furthermore, we activated traps baited with the sex pheromone of M. feytaudi to compare the seasonal population trends of males of M. feytaudi with those of adult H. stigma and Elatophilus crassicornis. The latter is a specific predator of M. feytaudi in Portugal, also attracted to the sex pheromone of both M. feytaudi and M. matsumurae. In the laboratory, both M. josephi and C. palaestinensis have served as appropriate food for H. stigma, allowing its complete development for successive generations and verifying its wide range of prey species among hemipteran taxa. However, the seasonal flight pattern of H. stigma, as obtained by trap captures was not correlated with that of the M. feytaudi males, whereas a significant correlation was observed between the seasonal flight of E. crassicornis and that of males of M. feytaudi. A possible explanation to the interrelationship between Hemerobius stigma-Matsucoccus feytaudi-pine is presented and discussed.
CAB International 2001. Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse. Distribution Maps of Pests Map no. 618: 2 pp.
Notes: Published in the U.K. by the International Institute of Entomology, an agency of CAB International; map showing distribution of this sp. worldwide; countries listed with references to records; attacks the trunk of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).
CAB International 2002. Rhizoecus americanus (Hambleton). Distribution Maps of Pests Map no. 630: 2 pp.
Notes: Published in the U.K. by the International Institute of Entomology, an agency of CAB International; map showing distribution of this species worldwide; countries listed with references to records; attacks the roots of a wide range of ornamental plants.
Cai, Z.J., Luo, Y.F., Wen, S.X., Zheng, Y.Q. & Wei, Z.P. 2001. [Comprehensive study on applying Sunspray oil
year round to control citrus pests.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Fujian Journal of Agricultural Science 16(1):
Notes: The controlling efficiency of Sunspray 7E and 9E oil emulsion against citrus pests were compared with engine oil emulsion and oxidized dimethoate. The results showed that the controlling efficiency of Sunspray 7E and 9E against female adults of Unaspis yanonensis were 97.4% and 89.6%, respectively, at 10 days after spraying. The efficiency against female adults of Chrysomphalus aonidum was 88.2% and 75.1%, and against Phyllocoptruta oleivora was 97.4% and 95.7%, respectively. After spraying three times with Sunspray 7E and 9E, the population of these pests could be controlled below the economic threshold. In addition, the oils were safe to predatory spiders, parasitic wasps and had no negative effect on orange quality.
Calatayud, P.A., Polania, M.A., Seligmann, C.D. & Bellotti, A.C. 2002. Influence of water-stressed cassava on
Phenacoccus herreni and three associated parasitoids. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 102(2): 163-175.
Notes: The influence of cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz grown under condition of water-stress on development and reproduction of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus herreni Cox & Williams, and levels of parasitism of three encyrtid parasitoids, Apoanagyrus diversicornis Howard, Aenasius vexans Kerrich, and Acerophagus coccois Smith, were studied in the laboratory. Two cassava cultivars were used: CM 507-37 (drought-tolerant) and CMC 40. A 30 day period of water stress, imposed by reducing the irrigation volume, led to a reduction in shoot development and stomatal conductance of leaves of both cassava genotypes. Phenacoccus herreni development and reproduction were favoured by cassava under water shortage. Parasitism decreased and water stress appeared to enhance the encapsulation of parasitoid eggs or larvae by the mealybug. In the case of the parasitoid A. diversicornis, there was a decrease in size of female progeny, suggesting a lower fitness in this species on cassava plants under water stress. All results indicated that cassava grown under low water availability favoured P. herreni development and reproduction, and affected the success of parasitism and, depending on the species, parasitoid development. The drought-tolerance characteristic of cassava genotypes and parasitoid species most suitable for controlling P. herreni in drought-stricken areas are discussed.
Calvo, C. & Salvador, A. 2002. Comparative study of the colorants monascus and cochineal used in the preparation
of gels made with various gelling agents. Food Hydrocolloids 16(6): 523-526. [CalvoSa2002]
Notes: The possibilities of using monascus to colour gels were studied by comparing it with cochineal. Gels were prepared with four gelling agents-carrageenan, gellan, gelatine and xanthan-and their colour was measured with a Hunter Lab colorimeter. The equations relating L-* and h with the concentrations of sugar [SU] and colorant [COL] were deduced, and it was found that [COL] had more influence on colour than [SU]. In general, for these four gelling agents the colour of monascus gels is orange-red and the colour of cochineal gels is purplish red. The gels made with xanthan were always the lightest, whether they were made with cochineal or with monascus.
Camacho Molina, J., Guerere Pereira, P. & Quiros de Gonzalez, M. 2002. [Insects and Mites of Guava,
(Psidium guajava L.) in commercial orchards of Zulia State, Venezuela.] Insectos y acaros del guayabo (Psidium
guajava L.) en plantaciones comerciales del estado Zulia, Venezuela. (In Spanish; Summary In English). Revista de
la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad del Zulia 19(s): 140-148. [CamachGuQu2002]
Notes: A taxonomic survey of the insects and mites of guava (P. guajava) was conducted in commercial orchards of Mara, Paez, La Canada de Urdaneta, Jesus Enrique Lossada, Miranda and Sucre counties of Zulia state, Venezuela, from March 2000 to July 2001. Phytophagous and entomophagous species were collected with entomological nets, aspirators and ethyl acetate killing jars, and were identified and preserved in the collection of the Arthropod Museum of the University of Zulia. Leaves, fruits, flowers and twigs with the insects or mites were brought to the lab for observation and rearing. A total of 47 insect species and 8 mite species were found on this crop, of which 29 and 25 are new reports for the region and for Venezuela, respectively. Coccidae were listed.
Camargo, J.M.F. & Pedro, S.R.M. 2002. Mutualistic association between a tiny Amazonian stingless bee and a
wax-producing scale insect. Biotropica 34(3): 446-451. [CamargPe2002]
Notes: The Amazonian stingless bee Schwarzula sp. houses and attends soft scale insects, Cryptostigma sp. (Coccidae) in its nest, from which it obtains sweet secretions (honeydew) for their feeding and additional wax to build their nests. The bees nest in tunnels burrowed by moth larvae in branches of Campsiandra angustifolia, Caesalpiniaceae.
Camargo, J.M.F. & Pedro, S.R.M. 2002. [A new species of Schwarzula from Amazon (Hymenoptera, Apidae,
Meliponini).] Uma especie nova de Schwarzula da Amazonia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini). (In Portuguese).
Iheringia Serie Zoologia 92(3): 101-112. [CamargPe2002a]
Notes: Schwarzula coccidophila sp. nov., a tiny Amazonian stingless bee, that attends scale insects (Cryptostigma Ferris, 1922, Coccidae) in its nest, is described. It is distinguished from Schwarzula timida (Silvestri, 1902), the only other species of the genus, mainly by the malar area longer than diameter of 3rd flagellomere, and the denser plumose pilosity. Additional records of S. timida are presented.
Canhilal, R., Uygun, N. & Carner, G.R. 2001. Effects of temperature on development and reproduction of a
predatory beetle, Nephus includens Kirsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Journal of Agricultural and Urban
Entomology 18(2): 117-125. [CanhilUyCa2001]
Notes: The effect of different temperatures on some biological properties of Nephus includens Kirsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was investigated. This species is one of the most important predators of Planococcus citri Risso (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The development time, mortality and fecundity were determined at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35degreeC and at the variable temperatures, 25-35degreeC (12 hours 25degreeC, 12 hours 35degreeC). Life tables were also constructed for 25, 30, 35, and 25-35degreeC. The mortality was lower and the mean generation time was shorter at 30degreeC than at all other temperatures except 35degreeC. The intrinsic rate of increase was the highest at 30degreeC (0.081), followed by 0.076 at 25-35degreeC. The net reproductive rate was higher at 25-35degreeC than at 30degreeC. From biological data and population growth parameters calculated from the life tables, 30degreeC and 25-35degreeC were determined to be the most suitable temperatures for mass rearing of Nephus includens. However, mass rearing at a temperature as high as 35degreeC could cause deterioration of sprouted potatoes on which the citrus mealybug is reared. Therefore, 30degreeC would be better than 25-35degreeC.
Carrillo, R., Cifuentes, C. & Neira, M. 2001. [Seasonal cycle of Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche) (Hemiptera,
Coccidae) on Ribes spp. in southern Chile.] Ciclo estacional de Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche) (Hemiptera,
Coccidae) en Ribes spp. en el sur de Chile. (In Spanish; Summary In English). Agro Sur 29(2): 110-113.
Notes: Results are presented of the observations conducted in southern Chile to determine the seasonal cycle of Parthenolecanium corni developmental stages on Ribes spp.
Celik, O., Semerci, A., Sanli, B., Belindir, B. & Gedik, O. 2002. [Withering of the Anatolian black pine (Pinus
nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana Lamb. Holmboe) in the Ankara region.] Ankara cevresinde Anadolu karacamlarinda
(Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana Lamb. Holmboe) gorulen kurumalarin nedenleri. (In Turkish). Orman
Muhendisligi 39(5): 7-15. [CelikSeSa2002]
Notes: Factors responsible for dieback in plantations of Pinus nigra pallasiana in the Ankara region of Turkey were investigated. Soil and needle analyses showed no adverse factors to account for the dieback. The trees were examined for pests and diseases. The scale insect Leucaspis pini was present but, together with fungal and bacterial diseases, was not considered to cause significant damage. A climatic survey of the area for the years 1991-2001 suggested instead that the dieback was due to a prolonged drought in the region, which received a less than average rainfall between the years 1995 and 1998.
Cermeli, M., Morales Valles, P., Godoy, F., Romero, R. & Cardenas, O. 2002. [Presence of the hibiscus pink
mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Venezuela.] Presencia de la cochinilla
rosada de la cayena Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) en Venezuela. (In Spanish;
Summary In English). Entomotropica 17(1): 103-105. [CermelMoGo2002]
Notes: The presence of the hibiscus pink mealybug M. hirsutus is reported in Venezuela. Its spread from the Island of Margarita to the rest of the country is discussed. Host plants and the damage caused by the pink mealybug are recorded and measures adopted to control the pest are presented.
Charles, J.G. 2001. Introduction of a parasitoid for mealybug biocontrol: a case study under new environmental
legislation. New Zealand Plant Protection 54: 37-41. [Charle2001]
Notes: [The 53rd Conference Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Society held in Palmerston, 14-16 August 2001. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/proceedings/01/01_37.pdf] Pseudaphycus maculipennis is one of the few known encyrtid parasitoids of the obscure mealybug (Pseudococcus viburni). It was released in New Zealand on 14 February 2001. The importation process under changing environmental legislation over an 8 year period is detailed and the implications of the new legislation for future classical biocontrol programmes is discussed.
Charles, J.G. & Henderson, R.C. 2002. Catalogue of the exotic armoured scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea:
Diaspididae) in New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 32(4): 587-615. [CharleHe2002]
Notes: This catalog has been developed from studies of curated specimens and the literature. 28 species are recorded as established by July 2002. Lepidosaphes pallida is recorded in New Zealand for the first time. Five new synonomies are proposed (with the senior synonym in parentheses): Chionaspis candida (= Chionaspis angusta); Mytilaspis eucalypti, Lepidosaphes ulmi var. novozelandica (= Lepidosaphes multipora); Fiorinia grossulariae 1884 (= Lepidosaphes ulmi) and Chionapis xerotidis (= Pseudaulacaspis eugeniae). For the first time, literature records are shown to be erroneous for a further eight species, which are therefore not considered present in New Zealand. They are: Aspidiotus destructor, Ischnaspis longirostris, Lepidosaphes flava, Parlatoria pergandii, Parlatoria ziziphi, Pinnaspis strachani, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona and Unaspis citri. An annotated list of all 36 species provides for each species a selective synonymy and a summary of some basic biological details, host plant range, geographical distribution, and environmental impact.
Charles, J.G. & Henderson, R.C. 2002 (2001). The exotic armoured scale insects in New Zealand. Bollettino di
Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 503. [CharleHe2002a]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] Historical literature and curated collections were examined and reviewed to provide an up-to-date list of the exotic Diaspididae present in New Zealand at May 2001. 26 species of exotic Diaspididae are known to be established in the country.
Charles, J.G., Allan, D.J. & Zydenbos, S.M. 2002. An ecological perspective to host-specificity testing of
biocontrol agents. New Zealand Plant Protection 55: 37-41. [CharleAlZy2002]
Notes: [Proceedings of a conference held at the Quality Hotel in Palmerston North, New Zealand in 2001. Published by the New Zealand Plant Protection Society, Rotorua, New Zealand.] Classical biological control programmes have historically been viewed positively, but in the new social context of "all new invaders are bad", the perceived environmental threats from new natural enemies are regarded by some as unacceptable. Host-specificity testing of proposed biocontrol agents is required to provide environmental safety assurances, but laboratory methods are likely to be flawed and cannot mimic the reality of nature. It is proposed that analysis of the realised host-range of long-established exotic parasitoids may help to predict the impacts of proposed, new biocontrol agents and supplement laboratory testing. This approach was used in 1999 when applying to New Zealand's Environmental Risk Management Authority for approval to release the parasitoid Pseudaphycus maculipennis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) against the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The data from New Zealand and elsewhere indicate that new encyrtid parasitoids of mealybugs have shown no propensity to attack native species over time.
Chen, Y.L. & Tsong, H.S. 2002. Effects of temperature on development of the hemispherical scale, Saissetia
coffeae (Walker) (Homoptera: Coccidae), and its occurrence on cycad (Cycas taiwanian Carr.). (In Chinese;
Summary In English). Formosan Entomologist 22(1): 65-74. [ChenTs2002]
Notes: The effect of temperature on the development of the hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Homoptera: Coccidae), was studied. Insects were reared on potato sprouts (Solanum tuberosum L.) at 5 different constant temperatures (18, 20, 24, 28, and 30degreeC). Results showed that an increase in temperature within limits accelerated the rate of development of all stages of the hemispherical scale. The developmental duration of the hemispherical scale from egg to adult at 18 and 28degreeC were 95.5 and 51.3 days, respectively. Nymphal scale continuously reared at 30degreeC failed to produce adults. The optimum development temperatures of the hemispherical scale were 24-28degreeC. Temperature influences the reproductive capacity of the hemispherical scale. Lower temperatures increased egg production of the scales. There was a high correlation between temperature and growth rate for all stages of the scale. Their low developmental threshold temperature (Tb) and thermal summation (K) were: 7.1degreeC and 270 DD in the egg stage; 11.9degreeC and 43 DD for crawlers, and 4.1degreeC and 555 DD for secondary instars, respectively. The life cycle of the hemispherical scale on cycad (Cycas taiwanian Carr.) was observed. The scale produces 4-5 generations per year in Taichung, west-central Taiwan.
Chen, Y.Q., Chen, X.M. & Li, K. 2002. [A discussion on indexes and methods of economic evaluation of lac
insect.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Forest Research 15(5): 531-536. [ChenChLi2002]
Notes: Comprehensive methods and formulas of lac insect evaluation were proposed in this paper based on such indexes from lac insect cultivation and production. These formulas could be shown as follows: 1) E=eXpX(1-m)X(1-s) for seed lac; 2) I=(Nt+1)/Nt=PI (si)cntdotpfemalecntdotF for production and 3) E=pX(1-m)X(1-s)Xd for host trees. It is more objective and reasonable for judging the insect on its seed lac, production and host tree adaptability by ways of comprehensive evaluation than by traditional methods.
Chkhaidze, L. & Yasnosh, V. 2002 (2001). The Dictyospermum scale Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan)
(Coccinea: Diaspididae), pest of fruit and ornamental plants in the Black Sea coast of Georgia: a review. Bollettino
di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 495-499. [ChkhaiYa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Dictyospermum scale is the main scale pest in the Citrus groves and also injures many ornamental plants on the Black Sea coast. Two to three generations of scales are developed yearly without winter diapause. Nymphal mortality in the winter is high, up to 78%. Fecundity is between 100 and 200 eggs per female. The enemies of Dictyospermum scale include six species of hymenopterous parasitoids, four predators, and also mites and spiders. Sixteen species of fungi were recorded from the scale: Trichothecium roseum is among the most common. The Aphelinidae parasitoids are Aphytis aonidiae, A. chrysomphali, A. mytilaspidis, Encarsia citrina, E. aurantii, and E. fasciata and the predators are Chilocorus renipustulatus, C. bipustulatus, Exochomus quadripustulatus, and Rhizobius lophantae. The significance of entomophagous insects in controlling the pest was studied. Natural enemies may considerably limit the presence of Dictyospermum scale, but they do not appear to be capable of eradicating it. Sometimes the use of additional control measures is necessary.
Chokkalingam, U. & White, A. 2001. Structure and spatial patterns of trees in old-growth northern hardwood and
mixed forests of northern Maine. Plant Ecology 156(2): 139-160. [ChokkaWh2001]
Notes: Stand structure including spatial patterns was studied in northern hardwood and mixed forest types in the 2000-ha old-growth Big Reed Forest Reserve in northern Maine, USA, using complete stem mapping, dendrochronology, and spatial analyses on _0.5 ha plots. The inclusion of saplings, dead wood, age distributions, spatial pattern, and interactions provided some idea of underlying processes and temporal change. The stands were dominated by very shade tolerant tree species, including Fagus grandifolia, Acer saccharum, Picea rubens and Abies balsamea, with each species found in many crown positions and age and size classes. The sapling layer was dominated by F. grandifolia followed by P. rubens. Most species had reverse-J shaped diameter distributions, but age distributions were indicative of synchronous, episodic recruitment. In most plots, Acer saccharum diameter distributions were skewed towards the mid-larger size classes. Lack of young and small A. saccharum stems suggested change in forest composition towards F. grandifolia dominance. Most species formed small-scale clusters (_15 m) perhaps in response to small gap disturbances. Snags were the dominant dead wood type and were randomly to regularly distributed in most plots. The continued effects of beech bark disease [a disease complex of the scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, and a fungus, Nectria spp., on F. grandifolia] had a greater effect on hardwood plots, whereas a recent spruce budworm [Choristoneura occidentalis] outbreak had a greater effect on plots with higher conifer density.
Chung, K., Baker, J.R., Baldwin, J.L. & Chou, A. 2001. Identification of carmine allergens among three carmine
allergy patients. Allergy 56(1): 73-77. [ChungBaBa2001]
Notes: There have been several reports of carmine allergy; however, identification of the responsible carmine allergens has not been widely documented. Three female patients presented with a history of anaphylaxis and/or urticaria/angioedema after ingestion of carmine-containing foods. All three patients had 4 + skin prick tests to carmine. Among them, two patients were confirmed to have carmine allergy by blinded, placebo-controlled food challenges to carmine. SDS-PAGE of cochineal insects and carmine, immunoblotting for IgE antibody with sera from all three patients, and immunoblotting inhibition with carmine were performed. SDS-PAGE of minced cochineal insects revealed several protein bands of 23-88 kDa. Several of these bands were variably recognized by our three patients' sera, and this reactivity was inhibited by carmine. Although no protein bands could be visualized on SDS PAGE of carmine in Coomassie brilliant blue staining, three protein bands were recognized by two of the three patients' serum. These results suggest that commercial carmine retains proteinaceous material from the source insects. These insect-derived proteins (possibly complexed with carminic acid) are responsible for IgE-mediated carmine allergy. Patient reactivity to these proteins may vary.
Ciampolini, M., Lupi, D. & Suss, L. 2002. Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) in apple orchards in central Italy. (In
English; Summary In Italian). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 34(1): 97-108.
Notes: Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) has been found in apple orchards on the coast near Viterbo (Italy). Biological information on the insect, damages and possibility of control are reported.
Civolani, S. & Pasqualini, E. 2002 (2001). Control of overwintering Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) on
pome fruits in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano)
33(3): 489-494. [CivolaPa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Two pesticide field trials were carried out against overwintering San José Scale, Q. perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus] on apples (in 2000) and pears (in 2001) in the Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. The active ingredients tested were mineral oil (2.7%), mineral oil and imidacloprid (2.7%), buprofezin added to mineral oil (as a wetting agent) (0.14%+0.5%), and lime sulfur [calcium polysulfide] (25/75); different timings of sprays were also tested. The experimental design consisted of a randomized block with at least four replicates. The efficacy of the treatments (mortality) was estimated by counting scales (dead and alive). Twenty randomly selected, infested shoots (1-2 years old) and at least 400 scales were examined from each plot. The results showed that a high level of mortality was caused by all the treatments tested. The choice of which active ingredient used (or mixture thereof) depended on what other pests were present at the time of application (e.g. Dysaphis plantaginea, Hoplocampa brevis).
Claps, L.E. & Terán, A.L. 2001. [Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with citrus in the province of
Tucuman (Argentina). (In Spanish; Summary In English). Neotropical Entomology 30(3): 391-402. [ClapsTe2001]
Notes: [Original title: Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) asociadas a cítricos en la provincia de Tucumán (República Argentina).] Aonidiella aurantii, Aspidiotus nerii, Borchseniaspis palmae, Cornuaspis beckii, Chrysomphalus aonidum, C. dictyospermi, Insulaspis gloverii, Mycetaspis personata, Parlatoria cinerea, P. pergandii, Pinnaspis aspidistrae and Unaspis citri are discussed on citrus plants in Tucumán, Argentina. A key for the recognition of the species, as well as the synonymy, characterization and illustration are also included. Data on economic importance and host plants are provided.
Cook, L.G. & Gullan, P.J. 2002 (2001). Longevity and reproduction in Apiomorpha Rubsaamen (Hemiptera:
Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 259-265.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Adult females of Apiomorpha are remarkably long-lived (up to five years) and those of most species are able to produce thousands of offspring. Males rarely live more than one year and survive only several days after merging from their galls. Males and females of the one cohort mature at about the same time despite extreme size differences between the sexes, thereby allowing brother-sister matings. Age to maturity ranges among species from two and a half months to more than 12 months. The longevity of females results in the overlap of generations of females on the one host plant.
Cook, L.G., Gullan, P.J. & Trueman, H.E. 2002. A preliminary phylogeny of the scale insects (Hemiptera:
Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) based on nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
25(1): 43-52. [CookGuTr2002]
Notes: Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) are a speciose and morphologically specialized group of plant-feeding bugs in which evolutionary relationships and thus higher classification are controversial. Sequences derived from nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA were used to generate a preliminary molecular phylogeny for the Coccoidea based on 39 species representing 14 putative families. Monophyly of the archaeococcoids (comprising Ortheziidae, Margarodidae sensu lato, and Phenacoleachia) was equivocal, whereas monophyly of the neococcoids was supported. Putoidae, represented by Puto yuccae, was found to be outside the remainder of the neococcoid clade. These data are consistent with a single origin (in the ancestor of the neococcoid clade) of a chromosome system involving paternal genome elimination in males. Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) appear to be sister to the rest of the neococcoids and there are indications that Coccidae (soft scales) and Kerriidae (lac scales) are sister taxa. The Eriococcidae (felt scales) was not recovered as a monophyletic group and the eriococcid genus Eriococcus sensu lato was polyphyletic.
Cooper, T., Sazo, L., Sagredo, K. & Polesny, F. 2001. Integrated production in Chile: peaches, nectarines and
plums, two years of research and development. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 24(5): 45-50. [CooperSaSa2001]
Notes: [Proceedings of the IOBC-WPRS Fifth International Conference on Integrated Fruit Protection held in Lleida, Spain, 22-26 October, 2000. Avilla, J. (Ed.)] In 1998 the University of Chile started a research project on Integrated Production (IP) in stone fruits with the aim of developing a methodology of cropping, phytosanitary and postharvest management for peach, nectarine and plum trees. The project began with a diagnosis of the main producing areas to detect existing critical and limiting points for integrated fruit production (IFP). Among the problems identified were oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta [Grapholita molesta]), San Jose scale, aphids and mealybugs within the pests, and Monilinia, leaf curl, and powdery mildew within the diseases, mainly in peaches and nectarines.
Coto, A.D. & Saunders, J.L. 2001. [Insect pests of soursop (Annona muricata) in Costa Rica.] Insectos plaga de la
guanabana (Annona muricata) en Costa Rica. (In Spanish; Summary In English). Manejo Integrado de Plagas No.
61: 60-68. [CotoSa2001]
Notes: Soursop (A. muricata) is a tropical fruit of great economic potential, given its commercial value and the demand of the external market. Recently, in Costa Rica, due to the increasing area of production and the limited technical assistance given to the crop, the populations of several insect pests have increased causing a reduction in the yield and quality of the fruit. The principal species found on plantations in the Atlantic zone and Northern Costa Rica are: Cratosomus sp., Corythucha gossypii, Toxoptera aurantii, Saissetia coffeae, Pinnaspis strachani, Planococcus citri, Trigona spp., Bephratelloides maculicollis, Thecla ortygnus [Oemanus ortygnus] and Cerconota anonella. The main biological and ecological aspects and the damage caused are presented for each species.
Cravedi, P. & Molinari, F. 2002. [Eco-compatible methods for protecting peaches: possible developments.] La
difesa del pesco con metodi ecocompatibili: evoluzione possibile. (In Italian). Rivista di Frutticoltura e di
Ortofloricoltura 64(7-8): 39-43. [CravedMo2002]
Notes: A comparison is made between insect control in peaches in the USA (interested mainly in economic effects) and in Europe (more attention for environmental side effects). Adequate control of Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus] is not possible by natural enemies alone, but in organic orchards this species tends to be present in smaller numbers.
Crouch, T.E. & Crouch, N.R. 2001. Insect infestations on leaves of the ethnomedicinal Pepper-bark tree
Warburgia salutaris (Canellaceae). Durban Museum Novitates 26: 1-5. [CrouchCr2001]
Notes: The recent finding of drimane sesquiterpenoid lactones in the leaves of W. salutaris in ratios similar to that in bark provides a rational basis for their substitution in ethnomedicine or phyto-pharmaceuticals. Such replacement will permit more sustainable harvesting of W. saluraris trees, and likely improve returns on its commercial cultivation. However, small or plantation-scale cultivation to supply traditional or developing markets is dependent on the provision of products acceptable to consumers and manufacturers. It is against this background that the first reports of defoliation by Imbrasia wahlbergi (Wahlberg's emperor moth) and unsightly leaf infestations of the coccids Lichtensia carissae (tortoise scale) and Parasaissetia nigra (granadilla soft scale) are documented. The general bioactivity and pest resistance of this plant taxon is also reviewed.
Dalla Montá, L.D., Duso, C. & Malagnini, V. 2002 (2001). Current status of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea)
in the Italian vineyards. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 343-350.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Nine species of Coccoidea occur in the Italian vineyards. Among the Pseudococcidae, the most important and widespread species is Planococcus ficus. Heliococcus bohemicus seems to be localized and is usually not considered as a pest. Among the Coccidae, Neopulvinaria innumerabilis was recorded as a pest in northeastern regions in the 1990s. Pulvinaria vitis, Parthenolecanium corni, and P. persicae are less frequent. Infestations of the diaspidid Targionia vitis are sometimes recorded. Among natural enemies of grape mealybugs, Anagyrus pseudococci is common on P. ficus. Predators belonging to Neuroptera, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae, Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, and Diptera, Chamaemyiidae are also frequently recorded on the same species. Concerning natural enemies of Coccidae, the parasitoid Coccophagus lycimnia (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) is often recorded on Parthenolecanium corni and N. innumerabilis as well as various species belonging to Chrysopidae, Coccinellidae, and Chamaemyiidae. Coccophagoides similis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) has been found associated with T. vitis. A number of predators are also reported as feeding on this species. Native natural enemies have a low impact on Planococcus ficus populations in commercial vineyards, probably because their activity is affected by the use of pesticides. The role of natural enemies in controlling other Coccoidea seems to be more important. The impact of chemical control measures against Coccoidea is discussed within IPM strategies.
Danzig, E.M. 2002. Taxonomic status of Phenacoccus transcaucasicus Hadz. (=Ph. mespili sensu Borchsenius,
1949) and its intraspecific variability (Homoptera, Coccinea, Pseudococcidae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di
Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 161-162. [Danzig2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] This paper provides a literature review of taxonomic studies and distribution of this species.
Davidson, N.A. 2001. Pest management assessment: Least toxic alternatives for Argentine ants, fleas, and white
grubs of lawns. Report (Environmental Monitoring and Pest management Branch, Dept. of Pesticide Regulation,
California Environmental Protection Agency) PM-01-02: 21 pp. [Davids2001]
Notes: The section on ants contains some information on associated scale insects. Ant populations build up in early summer coinciding with mealybugs, scale insects and others. Pests of some plants such as black scale can be managed simply by banding the tree and excluding Argentine ants.
De Marzo, L. & Marotta, S. 2002 (2001). Anatomy of the alimentary canal in female Coccoidea: an iconographic
review. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 77-83. [DeMarzMa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Original observations on the alimentary canal of Coccoidea are reported; they refer to 31 species in the families Ortheziidae, Margarodidae, Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Micrococcidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Lecanodiaspididae, Aclerdidae, Asterolecaniidae, and Diaspididae. Seven types of alimentary canal were found throughout.
Demchenko, V.I. 2002. [Activities and plans of Volgograd quarantine Inspectorate.] (In Russian). Zashchita i
Karantin Rastenii No. 6. [Demche2002]
Notes: Information is outlined on the administrative organization of the Volgograd region, Russia, and the Plant Quarantine Service. Quarantine pests, weeds and diseases found in the Volgograd region are outlined, including San José scale [Diaspidiotus perniciosus].
Deng, H.J. & Nan, G.M. 2001. [The main diseases and pests of Korla's Xiangli pear variety and their control. (In
Chinese). China Fruits No. 5: 37-40. [DengNa2001]
Notes: An account is given of the 6 most common pests (Apochemia sp., red spider mite, Carpocapsa pomonella [Cydia pomonella], San Jose scale [Diaspidiotus perniciosus], pear psylla [Cacopsylla pyri] and pear midge [Contarinia pyrivora]) and 2 main diseases (pear canker and leaf yellowing) of Korla's Xiangli pears. Control methods are also mentioned.
de Silva, D.P.P., Jones, P. & Shaw, M.W. 2002. Identification and transmission of Piper yellow mottle virus and
Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) in Sri Lanka. Plant Pathology 51(5): 537-545.
Notes: Sri Lankan black pepper with symptoms of yellow mottle disease contained a mixture of viruses: Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMV) particles (30 x 130 nm), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, 30 nm diameter isometric particles), and unidentified, isometric virus-like particles (30 nm diameter). An effective purification procedure is described for PYMV. Immunosorbent and conventional electron microscopy successfully detected badnavirus particles only when at least partially purified extracts were used. PYMV was confirmed as the cause of the disease, with the other two viruses apparently playing no part in producing symptoms. PYMV was transmitted by grafting, by the insect vectors citrus mealy bug (Planococcus citri) and black pepper lace bug (Diconocoris distanti), but not by mechanical inoculation or through seeds. The CMV isolate was transmitted to indicator plants by mechanical inoculation and by the vector Aphis gossypii, but not by Myzus persicae; but neither mechanical nor insect transmission of CMV to black pepper was successful. A sensitive polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect PYMV in black pepper.
Drago, F., Macauda, S. & Salehi, S. 2002. Small doses of melatonin increase intestinal motility in rats. Digestive
Diseases and Sciences 47(9): 1969-1974. [DragoMaSa2002]
Notes: Since melatonin receptors are present in the intestines, the possibility that this hormone may affect intestinal motility has been studied in the rat using a carmine cochineal powder meal.
Elizondo Solis, J.M. 2002. [Inventory and population fluctuation of insects and spiders associated with Citrus
sinensis in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica.] (In Spanish; Summary In English). Manejo Integrado de
Plagas y Agroecología No.64: 88-98. [Elizon2002]
Notes: [Original title: Inventario y fluctuación poblacional de insectos y aranas asociadas con Citrus sinensis en la Región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica.] Agricultural systems, especially of perennial crops such as the sweet orange (C. sinensis) are very stable, with an entomological fauna rich in beneficial insects. In Costa Rica, extensive commercial orange plantations were established in 1990. The investigations were performed to evaluate the management of fruit flies, scale insects and aphids with the recognition of some native and imported entomophages (Aleurocanthus woglumi and the parasite Encarsia opulenta). The recognition of the organisms associated with the system is essential in maintaining its equilibrium.
El-Serwy, S.A. 2001. Ecology, biology and natural enemies of the red-sriped soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a pest of sugarcane in Egypt. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt 79: 13-35. [ElSerw2001]
Notes: Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) has become an important pest on sugarcane in Egypt in recent years. Two sites in Middle Egypt, were sampled from August 1999 to July 2000. By early August, between 25%-47% of plants in old fields and 12%-16% in new fields were infested. By late September all the plants were infested with up to 110 adult females per leaf. Eight generations occurred during the year; a multiple correlation was found between temperature and relative humidity and the generation period. Each female produced 34-1191 progeny, but parasitism reduced fecundity by 39.2%, and development on heavily infested leaves reduced it by 15.3%. No discernable host effect on fecundity was found between females reared on sugarcane and on maize. Five hymenopterous parasitoids were identified attacking P. tenuivalvata: Coccophagus semicircularis (Foerster) (Aphelinidae); Metaphycus flavus (Howard), Microterys sp., Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky) and Diversinervus elegans Silvestri (Encyrtidae) emerging from adult females; the first three species were recorded also emerging from nymphs. Biological control could be retarded by multi- and polyparasitism, and by hyperparasitism by the Pachyneuron muscarum (Linnaeus) (Pteromalidae) and the encyrtid Cheiloneurus sp. Seven insect predators were recorded attacking the scales: Scymnus glivifrons Mulsant and Stethorus punctillum Wiese (Coccinellidae); Phaleria sp. (Phalacridae); Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Chrysopidae); Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Anthocoridae); Anatrachyntis rileyi (Walsingham) (Cosmopterigidae) and an unidentified Cecidomyiidae. Four predaceous mites were also recorded: Amblyseius swirski Athias-Henroit and Typhlodromus pelargonicus (Phytoseiidae); Agistemus exsertus Gonzaez (Stigmaeidae) and sp. (Anystidae). Cutting of the old infested fields and removal of other host grasses by March, and employment of crop rotation, were found to be useful cultural practices to control this pest.
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation. 2002. Ribes and Rubus crops. (In French;
Summary In English). Bulletin OEPP 32: 423-441. [EMPPO2002]
Notes: [Series: Good Plant Protection Practice.] The main pests listed for Ribes include Pulvinaria ribesiae. The damage is described and chemical control recommendations are made.
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation. 2002. Parasaissetia nigra. (In French; Summary
In English). Bulletin OEPP 32: 293-298. [EMPPO2002a]
Notes: [Series: Diagnostic Protocols for Regulated Pests.] Description, illustration, synonymy, comparisons to P. ficicola, P. litorea, P. nairobica, P. tsaratananae, Saissetia coffeae and S. oleae, instructions for slide mounting and key to species of genus are given.
Ewers, R. 2002. The influence of honeydew on arthropod community composition in a New Zealand beech forest.
New Zealand Journal of Ecology 26(1): 23-29. [Ewers2002]
Notes: The effect of honeydew density on arthropod community structure was investigated in the Nothofagus forest of Nelson Lakes National Park, New Zealand. Pitfall trapping revealed no community response to honeydew density, whereas sticky trapping showed the community composition of trunk-dwelling arthropods varied along a honeydew gradient. Mycetophilidae, Staphylinidae, Pteromalidae and Margarodidae were classified as high honeydew biased, while Diapriidae and Platygasteridae were non-honeydew biased. Arthropod distributions within a forest are not uniform, as a result of honeydew patchiness.
Ewing, B., Yandell, B.S., Barbieri, J.F., Luck, R.F. & Forster, L.D. 2002. Event-driven competing risks.
Ecological Modelling 158(1-2): 35-50. [EwingYaBa2002]
Notes: The California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) is a major pest of California citrus, with infestations causing growers significant financial losses. It has recently developed resistance to traditional insecticide sprays. An alternative suppression tactic is the release of a biological control agent, Aphytis melinus DeBach (Aphelinidae: Hymenoptera) that feeds on red scale. Although many aspects of the red scale-Aphytis interaction are now understood, it is difficult to differentiate the effects of temperature and population fluctuations in the field. To investigate such complex interactions, we propose a new stochastic modeling technique, based on event-driven competing risks, that incorporates details of life histories as well as the host-parasitoid interaction. Our continuous-time, individual-oriented modeling approach quantifies relationships among individuals and describes the resulting coupling between the interacting populations. The event-structured simulation drives time in contrast to the usual time-driven stochastic dynamic programming. Our system, developed in the public domain using the R statistical package, allows for different biological clocks, since both red scale and Aphytis development respond to temperature (degree-days) while searching female Aphytis follow a diurnal time schedule, contingent upon temperature-dependent egg maturation.
Feng, Y., Chen, X.M., Chen, Y., Wang, S.Y., Ye, S.D. & Wang, Z.L. 2001. Studies on the nutritive value and
food safety of Ericerus pela eggs. (In Chinese; Summary In English). Forest Research 14(3): 322-327.
Notes: The nutritive value and food safety of eggs of Ericerus pela were studied. Results showed that the eggs are rich in protein, amino acids, mineral elements and vitamins. There was 44.6% protein in eggs and 53.57% in egg shells. The amino acid contents were 33.16 and 50.53%, respectively. The food safety research showed that the insect eggs are non-toxic and did not cause mutation or deformity. It is concluded that eggs of E. pela are nutritious and safe for human consumption.
Ferreira Colen, K.G., Moraes, J.C., Santa Cecilia, L.V.C. & Bonetti Filho, R.Z. & Carnevale, A.B. 2001.
[Determination of injuries and damages of the mealybug [Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera:
Pseudococcidae) on pineapple).] Determinacao de injurias e danos da cochonilha pulverulenta Dysmicoccus
brevipes (Cockerell, 1893). (In Portuguese; Summary In English). Ciencia e Agrotecnologia 25(3): 525-532.
Notes: Pineapple cuttings of the cultivar Smooth Cayenne, planted in plastic pots were infected under field conditions with 0, 1, 5, 15 and 30 pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) per plant, with the objective to determine the injuries and damages this insect in terms of its density. The work was developed using a completely randomized design with four replications and five treatments. The results showed that mealybug reduced plant height as well as shoot and root weight. A population density of only 0.6 mealybug/plant was sufficient to transmit pineapple wilt.
Foldi, I. 2001. A world list of extant and fossil species of Margarodidae sensu lato (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). (In
English; Summary In French). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie 18(3): 195-231. [Foldi2001a]
Notes: Extant and fossil species of the scale insect family Margarodidae sensu lato known worldwide are listed. The list, based on world literature and Museum collection material, includes 83 genera (extants: 76, fossils: 7) and 459 species (extants: 439, fossils: 20). For each genus, the type species with its reference and synonyms is provided. The largest is Icerya, with 51 species distributed around the world, followed by Porphyrophora with 49 species in the Palaearctic, and Matsucoccus in the Holarctic region with 39 species. This research is part of a project to revise the classification and systematics of the family Margarodidae s.l..
Foldi, I. 2002. [Scale insects, aphids, whiteflies, and psyllids of the National Reserve of Camargue (Hemiptera,
Sternorrhyncha). Cochenilles, pucerons, aleurodes et psylles de la Réserve Nationale de Camargue (Hemiptera,
Sternorrhyncha). (In French; Summary In English). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 107(3): 243-251. [Foldi2002]
Notes: This paper provides a list with biological data of the species of scale insects, aphids, whiteflies and psyllids found in the National Reserve of Camargue, which is one of the largest reserves of wetland areas in Europe. Inventory of the species, study of their biology and analysis of their habitats contribute to improved management of these ecosystems and better conservation of their biological components. In various biotypes: forests, slopes of dams, edges of channels and roads, meadows, "sansouires", woods of Rièges and littoral dunes, 54 species of scale insects, 21 aphids, 9 whiteflies and 5 psyllids were collected. Four species of scale insects, Cupressaspis mediterranea (Diaspididae), Eriococcus pseudinsignis (Eriococcidae), Longicoccus psammophilus and Atrococcus luffi (Pseudococcidae) are new for the French fauna. The scale insects are primarily of Palearctic origin, mostly Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean, but a few are cosmopolitan. Salin-de-Badon is an area of the Reserve that contains the most Sternorrhyncha and grasses are the most common hosts.
Fontana, P. & Malagnini, V. 2002 (2001). A new species of the genus Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti, 1868
(Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) from the Italian peninsula: description and remarks on its life history. Bollettino
di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 111-123. [FontanMa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] A new species of coccoid, living on the roots of Gramineae, was found on Monte Sirino (Basilicata region, in southern Italy) and in Val Fondillo (Abruzzo region, in southern Italy). The new species, collected under stones or basal pats of Gramineae, is named L. pellizzariae sp. nov. The most obvious characters of the new species are the non-minaret-like shape of the last marginal seta of the first-instar, the presence of well-developed legs in the third-instar females and also, in comparison with other species of the genus Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti, 1968, the unusual increase in body size of the adult female, because of their feeding activity. All known life stages of L. pellizzariae sp. nov. live on stolons of Gramineae under stones. Young and small females are present in May while mature ones occur in June. Females feed on the host plant for the duration of their life cycle and enlarge in each life stage. Second instar females are present until the end of September; later, only second-instar males and third-instar females are present. These latter two life stages overwinter. Adult males, as well as pupal instars are unknown but second instar males are common.
Francis, F.J. & MacDougall, D.B. 2002. Food colorings 297-330 In: Colour in Food: Improving Quality.
Woodhead Publishing Co, Cambridge, U.K.. [FranciMa2002]
Notes: This chapter discusses the chemistry, applications, and safety of the wide variety of natural and synthetic colourants presently available. These colourants include cochineal and carmine.
Francis, F.J. & Watson, D.H. 2002. Colorants. Food Chemical Safety (Vol. 2): 173-206. [FranciWa2002]
Notes: This chapter discusses the chemistry, applications, and safety of the wide variety of natural and synthetic colourants available today. The colourants described include: cochineal and carmine.
Franco, J.C., Gross, S., Carvalho, C.J., Blumberg, D. & Mendel, Z. 2001. The citrus mealybug in citrus groves
in Israel, Portugal and California: Fruit injury and biological control as related to seasonal activity. Phytoparasitica
29: 86. [FrancoGrCa2001]
Notes: Planococcus citri is a key pest in the citrus orchards of Mediterranean countries, but ranks as an insect of only minor importance in California. It causes serious damage to varieties of grapefruit and pomelo in Israel and to naval oranges in Portugal. In southern California, high mealybug densities have been observed on naval and valencia oranges and grapefruit, but without causing significant fruit injury. Natural enemies discussed include Anagyrus pseudococcus, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Leptomastidea abnormus.
Franco, J.C., Russo, A., Suma, P., Silva, E.B., Dunkelblum, E. & Mendel, Z. 2002 (2001). Monitoring strategies
for the Citrus Mealybug in Citrus orchards. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 297-303. [FrancoRuSu2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The Citrus mealybug (CM), Planococcus citri, is a major pest in many citrus-growing areas. Sampling of CM prior to fruit colonization in the spring is difficult and presents an obstacle to CM management. Monitoring population densities is based on male capture using traps baited with female sex pheromones. In an attempt to establish the basis for a reliable monitoring of CM population, the correlation between male captures by pheromone traps and fruit infestation levels was simultaneously investigated in the Citrus orchards of Portugal, Israel, and Italy from 1999 to 2001. No significant linear relationship was found between male captures and fruit infestation at subplot level in all three countries, which suggests that the range of attraction of each pheromone trap extend further than the distance between the trap and neighbouring trees sampled for estimation of mealybug density. It is likely that the high flight activity and high mobility of the males render irrelevant the contribution of the male population to the total amount of male capture inside the subplots. At the orchard level, the diverse population density between plots allowed significant linear relationship in certain trapping periods between male capture and fruit infestation. Information on the level of male capture in spring or early summer by application of pheromone traps may be used to predict mealybug density or percentage of fruit infestation and consequently to assist in the decision making for the purpose of CM management.
Frey, J.E., Bosshard, E., Gafner, J., Heller, W., Hilber, M., Kellerhals, M., Ladner, J., Scharer, H.J. &
Theiler, R. 2002. [Molecular diagnostics in agriculture.] Molekulare Diagnostik in der Landwirtschaft. (In German;
Summary In French). Obst- und Weinbau 138(18): 469-473. [FreyBoGa2002]
Notes: At the 'Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt Wadenswil' (FAW), Switzerland, DNA marker-assisted selection is used in apple breeding to detect combined resistance against scab [Venturia inaequalis] and powdery mildew. In cherry breeding, a DNA marker for different sterility groups was found at the FAW. Molecular markers are used to find microsatellites in clones at the tissue culture level, thus identifying different apple or vine cultivars. For the identification of insects like scales (Quadraspidiotus) or trips, molecular markers are also used. Future FAW research will focus on micro array technology which can be used for simultaneous querying of species specific markers. This will enable the production of micro-array chips for taxonomic groups like bacteria or insects. Descriptions of pesticide resistance are another use for DNA markers, and examples are pyrethrum resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis and triazine resistance in Senecio vulgaris.
Gamzaev, I.M. 2002. Natural enemies of the California scale. (In Russian). Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii (No. 1):
Notes: Details are given of the biology of Chilocorus renipustulatus, C. lipustulatus, Exochomus quadripustulatus, Aphytis proclia and Prospaltella perniciosi, natural enemies of the California scale [Quadraspidiotus perniciosus] in fruit-growing areas of Dagestan, Russia.
Gantner, M. & Jaskiewicz, B. 2002. [Increasing attacks of prune scale on hazel plantations in south-eastern
Poland.] Wzrastajaca szkodliwosc misecznika sliwowego na plantacjach leszczyny w poludniowo-wschodniej
Polsce. (In Polish). Ochrona Roslin 46(6): 13-14. [GantneJa2002]
Notes: The increasing acreage of hazel [Corylus] plantations in Poland is attracting growing numbers of pests, including those belonging to the Homoptera (Diaspididae and Coccidae). The last is represented mainly by three species, Pulvinaria vitis, Parthenolecanium corni and Eulecanium tiliae. A survey of three different locations revealed the presence of all three scale species; some hazels were also attacked by Lepidosaphes ulmi. The life cycle and symptoms of the pests are briefly described and suitable insecticides, e.g. Owadofos 540 EC, Sumithion 500 EC [both fenitrothion formulations], are recommended for control.
Gantner, M. & Mehlenbacher, S.A. 2001. Occurrence of hazelnut pests in Southeastern Poland. Acta Horticulturae
No.556: 469-477. [GantneMe2001]
Notes: [Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Hazelnut, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, 27-31 August 2000. Acta-Horticulturae.] In Poland, the cultivation of large-fruited hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) is not common, but has gained popularity since the 1980s. The production area is constantly increasing and now hazelnut is grown on 1000 ha, mostly in southeastern Poland. Properly cultivated plantations give average yields of 1.5 to 2.0 or even up to 3.0 tons of hazelnuts per hectare. The aim of this research was to characterize the species composition of the fauna of hazelnut pests in three ecosystems formed by man to various degrees. Data was gathered at 14-day intervals during three growing seasons (1994-96) in three ecosystems: a protected hazelnut plantation, an unprotected plantation where no chemical treatment or horticultural techniques were applied, and on shrubs of common hazel in the forest. Ninety-one insect and mite species were found. The factors affecting the occurrence of hazelnut pests were environmental conditions, cultural practices and efficacy of chemical treatments. In the protected plantation, aphid species (Myzocallis coryli and Corylobium avellanae), scale insects (mostly Parthenolecanium corni) and mite species (mostly Phytoptus avellanae) occurred in the greatest number. In the unprotected plantation and on common hazel growing in forest, a greater number of pest species was found, including Operophtera brumata, Strophosoma capitatum [?Strophosomus capitatus], Haltica brevicollis [Altica brevicollis], Apoderus coryli and Deporaus betulae. Other factors that affect the occurrence of hazelnut pests in the three ecosystems are discussed and a list of all pests is included in this paper.
Gaulier, A., Menassieu, P., Hoguet, F. & Jactel, H. 2002 (2001). Towards a sylvicultural method of pest control
for Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, the Maritime pine bast scale (Hemiptera: Margarodidae). Bollettino di Zoologia
Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 455-465. [GaulieMeHo2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] M. feytaudi, a specific pest of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is spreading to the eastern part of its natural host area (southeastern France, Corsica, and northern Italy) where it has caused severe outbreaks. Due to the fact that no direct control method is available, studies have focused on preventive sylvicultural practices to reduce the damage at the stand level. Combining both population estimates and symptom occurrences, it was shown that both bark thickness and tree vigour are positively correlated with tree resistance. These results were used to identify the most resistant trees at the stand level developing a bidimensional threshold approach. The model was tested in stands where those that appear to be most susceptible were removed so as to reduce the host availability and slow epidemic development of the pest. Two years after the thinning, the population increase was significantly slowed down in the treated plots compared to the untreated plots. Further field tests are required to evaluate the long-term effect of selective thinning for the management of M. feytaudi.
Gaume, L. & McKey, D. 2002. How identity of the homopteran trophobiont affects sex allocation in a symbiotic
plant-ant: the proximate role of food. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 51(2): 197-205. [GaumeMc2002]
Notes: This paper provides evidence for the proximate role of food in sex allocation by an ant species, and demonstrates how identity of the homopteran partner affects benefits to colonies of a plant-symbiotic ant. The system studied includes a plant-ant that nests in swollen hollowed internodes of a myrmecophyte, and two species of homopteran trophobionts (a coccid and a pseudococcid) tended inside domatia by these ants, for which they are an essential source of food. Total investment in pupae was greater for ant colonies that tended solely or primarily coccids than for those that tended pseudococcids. In particular, biomass invested in sexuals increased more rapidly with size of the colony in trees where ants tended coccids. This greater investment in sexuals was not made at the expense of investment in workers, but reflected increased resources available to coccid-tending colonies. Higher reproductive output indicates that ant fitness may be greater when they tend coccids. These additional resources led to a greater increase in production of alate females than in that of males. Consequently, the sex investment ratio of coccid-tending colonies was more female biased than in those that tended pseudococcids. Differences in resource supply affected numbers of individuals produced but not per-individual investment, with one partial exception: in very small colonies, pseudococcid-tending colonies produced small workers while coccid-tending colonies did not, further underlining the higher resource supply to coccid-tending colonies. This study provides evidence for the proximate role played by food in sex allocation at the colony level. We discuss our results in the context of hypotheses aimed at explaining sex ratio at the colony and population levels.
Gautam, R.D. & Puri, S.N. 2002. An exciting experience with regard to sustainable management of pink mealybug.
87-99 In: Prasad, D. (Ed.), Crop Pest and Disease Management: Challenges for the Millenium. Jyoti Publishers,
Dehra Dun, India. [GautamPu2002]
Notes: Maconellicoccus hirsutus and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri are discussed.
Geiger, C.A. & Daane, K.M. 2001. Seasonal movement and distribution of the grape mealybug (Homoptera:
Pseudococcidae): Developing a sampling program for San Joaquin Valley vineyards. Journal of Economic
Entomology 94(1): 291-301. [GeigerDa2001]
Notes: The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), is an important pest of table grapes in California's San Joaquin Valley. The mealybug causes direct damage by infesting grape bunches, resulting in very low economic injury levels. To develop a sampling program to help growers predict damage and make control decisions, we destructively sampled six entire grapevines each month to determine mealybug abundance and within-vine distribution. These absolute counts were then used to evaluate several relative sampling methods: sticky tape barriers on canes, excised spur samples, standard-sized pieces of bark, timed counts, and nondestructive counts on spurs. At midseason we sampled additional vines to correlate mealybug numbers with economic damage at harvest. Finally, mealybug life stages and natural enemies were recorded throughout the study. Timed 5-min counts show the strongest correlation with total mealybug numbers, and a simple count of mealybugs on three spurs per vine at midseason is the best predictor of economic damage. Mealybugs completed approximate to 2.5 generations in 1998. Comparison to data on mealybug development suggests that exceptionally long growing seasons could exacerbate infestations by allowing the completion of a third generation. No mealybugs were found on bunches before early August, when second-generation crawlers moved out of the bark. Grape bunches that touched old wood had significantly higher damage and mealybug densities. The majority of mealybugs were always found in protected locations (under the bark of the trunk, spurs or canes), indicating the need for chemical or biological controls that can penetrate these refugia.
Geraud-Pouey, F., Chirinos, D.T., Aguirre, R., Bravo, Y. & Quintero, J.A. 2001. [Evaluation of Metaphycus sp.
(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as agent of natural control of Capulinia sp. near of jaboticabae von Ihering (Hemiptera:
Eriococcidae).] (In Spanish; Summary In English). Entomotropica 16(3): 165-171. [GeraudChAg2001]
Notes: [Original title: Evaluación de Metaphycus sp. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) como agente de control natural de Capulinia sp. cercana a jaboticabae von Ihering (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae).] In Venezuela, Capulinia sp. has become the most destructive pest on guava (Psidium guajava) since its appearance in 1993. By early 1996, parasitism of Capulinia sp. by Metaphycus sp. was detected. To evaluate such parasitism, an assay was conducted under field conditions in Mara County, State of Zulia, Venezuela, during March-May 1999. The following treatments were evaluated: T1, guava branches completely exposed; T2, branches closed into organza cages; and T3, branches into organza cages impregnated with insecticide. The populations of Capulinia sp. were counted and the percentage of parasitism was estimated. T1 gave the highest rate of parasitism (100%, P < 0.05) and the lowest Capulinia sp. population mean (12.70 individuals). On the other hand, resulted in the highest levels of Capulinia sp. (200.5 individuals) and gave a parasitism rate of 39.66%. Thus, Metaphycus sp. was considered as an important biological control agent of Capulinia sp. populations during this period.
Germain, J.-F. & Bertaux, F. 2002. [Aonidiella citrina has arrived in France.] Aonidiella citrina maintenant
présente en France. (In French; Summary In English). Phytoma No. 550: 49-51. [GermaiBe2002]
Notes: This new species of scale insect for France has been identified on orange and tangerine trees on the Côte d'Azur. Information on hosts, biology, morphology and phytosanitary risk is given.
Germain, J.F. 2002 (2001). Scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) from import interception in France (1997-2001).
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 504. [Germai2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] A list is given of the species of Coccoidea which have been intercepted on plants imported in France during the period 1997-2001, with data on host plants on which the insects were intercepted, country of origin and year of interception. Two notable species are Aulacaspis yasumatsui and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi. Other species mentioned include Aonidiella aurantii, Chrysomphalus aonidum, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, Delottococcus euphorbiae, Dysmicoccus multivorus, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Parasaissetia nigra and Planococcus citri.
Germain, J.F. 2002. [Aulacaspis yasumatusi Takagi: a risk for Cycas.] Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi: un risque
pour les Cycas. (In French). PHM Revue Horticole No. (440): 43-44. [Germai2002a]
Notes: Aulacaspis yasumatusi was observed in France for the first time during 2001, on Cycas revoluta and Cycas sp. Notes are given on the origin, host plants, characteristics and biology of this species. Damage and control are also discussed.
Ghabbour, M.W. & Hodgson, C.J. 2002 (2001). The immature stages of Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead)
(Hemiptera: Coccidae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 43-51. [GhabboHo2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The soft scale P. tenuivalvata was discovered in Egypt in 1992 and, within a few years, has become the major pest of sugarcane, especially in upper Egypt. This paper describes the first instar nymph and second and third instar female nymphs of this species and provides a key for their separation.
Giliomee, J.H. & Ben-Dov, Y. 2002 (2001). Interesting South African scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 227-231. [GiliomBe2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The South African scale insect fauna comprise a number of species that are very interesting from historical taxonomic or biological perspectives. Thus it has a species described by Linnaeus in 1763, species with peculiar characters that confuse taxonomists and five gall-inducers from five different scale insect families. It also has two species in the Diaspididae where the female lacks the typical "armour" of the family when it is found living in ant galleries on plants.
Golan, K. & Jaskiewicz, B. 2002. [Noxiousness and control of the juniper mealy bug, Planococcus vovae.]
Szkodliwosc i zwalczanie maczystka jalowcowego. (In Polish). Ochrona Roslin 46(6): 11-12. [GolanJa2002]
Notes: Uses of the common juniper, Juniperus communis, as an ornamental plant, herbal medicine and a source of spicy berries, are listed. In Poland, it has three main pests: Carulaspis juniperi, Insulaspis juniperi [Lepidosaphes juniperi] and Planococcus vovae - the last being the only representative of the mealybugs, Pseudococcidae. The mealybug can also attack other conifers, e. g. Chamaecyparis, Cupressocyparis, Cupressus, Libocedrus and Thuja. The life cycle of the bug is described and a number of suitable insecticides for its control is recommended, e. g. Actellic [pirimiphos-methyl] 500 EC, Ultracid [methidathion] 40 EC and others.
Golan, K., Lagowska, B. & Jaskiewicz, B. 2001. Scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) of the Kazimierz
Landscape Park in Poland. Fragmenta Faunistica 44: 229-249. [GolanLaJa2001]
Notes: 63 species, including 57 species that are new for that region and 9 species that are rare for the Polish fauna were found out in the material gathered during the research. Qualitative, quantitative and zoogeographical analyses of scale insects groups in various plant communities are discussed. The degree of the species composition in plant communities is determined.
Gonzalez, M., Mendez, J., Carnero, A., Lobo, M.G. & Afonso, A. 2002. Optimizing conditions for the extraction
of pigments in cochineals (Dactylopius coccus Costa) using response surface methodology. Journal of Agricultural
and Food Chemistry 50(24): 6968-6974. [GonzalMeCa2002]
Notes: A simple method was developed for the extraction and determination of color pigments in cochineals (Dactylopius coccus Costa). The procedure was based on the solvent extraction of pigments in insect samples using methanol:water (65:35, v:v) as extractant. Two-level factorial design was used in order to optimize the solvent extraction parameters: temperature, time, methanol concentration in the extractant mixture, and the number of extractions. The results suggest that the number of extractions is statistically the most significant factor. The separation and determination of the pigments was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection. Because the absorption spectra of different pigments are different in the visible region, it is convenient to use a diode array detector to obtain chromatographic profiles that allow for the characterization of the extracted pigments.
González, R.H. & Claps, L.E. 2002 (2001). A revision of the Diaspididae of Chile (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) with
descriptions of new genera and species. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 505.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] Aspidiotus riverae, Lepidosaphes espinosai and Melanaspis sitreana are transferred to the Protargionia Leonardi, Aonidomytilus Leonardi, and Acutaspis Ferris genera, respectively. Two new genera belonging to the Lepidosaphedini (Lepidosaphes diaspidiformis) and the Diaspidini (Pseudoparlatoria chilena) tribes are described, and a new species co-generic of P. chilina is described. Eight native species that are already known in Chile are listed: Abgrallaspis latastei, Aonidiella ensifera, Aspidiotus riverae, Diaspis chilenses, Lepidosaphes diaspidiformis, Lepidosaphes espinosai, Melanaspis sitreana and Pseudoparlatoria chilina.
Goolsby, J.A., Kirk, A.A. & Meyerdirk, D.E 2002. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of Maconellicoccus
hirsutus (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) in Australia. Florida Entomologist 85(3): 494-498. [GoolsbKiMe2002]
Notes: Foreign exploration for natural enemies of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, was conducted in Australia from 2000 to 2002. In Queensland, the predaceous beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, the predaceous drosophilid fly, Cacoxenus perspicax and the encrytid parasitoid Gyranusoidea indica were recovered. In Western Australia and the Northern Territory a predatory noctuid, Mataeomera sp., an aphelinid parasitoid Coccophagus sp., and a probable encyrtid hyperparasitoid, Coccidoctonus sp. were reared from M. hirsutus on a native Hibiscus species. A field study was conducted from February 2000 to March 2002 in Sherwood, Queensland to document the seasonal phenology of M. hirsutus in its native habitat on its preferred host, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Populations of the mealybug stayed at or below detectable levels for most of the study with minor population peaks in the summer months.
Granara de Willink, M.C. 2002. [A new species of Atriplicicoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Argentina.]
Una nueva especie de Atriplicicoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) en la Argentina. (In Spanish). Revista de la
Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 61(1-2): 51-55. [Granar2002]
Notes: Description, distribution, illustration and key to separate the new species and Atriplicicoccus tarapacanus Williams & Granara de Willink, new record for Argentina, are given.
Gross, S., Dunkelblum, E., Assael, F., Harel, M., Zada, A. & Mendel, Z. 2002 (2001). Characterization of the
performance of pheromone traps as a basis for the management of the Citrus Mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) in
Citrus groves. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 283-295. [GrossDuAs2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] We have studied the effect of basic trap parameters and trap activation on the efficiency of capture of the males of the Citrus mealybug P. citri. The number of males caught by pheromone-baited sticky traps was significantly affected by both size and type of trap. Generally, plate traps caught more males than delta traps, and large traps caught more males than the small ones. Significant dose response to sex pheromone in the range of 25-800 mg was observed as high as 100 mg. Overdose repellence was not observed even when lures containing 800 mg of the pheromone were used. Three types of rubber septa were tested: American, French, and Israeli dispensers. The tested doses were 200, 400, and 800 mg and the dispensers were subjected to ageing under ambient conditions for 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 days. The tested dispensers displayed a similar rate of release of the pheromone in the laboratory. However, these findings did not coincide with the level of male catch in the orchard. Traps baited with the French dispensers captured significantly fewer males than traps baited with the Israeli and American ones. There were no significant differences among the three tested dosages. The catches, using the American dispensers, were uniform during the four weeks of ageing. This pattern of male catch is expected to last longer if lures containing 400 mg or higher loads are to be used. Significantly more males were caught by the traps suspended inside the trees than by those suspended between the trees or by those put further away from the study plot. The capture by the former traps did not differ from the capture by traps installed on the outer canopy or inside the canopy of chlorpyrifos-treated trees. These findings suggest that the contribution of individual trees to the level of the catch of traps is insignificant. It is apparent that the male mealybugs fly toward the tree crown and only then start looking for the pheromone source. The results suggest that the abovementioned American dispensers fit both monitoring and mass trapping. High and continuous catches of males can be achieved using big plate traps baited with at least 200 mg of the pheromone and suspended inside the tree crown.
Guario, A. 2001. [Application of control strategy in organically grown olive.] Impiego di strategie di controllo
nell'oliveto biologico. (In Italian). Informatore Agrario 57(28): 75-86. [Guario2001]
Notes: Principles of biological control methods against insect pests and plant diseases of olive are discussed. Pests and diseases included Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Saissetia oleae, Otiorhynchus cribricollis, Palpita unionalis, Phloeotribus scarabaeiodes, Hylesinus oleiperda, Zeuzera pyrina, Spilocaea oleagina, Mycocentrospora cladosporioides and Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi.
Guario, A., Laccone, G., Alfarano, L., Albanese, M., Defeudis, G., Grosso, S. del, Germanio I. di., Falco, R.,
Mele, A., Milella, G. & Nasole, C. 2001. [Integrated control of olive from Saissetia oleae.] Strategie di intervento
secondo i regolamenti comunitari: difesa integrata dell'olivo dalla cocciniglia mezzo grano di pepe. (In Italian).
Informatore Agrario 57(31): 65-70. [GuarioLaAl2001]
Notes: [Additional authors are Papa, G. and Scalera, M.] Investigations were conducted in Italy during 1999-2000 to test the effect of buprofezin and white mineral oil on control of S. oleae during the period of maximum ova hatching. Recommendations are provided for the best time and technique of control agent application. The effect is considered of environmental factors, particularly, that of temperature on pest control.
Guirado, N., Sakai, E. & Ambrosano, E.J. 2001. [The evaluation of the effect of oil extracts of Azadirachta
indica seeds in the control of Orthezia praelonga in Pera orange trees.] Avaliaçao do efeito do oleo extraido de
semestes de O. indica no controle da cochonilha ortezia. (In Portuguese; Summary In English). Revista de
Agricultura Piracicaba 76(3): 401-409. [GuiradSaAm2001]
Notes: The effect of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) in the control of Orthezia praelonga in 13 year old Pera orange trees grafted on Rangpur lime, in the municipality of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, was evaluated in a study beginning July 2000. Four randomized blocks were used, with one tree plot including four treatments plus control. Treatments were 50 or 60 ml p.c. of neem oil/100 ml, and 500 or 1000 ml of neem oil/100 litres. The evaluation was carried out by counting the number of live female adults on two branches per tree, at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 days after treatment. Neem oil at the 1% concentration was efficient in the control of insects, with results similar to those of 150 ml of methidathion/100 litres. Further treatment is necessary after 30 days to control new invasions.
Gullan, P.J. & Cook, L.G. 2002 (2001). Phenacoleachia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Phenacoleachiidae) re-visited. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 163-173. [GullanCo2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The small and enigmatic family Phenacoleachiidae is of phylogenetic interest due to its combination of derived and ancestral features and its very restricted distribution in the southern hemisphere. Previous studies have placed it with the archaeococcoids (Margarodidae sensu lato and Ortheziidae) or near the mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). This study redescribes and illustrates the first-instar nymph of Phenacoleachia zealandica (Maskell) and reconsiders the relationships of Phenacoleachia as indicated by morphology and molecular data. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that Phenacoleachia is not closely related to the Pseudococcidae. The features that Phenacoleachia shares uniquely with Pseudococcidae either may be plesiomorphies that have been lost in more derived groups or may be convergent structures.
Gullan, P.J. & Miller, D.R. 2002. Do we need to change the rank of the higher taxa of scale insects (Hemiptera:
Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea? Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 215. [GullanMi2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] These authors maintain that the Homoptera (for a grouping of the Sternorrhyncha plus Auchenorrhyncha) should be abandoned because that taxon is paraphyletic and as such is an unnatural unit. Furthermore, coccidologists cannot decide this issue alone because of the repercussions for all other sternorrhynchans and for all other hemipterans, and it is unnecessary and undesirable to elevate the scale insects to suborder status. There is no justification for the scale insects to be an order in their own right. The higher classification of margarodids should be re-examined.
Hara, A.H., Yalemar, J.A., Jang, E.B. & Moy, J.H. 2002. Irradiation as a possible quarantine treatment for green
scale Coccus viridis (Green) (Homoptera : Coccidae). Postharvest Biology and Technology 25(3): 349-358.
Notes: The green scale, Coccus viridis (Green), can be controlled effectively by irradiation at a minimum absorbed dose of 250 Gy. Reproductive capacity of irradiated gravid adults was reduced greatly and any resulting offspring were not able to develop beyond the crawler stage. Development of nymphs to the adult stage was not arrested completely nor was development of immature stages eliminated, but all survivors were sterile. Generally, higher doses of irradiation (greater than or equal to 400 Gy) caused faster kill of all life stages than lower doses (250 Gy). At 250 Gy, there was prolonged survival of green scale, with 8.8-11.4% of nymphs and up to 8.8% of crawlers alive 3 months after irradiation; 100% mortality of the most resistant adult stage took longer than 20 weeks post-treatment. An absorbed dose of 500, 750 or 1000 Gy caused 100% mortality in all stages of the green scale by 7, 6, and 3 weeks post-treatment, respectively. Adults appeared to be more resistant to treatments greater than or equal to 500 Gy. Irradiation doses greater than or equal to 500 Gy killed crawlers by 3-5 weeks post-treatment and rendered nymphs and adult green scale sterile until their eventual death. When irradiated at 250 Gy, survival of non-infested gardenia plants and green scale-infested gardenia and coffee plants were reduced by 69, 56, and 18%, respectively, as compared with non-irradiated plants. Nonreversible, sublethal phytotoxicity included tip browning of young leaves, absence of new leaf growth in gardenia plants, failure to form new leaves in coffee plants, and eventual plant death. While irradiation at 250 Gy is sufficient to provide quarantine security for crops that are hosts of green scale, product quality will need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis since certain commodities, such as gardenia seedlings, have sustained phytotoxic effects.
Haseena, B., Viraktamath, C.A. & Bhaskar, H. 2002. Spatial distribution of mealybugs and Cryptolaemus
montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) in mango orchard. Insect and Environment 7(4): 184.
Hegyi, T. & Mezõ, G. 2002. [Protection of apricot.] A kajszi védelme. (In Hungarian). Növényvédelem 38(7): 355-370. [HegyiMe2002]
Notes: Species discussed include Diaspidiotus perniciosus and Pseudaulacaspis pentagona.
Helms, K.R. & Vinson, S.B. 2002. Widespread association of the invasive ant Solenopsis invicta with an invasive
mealybug. Ecology 83(9): 2425-2438. [HelmsVi2002]
Notes: Factors such as aggressiveness and adaptation to disturbed environments have been suggested as important characteristics of invasive ant species, but diet has rarely been considered. However, because invasive ants reach extraordinary densities at introduced locations, increased feeding efficiency or increased exploitation of new foods should be important in their success. Earlier studies suggest that honeydew produced by Homoptera (e.g., aphids, mealybugs, scale insects) may be important in the diet of the invasive ant species Solenopsis invicta. To determine if this is the case, we studied associations of S. invicta and Homoptera in east Texas and conducted a regional survey for such associations throughout the species' range in the southeast United States. In east Texas, we found that S. invicta tended Homoptera extensively and actively constructed shelters around them. The shelters housed a variety of Homoptera whose frequency differed according to either site location or season, presumably because of differences in host plant availability and temperature. Overall, we estimate that the honeydew produced in Homoptera shelters at study sites in east Texas could supply nearly one-half of the daily energetic requirements of an S. invicta colony. Of that, 70% may come from a single species of invasive Homoptera, the mealybug Antonina graminis. Homoptera shelters were also common at regional survey sites and A. graminis occurred in shelters at nine of 11 survey sites. A comparison of shelter densities at survey sites and in east Texas suggests that our results from east Texas could apply throughout the range of S. invicta in the southeast United States. Antonina graminis may be an exceptionally important nutritional resource for S. invicta in the southeast United States. While it remains largely unstudied, the tending of introduced or invasive Homoptera also appears important to other, and perhaps all, invasive ant species. Exploitative or mutually beneficial associations that occur between these insects may be an important, previously unrecognized factor promoting their success.
Heng-Moss, T.M., Baxendale, F.P. & Riordan, T.P. 2001. Interactions between the parasitoid Rhopus
nigroclavatus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and its mealybug hosts Tridiscus sporoboli (Cockerell) and
Trionymus sp. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Biological Control: Theory and Applications in Pest Management
22(3): 201-206. [HengMoBaRi2001]
Notes: This research investigated age-class-specific parasitism rates of the buffalograss mealybugs Tridiscus sporoboli (Cockerell) and Trionymus sp. by Rhopus nigroclavatus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera; Encyrtidae), size class preference of this parasitoid, and mealybug-parasitoid interactions through choice and no-choice studies. In the no-choice studies, the mean rates of parasitism by R. nigroclavatus were 45, 20, 0, and 0%, respectively, for mealybugs adult female, third and fourth instars, first and second instars, and eggs. Choice studies indicated that rate of parasitism increased with host size. The mean rates of parasitism on mealybugs in the choice studies were 100% for adult females, 24% for third and fourth instars, 0% for first and second instars, and 0% for eggs. A second set of choice studies investigating mealybug/parasitoid behavior revealed that R. nigroclavatus oviposits in all post-egg mealybug age classes, but first and second instars were less often parasitized than older mealybugs.
Hernandez, S.C., Martinez, M.Y., Insuasty, B.O., Gomez, L.L., Camacho, R.J. & Manrique, E.R. 2002.
[Effect of weeds control and nitrogenade fertilization on the mad ant population Paratrechina fulva (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae).] Efecto del control de malezas y la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la población de hormiga loca,
Paratrechina fulva. (In Spanish; Summary In English). Revista Colombiana de Entomología 28(1): 83-90.
Notes: On the Valley of Suarez River (Santander), the association between P. fulva with “sucker bug” has caused losses up to 3.000 millions pesos in the panelera production. This situation conduced some producers to make wrong handling of crops, raising the negative effects of the ant. The purpose of this research was to establish the P. fulva workers populational fluctuation under the effect of nitrogenade fertilization and low and intensive weed control in panelera cane crops, during 18th month. Besides, the ant population was tracked in low-disturbed vegetation areas. Finally, the sucker bugs associated with the ant were estimated and the sample methodologies of the P. fulva populations were compared. To estimate the P. fulva populations, pitfall traps with a bait (Frankfurter) were used. The infestation percentage of Saccharicoccus sacchari, Sipha flava, Melanaphis sacchari and Pulvinaria sp. was evaluated according to the location of species in the cane plant. It was determined that nitrogenade fertilization didn't influence in the fluctuation form of P. fulva population. At the same time, a higher abundance of the ant was determined under intensive weed control rather than the low weed control. In relation to “sucker bugs” evaluated, S. sacchari, established a mutualistic relationship with P. fulva, and finally, both sample methods reflected a similar populational fluctuation of P. fulva. These results contributed to the knowledge of environmental and ecological process, which influence the P. fulva population, and can be considered in a management proposal of the bug.
Hodges, G., Ruter, J.M. & Braman, S.K. 2001. Susceptibility of Ilex species, hybrids and cultivars to Florida wax
scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock). Journal of Environmental Horticulture 19(1): 32-36. [HodgesRuBr2001]
Notes: Susceptibility of 231 holly species, hybrids and cultivars to Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock) were evaluated on field grown plants in Tifton, Georgia, USA. Florida wax scale have two generations/year in this region. Population ratings on different parental lines were grouped as either low populations ( < 10 scales/60 second count), moderate populations (11-20 scales/60 second count), high populations (21-40 scales/60 second count) and very high populations ( > 40 scales/60 second count). Taxa from the study rated as being least preferred (low populations) by the Florida wax scale included those with I. crenata, I. buergeri, I. glabra, I. myrtifolia, I. verticillata and I. vomitoria within parental lines. Those prone to heavy infestations were I. aquifolium, x I. attenuata, I. cassine, I. ciliospinosa, I. Cornuta. x I. koehneana, I. latifolia x I. meserveae, I. opaca, I. purpurea, I. rugosa and I. serrata. Other scale insects noted on the hollies included: Barnacle wax scale (Ceroplastes cirripediformis Comstock), Indian wax scale (Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius), European fruit lecanium (Parthenolecanium corni Bouche), Brown soft scale (Coccus hesperidum Linneaus), Tea scale (Fiornia theae Green), Latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae (Sign.)), and a pit scale (Asterolecanium puteanum Russell).
Hodges, G.S. & Howell, J.O. 2002. A new species of Aclerda from Georgia (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Aclerdidae).
Journal of Entomological Science 37(1): 113-117. [HodgesHo2002]
Notes: The adult female and first instar of Aclerda smithii, n. sp., are described and illustrated from specimens collected from Sporobolus sp. in Tattnal Co., Georgia. The new species is most closely aligned with Aclerda obscura (Parrot) but can be differentiated by differences in the antennae and in body shape. A revised key is provided to distinguish it from closely related species.
Hodges, G.S. & Howell, J.O. 2002. Descriptions and illustrations of the first instar of Diaspis boisduvalli Signoret
(Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Journal of Entomological Science 37(1): 118-123. [HodgesHo2002a]
Notes: The immature stages of many representatives of the Diaspididae have not been studied in detail. This work adds to the current knowledge by providing descriptions and illustrations for the male and female first-instar nymphs of Diaspis boisduvalli Signoret. Examination of the first instars indicated that the species followed similar patterns that were exhibited by D. echinocacti and D. bromeliae. Differences between D. boisduvalli and the other species included number of microducts on dorsum and differences in the pygidium.
Hodgson, C. & Matile Ferrero, D. 2002. A new genus and two new species of soft scale off guava (Psidium
guajava) in Peruvian Amazonia (Hemiptera, Coccidae). Revue Française d'Entomologie 24(2)(n.s.): 109-116.
Notes: A new species of Alichtensia Cockerell, 1902, A. couteri sp. n., living on guava trees in Amazonian Peru is described and illustrated based on an adult female. To distinguish it from other species of the genus, a complement to the key of Granara de Willinck is proposed. In addition, another new species living on guava trees and belonging to a new genus, Pharangococcus iquitosensis n. gen. n. sp., is proposed. It is also described and illustrated based on an adult female. The specimens, captured several times in the same place on the same host during different seasons, exhibit certain morphological differences, but nevertheless are considered to be seasonal forms of the same species.
Hodgson, C.J. 2002 (2001). Preliminary phylogeny of some non-margarodid Coccoidea (Hemiptera) based on adult
male characters. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 129-137. [Hodgso2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] A series of phylogenetic analyses was undertaken using 144 characters from macropterous males of 94 taxa in 16 families of nonmargarodid Coccoidea, with Ortheziidae as outgroup. The results are presented and discussed. Although there is good bootstrap support for most of the traditional family groupings, support for interfamily relationships is poor or absent. However, in almost all trees, the Stictococcidae were sister to the Beesoniidae, the Conchaspididae were sister to the Diaspididae and the Aclerdidae were sister to the Coccidae, although there is no bootstrap support for this last grouping. The Pseudococcidae and Eriococcidae were never monophyletic. The analyses also suggested that Puto and Phenacoleachia might be closely related.
Hodgson, C.J. & Millar, I.M. 2002. A new subfamily, two new genera and three new species of Aclerdidae
(Hemiptera : Coccoidea) from southern Africa, with a phylogenetic analysis of relationships. Systematic Entomology
27(4): 469-517. [HodgsoMi2002IM]
Notes: A new aclerdid genus, Lecanaclerda Hodgson & Millar, closely related to Aclerda but with fully developed legs and antennae, is introduced for a new new species, L. macropoda Hodgson & Millar, for which the male and female are described. In addition, genus Rhodesaclerda McConnell is revised and all known stages of existing species, R. combreticola McConnell and R. halli McConnell, are redescribed. The crawler, second-instar female, pupa and the adult male and female of a new species, R. insleyae Hodgson & Millar, from South Africa are also described. Another new genus, Kwazulaclerda Hodgson & Millar, close to Rhodesaclerda, is introduced and the crawler, second-instar female, second-instar male, pupa and adult male and female of the new species K. loranthi Hodgson & Millar from Kwazulu-Natal are described. A phylogenetic analysis based on adult macropterous male characters was undertaken to look at the relationships of these species with other Coccoidea. It is concluded that Lecanaclerda is closely related to Aclerda, Kwazulaclerda is closely related to Rhodesaclerda, Kwazulaclerda and Rhodesaclerda belong to Aclerdidae, and Aclerdidae should be split into two subfamilies, Rhodesaclerdinae Hodgson & Millar (to include Rhodesaclerda and Kwazulaclerda) and Aclerdinae Cockerell (to include Aclerda, Lecanaclerda and Nipponaclerda). These two subfamilies are diagnosed and a key is given for the separation of the genera now included in Aclerdidae. The relationships of Aclerdidae and Coccidae are discussed.
Hodgson, C.J. & Miller, D.R. 2002. A new genus and two new species of felt scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea:
Eriococcidae) from Chile, with comments on zoogeographical affinities between the eriococcid faunas of southern
South America and New Zealand. Systematic Entomology 27(2): 191-209. [HodgsoMi2002]
Notes: A new eriococcid genus (Chilechiton Hodgson & Miller) and the adult female, second-instar female and First-instar nymphs of two new species of Eriococcidae (Chilechiton lynnae on Nothofagus and Icelococcus lithreae on Lithraea) are described. Chilechiton is closely related to the New Zealand genus Eriochiton Maskell in tribe Eriochitonini, previously considered to be restricted to New Zealand. A phylogenetic analysis was undertaken to investigate the relationships of the Chilean and New Zealand eriococcid genera included in the study, the systematic boundaries of Eriochitonini and the relationship of Coccidae to Eriochitonini. The study suggests that the Chilean eriococcid fauna is closely related to that in New Zealand, Eriochitonini should be enlarged to include C. lynnae, genus Eriococcus is polyphyletic, Eriococcidae is monophyletic, and Coccidae and Eriococcidae are not closely related.
Hoffmann, J.H., Impson, FAC. & Volchansky, C.R. 2002. Biological control of cactus weeds: implications of
hybridization between control agent biotypes. Journal of Applied Ecology 39(6): 900-908. [HoffmaImVo2002]
Notes: 1. Results of recent research on Dactylopius opuntiae, a biological control agent for cactus weeds (Opuntia spp.) in South Africa and elsewhere, challenge the maxim that genetic diversity of agents necessarily enhances the chances of success in biological weed control. 2. Two biotypes of D. opuntiae, each specific to a different Opuntia species, interbred freely, at least under insectary conditions. We therefore carried out cross-breeding experiments to determine the viability and host-preferences of progeny produced by these crosses. 3. Unlike their parents, F-1 hybrids were not species-specific, developing equally well on either of the parental hosts, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta. The situation was more complex in F-2 back-crosses between hybrids and in crosses between parent strains and hybrids because male cochineal insects contributed only maternally inherited genes to their progeny, due to their unusual haploid-diploid (lecanoid) mechanism of sex determination. Some F-2 combinations produced cohorts of progeny that were either entirely true-bred (i.e. host-specific) or entirely hybrid (i.e. not host-specific) genotypes, while other combinations produced groups of siblings with some individuals (theoretically half) that were true-bred genotypes and the balance were hybrid genotypes. 4. The lack of host-specificity of hybrids should enhance overall biological control of the target species directly, because hybrids attack both host-plants, and indirectly, because hybrid nymphs have greater chances of finding a suitable host-during passive dispersal. However, this advantage will be negated when F-2 crosses produce host-specific nymphs on host-plants that are incompatible for their survival. 5. These findings show that only pure strains of D. opuntiae should be released in monocultures of the target weeds. More generally, they caution that the possible consequences of mixing genotypes of a biological control agent species should be investigated before different provenances are amalgamated to enhance genetic diversity.
Holman, J. 2002. [The natural enemies of San José scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Coms) from the order
Hymenoptera in the Czech Republic.] Prirozeni nepratele stitenky zhoubne (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Coms) z
radu blanokridlych (Hymenoptera) v Ceske Republice. (In Czech; Summary In English). Acta Universitatis
Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 50(3): 41-54. [Holman2002]
Notes: Field surveys were conducted from 1998 to 2001 to identify the natural enemies of San Jose scale, Q. perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus], in the Czech Republic. Eight Hymenopteran species were identified as parasitoids of Q. perniciosus. Of these, Aphytis proclia and Prospaltella perniciosi [Encarsia perniciosi] accounted for 67.37 and 30.47% of the total number of Hymenopteran parasitoids, respectively, both of which have not been introduced to the Czech Republic. The other Hymenopteran parasitoids were Aphytis mytilaspidis, Parvulinus aurantii [Alaptus aurantii], Thysanus ater, Azotus celsus, Pteroptrix dimidiata and Physcus testaceus [Coccobius annulicornis]. In addition, 6 species from the family Encyrtidae were also identified. Aphytis proclia was found to be dominant in all other scales (Epidiaspis leperii, Q. pyri [D. pyri], Chionaspis salicis and Lepidosaphes ulmi), but few individuals of Aphytis mytilaspidis and some individuals of Encyrtidae were also noted.
Holtz, B.A. 2002. Plant protection for pistachio. HortTechnology 12(4): 626-632. [Holtz2002]
Notes: Pistachio (Pistacia vera) was successfully introduced into California (USA) and initially touted as a tree nut crop with no disease or insect pests. Unfortunately, these expectations were dashed as a number of diseases and pests followed commercial plantings, making plant protection practices integral to production. Among the problems discussed are soft scale pests.
Horvat, A. 2001. [Calypso: insecticide -- harmless to bees -- is opening new horizons in crop protection.] Calypso --
za cebele nenevaren insekticid, ki odpira nove horizonte v varstvu rastlin. (In Slovenian; Summary In English).
Proceedings of the 5th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection 367-370. [Horvat2001]
Notes: Calypso is a new insecticide by Bayer AG. Tiacloprid is a systemic ingredient chemically related to imidacloprid, our first compound in the group of the chloronicotinyls. It performs well against a variety of pests including mealybugs. Calypso is well tolerated by bees and bumble bees even when applications were carried out before, during or after flowering. It exhibits high efficacy, low application rate, long-lasting activity, low toxicity, good toxicological properties regarding environment and low toxicity to warm-blooded animals and is receommended for integrated production and antiresistance.
Hountondji, F.C.C., Yaninek, J.S., De Moraes, G.J. & Oduor, G.I. 2002. Host specificity of the cassava green
mite pathogen Neozygites floridana. Biocontrol Dordecht 47(1): 61-66. [HountoYaDe2002]
Notes: Tests were conducted on the host specificity of a Brazilian isolate of the fungus Neozygites floridana, a potential biological control agent for the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, in Africa. Five insect and two mite species, mostly from the cassava agroecosystem, were evaluated for susceptibility to N. floridana, including Phenacoccus herreni. Individuals of each species were exposed to capilliconidia (the infective stage of the fungus). None of the tested individuals was found with hyphal bodies (the vegetative stage of the fungus), whereas 73 to 94% of the cassava green mites in the controls became infected. However, non-germinated capilliconidia were found attached to several individuals in most species. N. floridana appears to be safe for exportation. Further evaluation of its performance against M. tanajoa in Africa is therefore desirable.
Huang, B.H., Wang, B. & Yu, B.Y. 2002. [Bionomics of Chilocorus rubidus.] (In Chinese; Summary In English).
Entomological Knowledge 39(2): 126-129. [HuangWaYu2002]
Notes: C. rubidus takes one year to complete its life cycle. The adult overwinters in habitats including weeds and it is an important natural enemy of Didesmococcus koreanus. C. rubidus mainly occurs in peach and plum trees, and suppresses the population of D. koreanus efficiently. Up to 8 D. koreanus daily are preyed upon by a C. rubidus larva. The functional response of its second instar larvae to D. koreanus fits the Holling II model.
Huang, K.Z., Shao, X.P., Jin, X.H., Zhao, B.A. & Lang, Y.S. 2001. [Analysis of the efficiency of engineering
management of Japanese Matsucoccus sp.] (In Chinese). Plant Protection 27(2): 37-38. [HuangShJi2001]
Notes: Integrated management on Japanese Matsucoccus sp. was carried out in forests of 18,900 ha in Zhejiang, China, in 1996-98, including application of chemicals in May and September each year, altering forest composition, felling to thin stands and forbidding felling. After these management practices were carried out, the scale population decreased by 67%, from 0.95 individuals/m2 to 0.35 individuals/m2.
Huang, S.H., Wong, C.Y. & Cheng, C.H. 2002. [A newly recorded insect pest, pink pineapple mealybug
(Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell)) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), infesting the roots of peanut in Taiwan.] (In
Chinese). Plant Protection Bulletin (Taichung) 44(2): 141-146. [HuangWoCh2002]
Notes: The pink pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), had been known as an important insect pest of pineapple and banana in Taiwan. Recently, it was discovered infesting the basal part and roots of some peanuts in a field nearby a pineapple plantation. The infested plants showed leaves yellowing, wilting, and the growth was noticably retarded. The synonymy, morphological characteristics, comparisons to allied species, and the host plants of the pest were reviewed in this paper.
Itakura, Y., Ozeki, N., Oka, H., Ito, Y., Ueno, E., Goto, T., Hayashi, T., Ohno, H., Sasaki, Y. & Mukoyama,
M. 2002. A reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography/scanning densitometric method for the analysis of red
cabbage color in food. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Techniques 25(8): 1283-1294.
Notes: [Additional authors are Matsumoto, H. and Nagase, H.] A technique for the analysis of red cabbage color using reversed-phase TLC and scanning densitometry is described. The technique involves the following three steps: 1) clean up of the color with a C18 cartridge, 2) separation of the colors on the reversed-phase C18-TLC using acetonitrile -0.2 mol/L trifluoroacetic acid (1:2) as the solvent system, and 3) measurement of visible absorption spectra of the color using scanning densitometry without isolation of the color. In order to investigate the capability of the present method, 45 commercial foods were analyzed, and their chromatographic behaviors and spectra were observed. The obtained separation and the spectra were not affected by coexisting substances, including grape skin color, elderberry color, perilla color, and cochineal color in the foods, and the spots always gave the same Rf values and spectra as the standards with good reproducibility. The present method is considered to be useful for the rapid analysis of red cabbage color in foods.
Izquierdo, I., Martín, J.L., Zurita, N. & Arechavaleta, M. (Eds.) 2001. (In Spanish). [List of wild species from
the Canaries (mushrooms, plants and land animals).] Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente Gobierno
de Canarias, Tenerife. 437 pp. [IzquieMaZu2001]
Notes: [Original title: Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (Hongos, plantas y animales terrestres).]
Jalaluddin, S.M., Sadakathulla, S. & Manuel, W.W. 2001. New record of yellow hard scale Aspidiotus
destructor Sign. (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on betelvine. Entomon 26(3-4): 347-348. [JalaluSaMa2001]
Notes: The circular hard scale Aspidiotus destructor Sign. was recorded on betelvine and it was reported for the first time in India.
Jamieson, L.E., Dobson, S., Cave, J. & Stevens, P.S. 2002. A survey of armoured scale insects on kiwifruit shelter.
New Zealand Plant Protection 55: 354-360. [JamiesDoCa2002]
Notes: [The 53rd Conference Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Society held in Rotorua, 12-15 August 2002. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/proceedings/02/02_354.pdf] Scale infested kiwifruit continues to be a problem despite regular monitoring and spraying. Shelterbelt trees may be a source of scale insect infestations in kiwifruit vines. A survey of armoured scale insects in 12 common species of shelterbelt trees used in kiwifruit orchards was carried out. Bark samples were removed and the density of scale insects and species composition was determined. Japanese cedar as a shelterbelt species is unlikely to be a significant host for scale insects whereas Balsam poplar, willow and leyland cypress were more likely to host high populations. Shelterbelts in Northland, Auckland and Gisborne generally had higher levels of scale insects than the same species in the Bay of Plenty and Nelson. Greedy or latania scale (Hemiberlesia spp.) was found more frequently than oleander scale (Aspidiotus nerii).
Jansen, M.G.M. 2002 (2001). Instar identification and some notes about the life cycle of Rhizoecus hibisci Kawai
& Takagi (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 53-66.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The root mealybug R. hibisci is regularly intercepted in The Netherlands on bonsai-trees originating from China. The main host of this quarantine organism is Serissa sp. but it has been found on other plant species as well. Observations on a single specimen on Serissa plants in a container showed that one generation at 21̊C lasts two months starting from the beginning of the first stage whereas on Nerium at the same temperature its life cycle is much longer. Males may be present but single female specimens can reproduce parthenogenetically. Examination of slide mounted specimens of mixed stage populations showed the existence of three larval instars. The number of dorsal abdominal ducts, the number of trilocular pores and the number of setae on the posterior margin of the posterior ostiole, appeared to be some of the most important discriminating characters.
Japoshvili, G. 2002 (2001). Coccoid pests of plantings and the role of parasitoids in their number regulation in
Tbilisi. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 467-471. [Japosh2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The economic importance of chalcid parasitoids in the regulation of 17 coccoid species in Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia, has been established through investigations carried out during 1994-2000. As a result of previous investigations, it was found that the most significant coccoid pests in Tbilisi were: Planococcus ficus, Phenacoccus mespili, Neopulvinaria innumerabilis, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, Parthenolecanium corni, Ceroplastes japonicus, Leucaspis pusilla, and Parlatoria oleae. Parasitoids play an important role in the suppression of the populations of some coccoids and include such chalcids as Microterys clauseni -- parasitoid of Ceroplastes japonicus, Coccobius sp. aff. kurbani -- parasitoid of Adiscodiaspis tamaricicola, Encarsia leucaspidis -- parasitoid of Leucaspis pusilla, and L. loewi, Blastothrix longipennis -- parasitoid of Parthenolecanium corni, Microterys hortulanus, Discodes coccophagus, and Coccophagus lycimnia -- all parasitoids of Sphaerolecanium prunastri.
Jayanthi, R. & Goud, Y.S. 2002. Phenolic content in sugarcane stem as related to infestation by Coccoids. Indian
Journal of Agricultural Research 35(3): 198-201. [JayantGo2002]
Notes: Sugarcane cultivars CoC 671, Q 63, Co 6806, Co 740, Co 6501 and G 229 were evaluated for phenolic content at harvest in relation to infestation by Melanaspis glomerata and Saccharicoccus sacchari. Cultivars Q 63 and Co 6501, categorized as being lightly infested by both pests, showed higher quantities of phenols compared to other cultivars that were heavily infested.
Jeyarani, S. & Velusamy, R. 2002. [Genetic evaluation for resistance to rice mealy bug in plant hopper resistant
rice varieties.] Journal of Ecobiology 14(1): 51-56. [JeyaraVe2002]
Notes: Resistance to rice mealybug, Brevennia rehi Lindinger, was evaluated in rice varieties possessing diverse genes for resistance to planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) and Sogatella furcifera (Horvath). Distinct differences in the levels of mealybug resistance were observed in "Seedbox screening technique". Detailed studies with selected rice varieties revealed that antibiosis was the major modality of resistance mechanism involved in B. rehi resistance. B. rehi caged on resistant varieties had slow nymphal development, reduced adult longevity, low fecundity and significant reduction in egg hatchability.
Jhansi, K. & Babu, P.R. 2002. Judicious use of agronomical practice and insecticides in management of sugarcane
scale, Melanaspis glomerata (Green). Indian Sugar 51(9): 615-618. [JhansiBa2002]
Notes: A field experiment was conducted during 1996-97 and 1997-98 in Vuyyuru, Andhra Pradesh, India. The main treatments comprised no detrashing, detrashing once (July) or detrashing twice (July and September). The sub-treatments consisted of spraying with 0.1% malathion, 0.03% dimethoate or 0.05% chlorpyrifos and a control. The interaction between detrashing and chemicals was significant.The treatments did not significantly affect juice sucrose percentage.
Jia, K.F. 2001. [Occurrence and control of chestnut trunk pest insects.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Forest
Pest and Disease 20(6): 32-34. [Jia2001]
Notes: The occurrence and control of insect pests in chestnut trunks were investigated during 1998-2000 in Zhejiang, China. The damage caused by Kermes nawae, Neoasterodiaspis castanae, Urostylis yangi, bark longicorn beetles, Zeuzera coffeae and Aegeriamog doceps are described. Control methods, such as forecast, silvicultural and chemical measures, yielded beneficial effects.
Jia, X.Y., Ma, G.Y., Wang, L.G., Liang, W. & Wen, H. 2001. [Integrated control of walnut pests.] (In Chinese).
China Fruits No. 1: 39-40. [JiaMaWa2001]
Notes: Since 1990, the integrated control of walnut pests has been practised in Lulong county, the leading walnut producing area of Hebei province. The main pests in the area are Cnidocampa flavescens, Atrijuglans hetaohei, Botocera horsjieldii [Batocera horsfieldi] and Drosicha corpulenta. Trials showed that integrated control should include: (1) dusting 25% parathion in micro-capsule form or 5% phoxim on the ground before the soil freezes in winter; (2) painting a mixed solution of 1 kg 40% omethoate + 5 kg mineral oil; (3) spraying a 300-times solution of BT [Bacillus thuringiensis] or a 2000-times solution of 20% fenpropathrin from mid February to mid March for control Drosicha corpulenta nymphs and from mid June to early July for control of Atrijuglans hetaohei.
Jiang, G.Z. 2002. [A new species of genus Formosaspis (Homoptera: Diaspididae) from China.] (In Chinese;
Summary In English). Entomotaxonomia 24(2): 99-102. [Jiang2002]
Notes: Three species of Formosaspis on bamboo have been recorded from China, i.e. F. formosana collected from Taiwan, F. nigra collected from Hongkong and F. stegana collected from Yunnan Province. A new species collected on bamboo, i.e. F. wanglangensis is described.
Jiao, Y. & Zhao, P. 2001. [On the bionomics of Tetrastichus kodaikanalensis Saraswat (Hymenoptera:
Eulophidae).] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Acta Phytophylacica Sinica 28(4): 335-339. [JiaoZh2001]
Notes: Experiments show that the hyperparasitization of third and fourth generation of T. kodaikanalensis on M. ericeri parasitizing female and male white wax scale, Ericerus pela, was 48.78 and 54.66%, and 56.66 and 64.71%, respectively, while hyperparasitization of the fifth generation of T. kodaikanalensis was 76.00%.
Karaca, I., Uygun, N., Elekcioglu, N.Z. & Senal, D. 2002 (2001). Population development of Aonidiella aurantii
(Maskell) and Parlatoria pergandii Comstock (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Cukurova Region of Turkey. Bollettino
di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 313-317. [KaracaUyEl2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] This study was carried out in a Citrus (cv. Valencia) orchard in Adana, Turkey, in 1990-95, to investigate the population fluctuations of two scale insects, Aonidiella aurantii and P. pergandii, and their parasitoid Aphytis melinus. Live and parasitized specimens of both species were counted on 50 randomly selected leaves. Sampling was carried out biweekly between May and October and monthly during the remainder of the year. It was found that the population of Aonidiella aurantii was always lower than that of P. pergandii. Average numbers per leaf of P. pergandii and Aonidiella aurantii were 9.91 and 2.68, respectively. Populations of two scale insects and their parasitoid fluctuated together. Under the reducing effect of the parasitoid, population levels of the two scale insects always remained low. The parasitization rate of Aonidiella aurantii was almost always higher than that of P. pergandii, during the study. Average parasitization rate of Aonidiella aurantii was 35.79%, while that of P. pergandii was 27.11%.
Karsavuran, Y., Aksit, T. & Erkilic, L.B. 2002 (2001). Coccoidea species on fruit trees and ornamentals from
Aydin and Izmir provinces of Turkey. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 219-225.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Scale insects (Coccoidea) on fruit trees and non-crop plants growing near orchards were surveyed in the Aydin and Izmir provinces of Turkey during 1996-2000. The family best represented was the Diaspididae (18 species); most of these species were of economic importance in fruit-growing ecosystems. The Coccidae (7 species) were also well represented. Pseudococcidae (3 species), Margarodidae and Asterolecaniidae (2 species each), and Cerococcidae (1 species) also were collected. The distribution, frequency, and economic importance of these species discussed.
Kaydan, M.B., Kozár, F. & Yasar, B. 2002. Three new Rhizopulvinaria species (Homoptera: Coccoidea:
Coccidae) for scale insect fauna of Turkey. (In English; Summary In Turkish). Turkish Journal of Zoology 26: 301-304. [KaydanKoYa2002]
Notes: Rhizopulvinaria pyrethri, R. turkestanica and R. viridis were identified on wild flora in eastern Anatolia in 1997. They are all new records for the Turkish scale insect fauna.
Kaydan, M.B., Ülgentürk, S., Toros, S. & Kozár, F. 2002 (2001). Scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of
natural and agriculture areas in Kapadokya, Turkey. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3):
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Wild and cultivated plants were surveyed in the Kapadokya region of Turkey in 1999, and samples of 23 species were collected. Eleven species new to the Turkish Scale insect fauna were recorded, namely: Acanthopulvinaria orientalis, Atrococcus paludinus, Duplachionaspis noaeae, Eriococcus thymi [Acanthococcus thymi], Heliococcus radicicola, Phenacoccus bicerarius, P. hordei, P. pumilus, Pulvinaria terrestris, Rhizopulvinaria spinifera, and Scytia craniumequinum.
Kemabonta, K.A. & Odebiyi, J.A. 2001. Development, survival and fecundity of Rastrococcus invadens
(Williams) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) on four host plants. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research 9(1-4):
Notes: Comparative developmental and reproductive biology of R. invadens on Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus sp. (ficus), Plumaria sp. (frangipani) and Citrus sp. (citrus) showed that the time of R. invadens development was influenced by the host plant. Mango-fed nymphs exhibited the highest survival and the shortest developmental period (21 and 24 days for female and male, respectively) while the development of citrus-fed nymphs was the longest (26 and 24 days). Based on the shortest development (23.5 days) and the lowest intrinsic rate of increase (r) mango plant appeared to be the most preferred host for R. invadens. The value of (r) on all the host plants was positive.
Kerzhner, I. & Danzig, E. 2002 (2001). Hemiptera, Homoptera, Sternorrhyncha. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e
di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 217-218. [KerzhnDa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The Hemiptera are traditionally divided into Homoptera and Heteroptera. Both latter names are widely known. Some specialists consider these two groups as suborders of Hemiptera and numerous others as separate orders. Thus, the use of Homoptera in titles can be recommended, as the name is widely known and more informative than Hemiptera. An analysis of publications on scale insects in 1998 and 2001 shows that 2/3 to 3/4 of coccidologists prefer Homoptera rather than Hemiptera in the titles. The name Sternorrhyncha is known only to specialists and should be avoided.
Kindlmann, P. & Dixon, A.F.G. 2001. When and why top-down regulation fails in arthropod predator-prey
systems. (In English; Summary In German). Basic and Applied Ecology 2(4): 333-340. [KindlmDi2001]
Notes: The existence of top-down regulation in predator-prey models is a result of the functional and numerical responses included in the model. Examples are given of arthropod predator-prey systems where functional and numerical responses may be irrelevant for the system dynamics, or relevant for only a part of the population. It is argued that there are advantages in using a patch dynamics approach, when describing the feeding and oviposition behaviour of adult predators. This leads to predictions that in arthropod predator-prey systems, in which the predator has a long generation time relative to that of its prey, predator reproduction should be correlated with the age of a prey patch rather than the number of prey present, and top-down regulation does not occur. The predictions are tested against data for various species of aphids, coccids, mites, mosquitoes and their predators and the effectiveness of different species in biological control.
Klatt, J. & Nennmann, H. 2002. [Biological control measures in ornamentals in Westfalen-Lippe.] Biologische
Pflanzenschutzverfahren bei Zierpflanzen in Gartenbaubetrieben in Westfalen-Lippe. (In German; Summary In
English). Gesunde Pflanzen 54(3-4): 111-118. [KlattNe2002]
Notes: Since 1997, the plant protection service of Westfalen-Lippe, Germany has regularly carried out projects on biological control in ornamentals in close cooperation with nurseries. Priorities are setup in the control of Thysanoptera, especially Frankliniella occidentalis, as well as white flies, fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) and mealybugs. In the biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis the predators are released only twice, but in large numbers, during the cultivation of the plants. This differs from the usually recommended procedure. With this method a population of predatory mites can establish on the plants, thus increasing their efficacy enormously. In the meantime, this method has been accepted in the horticultural practice as "Munsteraner Konzept". Entomopathogenic nematodes, predatory mites of the genus Hypoaspis and preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis have proven to be suitable in practice as antagonists of fungus gnats. The increasing occurrence of the cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci on poinsettias and the loss of efficacy of insecticides enhances the importance of biological control measures against this pest. At present a focal point of the project work is the introduction and evaluation of various beneficial insects against the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus in orchid cultures.
Knight, A.L., Christianson, B.A. & Unruh, T.R. 2001. Impacts of seasonal kaolin particle films on apple pest
management. Canadian Entomologist 133(3): 413-428. [KnightChUn2001]
Notes: The impact of multiple applications of the kaolin-based particle him M96-018 on the population density of selected pests of apple, Malus domestica (Borkh) (Rosaceae), and their natural enemy populations were measured in several Washington State orchards from 1997 to 1999. Fruit infestation by San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), was significantly higher in treated plots than in untreated plots. No differences in pest densities occurred in plots treated for one versus two consecutive years.
Koc, K. & Madanlar, N. 2001. A new species of Neophyllobius Berlese (Acari: Camerobiidae) from Turkey. (In
English; Summary In French). Acarologia 42(1): 61-66. [KocMa2001]
Notes: Taxonomic keys, descriptions, and illustrations of Neophyllobius ayyildizi sp. nov. from Turkey are presented. The genus Neophyllobius are known to feed on first instar nymphs of armoured scale insects (Diaspididae) and on various plant-inhabiting mites.
Konar, A. 2001. Insect parasitoids of diaspidid scale insect, Mytilococcus sp. attacking orange in Darjeeling district,
West Bengal. Journal of Interacademicia 5(1): 67-70. [Konar2001]
Notes: The total number and parasitization incidence of host insects, and parasitoid eclosion in Mytilococcus [Lepidosphaes] spp. from 4 mandarin orchards (Bhalukhop, Ecchey, Sakyong and Bara Mungawa) in Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India were determined during 1985-86. Adelencyrtus inglisiae n. sp., Ooencyrtus spp., and Diaeretiella spp., parasitized M. beckii [Lepidosaphes beckii] and M. gloverii [Lepidosaphes gloverii]. Maximum parasitization by A. inglisae n. sp. was observed at Bhalukhop (4.0) and Ecchey (20.95) in August 1985, and at Sakyong (14.28) and Bara Mungawa (11.90) in October 1985. Highest parasitization by Ooencyrtus spp. was recorded at Bhalukhop (28.0) in September 1985, at Ecchey (22.35) in July 1985, at Sakyong (14.58) in June 1985 and at Bara Mungawa (21.58) in August 1985. Diaeretiella spp. showed maximum pest parasitization at Bhalukhop (8.90) in September 1985, at Ecchey (10.76) in June 1985, at Sakyong (5.88) in August 1986, and at Bara Mungawa (12.95) in October 1985.
Konar, A. 2002. Incidence of insect parasite of Ceroplastes fioridensis Comstock and C. ruben Maskell attacking
orange in Darjeeling of West Bengal. Journal of Interacademicia 6(1): 65-68. [Konar2002]
Notes: Coccophagus ceroplastae was recorded to parasitize Ceroplastes floridensis while Metaphycus lichtensiae sp. nov. was found to parasitize C. rubens infesting Citrus reticulata in four orchards in Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India. The percentage of parasitization of C. ceroplastae on C. floridensis varied from 0 to 35.0% at Bhalukhop: from 0 to 33.33 at Ecchey; from 0 to 26.5% at Sakyong and from 0 to 26.2% at Bara Mungawa. The highest parasitization of C. ceroplastae on C. floridensis was observed in August 1994 at Bhalukhop (35.0%) and Bara Mungawa (26.2%): and in July 1995 at Ecotey (33.33%) and Sakyong (26.50%). The percentage of parasitization of M. lichtensiae on C. rubens ranged from 0 to 32.5% at Bhalukhop; from 0 to 43.5% at Ecchey; from 0 to 45% at Sakyong and from 0 to 50% at Bara Mungawa. High parasitization by M. lichtensiae was recorded in August 1994 and again in October 1994 (32.5%) at Bhalukhop; in July 1994 (45.0%) at Sakyong and Bara Mungawa (50%). Encyrtus infelix parasitized Coccus hesperidum only at Sakyong.
Kondo, T. 2001. [The scale insects of Colombia (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Las cochinillas de Colombia (Hemiptera:
Coccoidea). (In Spanish; Summary In English). Biota Colombiana 2(1): 31-48. [Kondo2001]
Notes: 174 species in 80 genera and 10 families are listed. The list includes 25 endemic species and four new records from Colombia. These are Icerya brasiliensis, Cryptostigma biorbiculus, Inglisia vitrea and Saissetia neglecta. Icerya brasiliensis and Orthezia praelonga are reported on mango for the first time.
Kondo, T. & Williams, M.L. 2002 (2001). The Myzolecaniinae (Hemiptera: Coccidae): Old World vs. New World.
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 125-128. [KondoWi2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Scale insects of the subfamily Myzolecaniinae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are of particular interest because of their biology, wide distribution, and morphology. Many are agricultural pests, and are known for their symbiotic relations with ants that constantly tend, clean, protect, and even transport them in exchange for nutritious honeydew. Many morphological features found in these scale insects are reduced or lost entirely, presumably as a result of this symbiotic relationship. Although members of the Myzolecaniinae share many similarities, those of the New World show unique characteristics not found in the Old World coccids.
Kondo, T., Esato, T. & Kawai, S. 2002 (2001). Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a
recently introduced exotic pest in Japan. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 337-341.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Previous reports of the Mexican mealybug, P. gossypii in Japan were confirmed to be misidentifications of the Madeira mealybug, P. madeirensis. The Madeira mealybug is reported from the Bonin Islands, Kyushu, Shikoku, and the Ryukyu Islands where it is widespread. Distribution of the Madeira mealybug and 25 host records in Japan are given.
Kosztarab, M. 2002 (2001). Are scale insects in the Homoptera or Hemiptera; do they comprise a superfamily or a
suborder? Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 203-207. [Koszta2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] For some time, there have been discrepancies in the titles of papers dealing with scale insects. For example articles listed in the March 2000 issue of The Scale included in their titles various higher category taxonomic names: e.g., Homoptera in 48 titles from 18 countries, and Hemiptera in 28 titles from 12 countries. In the March 2001 issue of The Scale, we found Homoptera in 85 titles from 25 countries and Hemiptera in 33 titles from 14 countries. It must be confusing for catalogers that encounter scale insects placed in either the superfamily Coccoidea or the suborder Coccinea within the same article titles. In the future, our successors may choose to adopt the already proposed order name Coccura. Are we going to keep Homoptera or Hemiptera, or abandon both and use only Sternorrhyncha or Rhynchota, already used by some, until this issue is scientifically clarified? It should be the responsibility of the public forum of ISSIS-IX to debate and attempt to standardize the nomenclature to be used in the future.
Koteja, J. 2001. Pre-cretaceous scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccinea). (poster). 31-32 In: Krzeminska, E. &
Krzeminski, W. (Eds.), Fossil Insects. Abstracts Volume. Second International Congress on Palaeontomology
[Palaeoentomology?]. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
Notes: A poor fossil specimen was described as Mesococcus asiaticus. This poster discusses its status and that of other pre-Cretaceous impressions believed to be scale insects.
Koteja, J. 2002 (2001). Essays on coccids (Sternorrhyncha: Coccinea): do scale insects pierce own sisters?
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 506. [Koteja2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] Lecanopsis formicarum and Beesonia napiformis are discussed.
Koteja, J. & Azar, D. 2001. Lower cretaceous scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccinea) from the Hammana outcrops in
central Lebanon. 30-31 In: Krzeminska, E. & Krzeminski, W. (Eds.), Second International Congress on
Palaeontomology. Fossil Insects. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Notes: (poster) Extinct genera from the families Ortheziidae, Electrococcidae, ?Steingeliidae, ?Putoidae, and three new families are identified.
Kozár, F. & Foldi, I. 2002 (2001). The water scale insects of the mysterious family Carayonemidae (Hemiptera:
Coccoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 197-201. [KozarFo2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The family Carayonemidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) was established in 1986 for a neotropical species adapted to life in wet or aquatic habitats. So far, only four species belonging to the family, all neotropical, have been described. The phylogenetic affinities of the Carayonemidae, their specialized morphology and biology, and suitable collection methods are discussed.
Kozár, F. & Konczné Benedicty, Z. 2002. Jermycoccus boliviensis genus and species nova (Homoptera:
Coccoidea, Ortheziidae). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 48 (Suppl. 1): 157-160.
Notes: This new genera and species is described and illustrated from Bolivia.
Kozár, F. & Konczné Benedicty, Z. 2002. Description of the Marottarhizoecus issisi gen. et sp. nova (Homoptera,
Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae, Rhizoecinae) from Africa with a review and key of the subfamily. Bollettino di
Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 34(2): 213-218. [KozarKo2002a]
Notes: A new genus and species, Marottarhizoecus issisi gen. et sp. nova, is described from Rhizoecinae subfamily. A review and a key for genera is given for the subfamily.
Kozár, F., Foldi, I. & Konczné Benedicty, Z. 2002. Description of six new species of Newsteadia from
Madagascar, Nepal and Peru (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Ortheziidae). (In English; Summary In French). Nouvelle
Revue d'Entomologie 19(2): 179-192. [KozarFoKo2002]
Notes: Three new species of Newsteadia were described and illustrated from Madagascar, two from Nepal and one from Peru. They are: Newsteadia richardae Kozár and Foldi, N. smetanai Konczné Benedicty & Kozár, N. clavata Kozár & Foldi, N. setosa Kozár & Foldi, N. bluntlyspina Kozár & Foldi and N. gergoei Konczné Benedicty & Kozár.
Kreiter, P., Coquelet, C. & Thaon, M. 2002. [[White Peach Scale: Main pest of blackcurrant-bush of the Rhone-Alpes Region.] La cochenille blanche du murier, principal ravageur des cassissiers en Region Rhone-Alpes. (In
French). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 71(6): 251-252. [KreiteCoTh2002]
Notes: Important damages are caused by Pseudaulacaspis pentagona on black-currant bush in Isere country. The list of natural enemies is recorded. In spite of the presence of parasitoids, their efficiency seems limited.
Kreiter, P., Thaon, M., Clisson, S., Lagadec, M., Dijoux, L. & Navarro, E. 2002. [Method of breading and
release of Encarsia berlesei Howard (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) parasitoid of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
Targioni-Tozzeti (Hemiptera, Diaspidae).] (In French). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 71(5):
Notes: A rearing method of Encarsia berlesei is proposed to control the White Peach Scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona in peach orchards and a method to improve the period of the release of this parasitoid.
LaPolla, J.S., Cover, S.P. & Mueller, U.G. 2002. Natural history of the mealybug-tending ant, Acropyga epedana,
with descriptions of the male and queen castes. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 128(4): 367-376. [LaPollCoMu2002]
Notes: The mealybug-tending ant A. epedana is an obligate coccidiphile with trophophoretic queens. Trophophoresy is defined as the behavior of a foundress queen transporting a trophobiont on her mating flight for the establishment of a new mealybug "herd" in her new colony. Both the male and queen of A. epedana are described here for the first time. Observations on a laboratory colony of A. epedana suggest that the ants obtain most, if not all, of their energy requirements from the mealybugs they tend. When offered a variety of food items ranging from dead insects to sugary substances (e.g. honey, sugar water), the ants refused them and even acted aggressively towards the dead prey items. Observations of a laboratory colony also revealed a peculiar body jerking behavior suggestive of a form of vibrational communication, though its exact function remains to be studied.
Labanowski, G. & Soika, G. 2001. [Usefulness of neonicotinoid insecticides in control of ornamental plant pests.]
Przydatnosc preparatow neonikotynoidowych do zwalczania szkodnikow roslin ozdobnych. (In Polish; Summary In
English). Progress in Plant Protection 41(1): 161-169. [LabanoSo2001]
Notes: During 1992-2000 in the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skierniewice the effectiveness of neonicotinoid insecticides: Mospilan 20 SP (acetamprid), Confidor 200 SL (imidacloprid), Provado Combi Pin 02 PR (imidacloprid + nutrients and microelements) and Provado Plus AE (imidacloprid + methiocarb) were investigated. All these products are registered in Poland now. Mospilan 20 SP and Confidor 200 SL applied as spray-treatment were very effective in controlling the citrus mealybugs (Planococcus citri) and other insects on ornamental plants.
Lagowska, B. 2002 (2001). Zoogeographical analysis of the scale insect fauna of Poland. Bollettino di Zoologia
Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 239-248. [Lagows2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] A list of 137 scale insects species from Poland, belonging to 9 families is presented. The species that occur in Poland can be divided into three groups: (1) species restricted to the Palaearctic region (106 species, 77.4% of the total fauna), (2) species whose range is limited to 2-3 zoogeographical regions (22 species, 16.0% of the total fauna), (3) cosmopolitan species (9 species, 6.6% of the total fauna). The Palaearctic species are divided into the following subgroups: (a) species widely distributed in the Palaearctic region (50% species, 47.2%), (b) species distributed in two subregions (31 species, 29.2%), (c) species restricted only to Euro-Siberian region (25 species, 23.6%). Among the latter, there are 12 species which occur only in a few countries. A brief comment is given on each group. The ratio of species per genera was also calculated.
Lagowska, B. 2002. [New data on the occurrence of Diaspidiotus alni (Marchal, 1909) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea:
Diaspididae) in Poland.] Nowe dane o wystepowaniu Diaspidiotus alni (MARCHAL, 1909) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea:
Diaspididae) w Polsce. (In Polish). Wiadomosci Entomologiczne 20(3-4): 184. [Lagows2002a]
Lagowska, B. & Golan, K. 2002 (2001). The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of economic importance in the
Kazimierz Landscape Park in Poland. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 365-372.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Observations carried out during 1996-1998 showed that out of 22 scale insect species widely known as pests only Parthenolecanium corni, P. pomeranicum, Aulacaspis rosae, Carulaspis juniperi, Lepidosaphes ulmi, and Leucaspis pini are of great economic importance as they appeared with high frequency and high density, in the Kazimierz Landscape Park (composed of oak-hornbeam [Carpinus betulus] forest, termophilous oakwood, xerothermic sward and brushwood, and anthropogenic communities). The species which are characterized by low frequency, but appearing on their hosts with high density are also of economic significance for trees and shrubs. These are: Kermes quercus, Parthenolecanium rufulum, Asterodiaspis variolosa, Chionaspis salicis and Leucaspis loewi. Attention should also be paid to Planococcus vovae which was characterized by relatively high frequency, but occurred on the junipers only at low density. Another group of scale insects was composed of the species which were characterized by low frequency and occurred on their hosts only at low density.
Lagowska, B. & Golan, K. 2002. [Contribution to the knowledge of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccinea) of the
Lublin Upland in Poland.] Materialy do poznania czerwcow (Hemiptera: Coccinea) Wyzyny Lubelskiej. (In Polish;
Summary In English). Wiadomosci Entomologiczne 21(2): 69-85. [LagowsGo2002a]
Notes: Faunistic investigations were conducted in the Lublin Upland in Poland during 1986-2000. Species were collected in five plant communities on different plants (trees, bushes and perennial herbs) and in forest litter. Sixty-eight species from 10 families were found, including Pseudococcidae (20 species), Coccidae (18), Eriococcidae (11), Diaspididae (9), Ortheziidae (3), Kermesidae (2), Asterolecaniidae (2), Cerococcidae (1), Matsucoccidae (1) and Cryptococcidae [Eriococcidae] (1). Of these, 24 species are previously known and the remaining 44 are new for the region. Ten species are known from only a few localities in Poland. The number of species collected in the Lublin Upland constitutes 49.6% of the Polish coccid fauna, and now this region belongs, along with the Krakow-Czestochowa Upland, Swietokrzyskie Mountains and Roztocze, to the better explored areas in Poland.
Lambdin, P.L. 2002 (2001). Wings of male scale insects (Coccoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di
Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 67-72. [Lambdi2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The shape and venation of the metathoracic wings of 94 male scale insects were evaluated. The shape is variable within family and generic levels ranging from elongate and narrow to broadly rounded and wide. The number of veins is reduced consisting of the radial and medial veins in advance taxa, while primitive taxa often have two additional creases representing the position of veins. The two veins in most taxa join at an acute angle in the basal area forming a basal stem that often extends to the margin. A notable feature is the greater length of this central basal stem from the primitive to advanced taxa.
Lambdin, P.L. 2002. Discourse on the classification of the scale insects. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di
Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 209-213. [Lambdi2002a]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] A rationale is given for revising the higher categories of orders on the basis of wing structure and development.
Landry, B. 2001. The cosmopterigidae (Lepidoptera) of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Revue Suisse de Zoologie
108(3): 513-539. [Landry2001]
Notes: The Cosmopterigidae of the Galapagos Islands include eight species. Coccoidea are mentioned as hosts.
Larrain, S.P. 2002. [Insect and mite pest incidence on sweet pepinos (Solanum muricatum Ait.) cultivated in the
IV Region, Chile.] Incidencia de insectos y acaros plagas en pepino dulce (Solanum muricatum Ait.) cultivado en la
IV Region, Chile. (In Spanish; Summary In English). Agricultura Técnica. Chile 62(1): 15-26. [Larrai2002]
Notes: From October 1995 to March 1997, pests were studied on pepino (S. muricatum) plants grown in Chile. Six pepino plots were planted at 2-month intervals and the different pests that infested the crops were monitored. In addition, acaricides and insecticides were evaluated for the control of 2-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, and mealybugs, Phenacoccus solenopsis, respectively. The results showed 24 species of arthropods infesting pepino plants. Among them, the mites, particularly T. urticae, were abundant and reached levels of 350 mites per leaf, causing severe defoliation. Spraying the acaricides, cyhexatin and amitraz, effectively controlled the infestation. The pepino fly, Rhagoletis nova, provoked considerable losses during certain periods, but its greatest importance is that it is a quarantined pest and limits pepino exports to important markets. Other pests of economic significance to the crop, whose population levels must be monitored and controlled, are the moth Symmetrischema tangolias, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae and the soil mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis. The mealybug was controlled by spraying with chlorpyrifos and carbofuran.
Latta, S.C. & Faaborg, J. 2002. Demographic and population responses of Cape May Warblers wintering in
multiple habitats. Ecology 83(9): 2502-2515. [LattaFa2002]
Notes: Wintering Cape May Warblers (Dendroica tigrina) were studied in three habitats along an altitudinal gradient in the Dominican Republic. Results of this study are some of the first to link both population responses and individual condition of nonbreeding birds to prevailing ecological conditions across divergent habitats. Our data suggest that Cape May Warblers are habitat generalists and generally unspecialized resource opportunists, but that differences in food resources result in competitive interactions, sex and age class segregation, and differences in site fidelity and physiological condition among habitats. Dry forest may be suboptimal, unless an individual was able to hold and defend a tree with honeydew-producing homopteran scale insects.
Le Rii, B.P. & Mitsipa, A. 2002. Comparative life table statistics of Exochomus flaviventris reared on the cassava
mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, fed on four host plants. Insect Science and its Application 22(3): 175-182.
Leddel, M.N. 2002 (2001). Multi-discipline and multi-grade lessons in the study of Dactylopius (Homoptera:
Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 29-33. [Leddel2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The Dactylopius (cochineal) insect has been used as a source of red dye for over three thousand years; however there is limited public knowledge of it. As entomologists leave the profession, the need for new entomologists increases, especially in light of the continuing shortage of professionals. To bridge that gap, educational activities that attract, inspire, and encourage people, especially young students, are discussed. Included are cross-curricular cochineal activities that involve multilevel students, in both the classroom and community.
Leon, M.G., Evans, G.A. & Campos, J.C. 2001. [Parasitoids of the Homoptera citrus pests in the Meta Department
of Colombia.] Parasitoides de plagas (Homoptera) de los cítricos en el departamento del Meta, Colombia. (In
Spanish; Summary In English). Revista Colombiana de Entomología 27(3-4): 143-146. [LeonEvCa2001]
Notes: Studies on the presence of native parasitoids of Homoptera citrus pests were conducted during 1999 and 2000 in four production zones of the eastern plain Piedmont in the Meta Department of Colombia. The presence and identity of 33 different parasitoid species of citrus pest were determined. The parasitoids identified belong to the following families: Aphididae, Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Pteromalidae and Signiphoridae. The greatest number of parasitoid species was isolated from the following hosts: Saissetia spp. (8 species), Coccus hesperidum (7), whiteflies (6, mostly associated with Aleurothrixus floccosus) and Lepidosaphes spp. (3). All parasitoids are widespread in all citrus areas in the Meta Department. Twenty-four records were considered as new to Colombia. Three species were hyperparasitoids of Signiphoridae associated with whiteflies.
Li, C.D. & Byun, B.K. 2001. Genus Arrhenophagus Aurivillius (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) new to Korea. Insecta
Koreana 18(4): 335-338. [LiBy2001]
Notes: The genus Arrhenophagus comprising one species, A. chionaspidis, is reported for the first time from Korea. A. chionaspidis parasitizes on various Homoptera species including Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli.
Li, C.D., Byun, B.K. & Bae, W.I. 2001. Two species of Marietta Motschulsky (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) new to
Korea. Insecta Koreana 18(4): 339-344. [LiByBa2001]
Notes: M. carnesi and M. picta, external hyperparasites of Diaspididae, Coccidae, Psyllidae, and other Hymenoptera species, are reported for the first time from Korea. A key to the female of each species is included.
Li, Q.Y., Shi, X.A. & Wu, X.L. 2001. [Bionomics of Eriococcus kaki and its control.] (In Chinese). Entomological
Knowledge 38(6): 460-461. [LiShWu2001]
Li, S.W., Li, J.H., Ren, L., Zhao, G.J., Li, C.Q. & Wang, J.W. 2001. [Infestation Neomargarodes niger on
groundnut and its control.] (In Chinese). Plant Protection 27(2): 18-19. [LiLiRe2001]
Notes: Neomargarodes niger infested groundnut heavily in sandy soil fields in Henan, China in recent years, causing 10-30% yield loss, with the highest yield loss > 50%. The scale produces 1 generation annually in eastern Henan and overwinters in larval form in soils. Its adults emerge, mate and lay eggs in mid-late May. The egg-hatching peak is in late June. Its 2nd instar larvae have an infestation peak in early-mid July. Dry, sandy and porous soils, abundant rain fall and successive cropping were favorable conditions for the infestation. For integrated management of the scale, rotation cropping, intercultivation, weed control and timely irrigation were suggested for eradicating eggs and larvae. For scale control with chemicals, 15% aldicarb granules at 7-8 kg/ha by broadcasting, 3% carbofuran granules at 35-45 kg/ha and phorate granules at 20-30 kg/ha incorporated into sandy soils at sowing of groundnut gave a control of > 85%. 50% phoxim at 3.75-4.5 kg/ha by broadcasting, 3% isofenphos-methyl at 37.5-45 kg/ha incorporated with sandy soils by applying to basal parts of groundnut plants and 50% phoxim at 1500-2000 times and isofenphos-methyl at 1500-2000 times by spraying in late May to early June gave a control effect of > 90%.
Li, Z., Zhou, C., Zhang, J., Gu, Y., Zong, X.X. & Yang, S. 2001. [Pigeonpea: an excellent host for lac
production.] (In Chinese). International Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsletter No.8: 58-60. [LiZhZh2001]
Notes: The major research studies on the use of pigeon pea as a host of the lac-producing insect Kerria lacca for lac production in China are reviewed.
Li, Z.L. & Yin, K.S. 2001. [Occurrence of Rhizoecus sp. and its control.] (In Chinese). Entomological Knowledge
38(3): 222-224. [LiYi2001]
Lima, I.M.M. 2002. [Record of Cybocephalus sp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) preying on pest species of Diaspididae
(Hemiptera), in the State of Alagoas, Brazil.] Registro da ocorrencia de Cybocephalus sp. predando especies-praga
de Diaspididae no Estado de Alagoas. (In Portuguese). Neotropical Entomology 31(1): 157-159. [Lima2002]
Notes: Specimens of Cybocephalus sp. were collected preying on Aspidiotus destructor (Signoret) infesting coconut trees (Dwarf cultivar) and on Diaspis echinocacti Bouche) present on Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. and Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Lyons (Cactaceae). In the latter case the nitidulid was associated with another predator: Coccidophilus citricola (Brethes) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The eggs were laid inside the scale of the diaspidid (one egg per scale); all life stages were detected. No sexual dimorphism was observed, and the natural sex ratio was 0.52 which represents a sexual proportion of 1.1 females : 1 male. Cybocephalus specimens were also collected preying on coccids on Alamanda cathartica L. (Apocynaceae) and on Morus alba L. (Moraceae).
Lit, I.L. 2002. Morphology of the unique structures of adult female lac insects (Hemiptera : Coccoidea : Kerriidae).
Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85(1): 25-38. [Lit2002]
Notes: The brachia, brachial plates, canellae, dorsal spine and post-oral lobes of adult female lac insects are described based on observations under SEM of Austrotachardia acaciae (Maskell), Austrotachardia sp. ex Cassinia, Kerria lacca (Kerr) and Paratachardina decorella (Maskell), and under light microscope of these and a few other species of lac insects. These structures, like the anal tubercle, are considered unique to the family Kerriidae. The canellae, brachia and brachial plates together may be considered homologous to the anterior stigmatic area, groove cleft and other associated structures of Coccidae and related lecanoid scale insects. These structures collectively assist the mesothoracic spiracle in its function of gas exchange. The dorsal spine has possible secretory function while the post-oral lobes probably serve as anchor during vertical movement and balance. The dorsal spine and post-oral lobes appear to be autapomorphic features of lac insects. On the other hand, like the anal tubercle and its associated structures and the vestigial anal cleft, the brachia, brachial plates and canellae are probably homologous to morphological features found in Coccidae and other lecanoid scale insects. These homologies suggest common ancestry and possible sister-group relationship between the Kerridae and Coccidae or another closely related family. The details of these morphological structures as revealed by SEM not only provide new insights into homology or phylogenetic relationships but also facilitate interpretation of these characters under the light microscope.
Lit, I.L. 2002. Wax- and resin-exuding cuticular pores and ducts of adult female lac insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea:
Kerriidae). Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85(2): 122-136. [Lit2002a]
Notes: The wax- and resin-exuding cuticular pares and ducts of adult females of Austrotachardia acaciae (Maskell), Austrotachardia sp. ex Cassinia, Kerria lacca (Kerr) and Paratachardina decorella (Maskell) were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). These pores and ducts include the marginal and ventral duct clusters, perivaginal pore clusters, pores near or around the spiracles, canellae and brachial plates, spermatozoold ducts and ducts associated with the dorsal spine. Their structures are redescribed based on now details revealed by SEM. The perisetal micropores on the anal ring are also reviewed. The quinquelocular nature of many of the pores, despite their different names for different regions or body parts of lac insects strongly suggest homology with similar pores of Coccidae and related families. They, therefore, provide additonal evidence of common ancestry with the lecanoids. In addition to facilitating interpretation of these characters under the light microscope. The need for future studies utilizing transmission electron microscopy is recommended to identify the secretory cells and tissues associated with these pores and ducts, especially the dorsal spine.
Liu, Y.S. 2002. The occurrence regulation of chestnut scale and its chemical control. (In Chinese). South China
Fruits 31(3): 70-71. [Liu2002]
Notes: Asterolecanium castaneae is an important pest in chestnut plantations in China. Nymphs group together to suck the juice from branches and leaves, resulting in dense yellowish green waxy dots. Observations in 1999-2000 revealed that adult females had round yellowish-green or yellowish-brown scales, while nymphs were white turning to red-brown. Control was possible by cutting holes in the trunk at mid-March (when chestnut buds turn red) and inject these with 50% Tamaron [methamidophos]. This resulted in 1.4% infestation compared to 100% in the untreated control.
Logan, D.P. & Thomson, C. 2002. Temperature-dependent development of parasitoids on two species of armoured
scale insects. New Zealand Plant Protection 55: 361-367. [LoganTh2002]
Notes: [The 53rd Conference Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Society held in Rotorua, 12-15 August 2002. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/proceedings/02/02_361.pdf] The duration of development of the parasitoid Encarsia citrina (Craw) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on its hosts greedy scale, Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock) and oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), and of Signiphora merceti (Malenotti) (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae) on greedy scale was determined at five constant temperatures. Weibull functions were fitted to the cumulative distribution of parasitoid emergence times, and development rates for 5.50 and 95% emergence were calculated. Development rates for each parasitoid-scale combination were described by the same linear regression equations for 50% emergence, and for 95% emergence. Duration of development in the field was simulated using 13 months of hourly temperatures recorded at Te Puke.
Longo, S., Mazzeo, G., Palmeri, V., Benfatto, D., Maurello, S. & Di Leo, A. 2002 (2001). New remarks on the
distribution and biology of Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet) (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) in Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia
Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 508-509. [LongoMaPa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] The results of a study on biology and distribution of Aonidiella citrina in South Italy, almost a decade after it was first detected, are reported. The presence and absence of this species at numerous monitoring stations in citrus growing regions are illustrated.
Ma, L. & Lin, T. 2001. Study on the biological characteristics of Homalotylus flaminius. Journal of Forestry
Research 4: 269-270. [MaLi2001]
Notes: A study was conducted at a forest farm in Daqing City, Heilongjiang Province, China during June 1998-October 2000 to investigate the biological characteristics, life history, and action on hosts of Homalotylus flaminius, a natural enemy of Chilocorus kawanae, which is itself an important natural enemy of Quadraspidiotus gigas [Diaspidiotus gigas], the main insect pest of the poplar (Populus) forests in northeast China. Results indicated that H. flaminus had two generations per year in this area, with a pupating span of 12.7 days, lifespan of females and males of 17.6 and 10.8 days, respectively, and egg span of 10 days; the sex ratio of females to males was 1:3.
Ma, L. & Lin, T. 2002. Bioecology of Sticholotis cribellata Sicard (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a potential predator
of Melanaspis glomerata (Green) (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Journal of Biological Control 15(1): 21-26.
Notes: S. cribellata is recorded for the first time as a predator of M. glomerata. The biology and seasonal incidence of S. cribellata on M. glomerata was studied on sugarcane cv. CON 84/131, in a field in Karnataka, India, from August to December in 1999-2000. The egg, larval and pupal stages of the predator lasted for 6.9, 19.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, and adult longevity was 40.41 days. The average fecundity was 48.9 eggs per female. Predator larvae and adults consumed an average of 653.95 and 1822.49 M. glomerata crawlers, respectively. S. cribellata populations peaked during the last week of December 1999 and disappeared in the first week of January, when the temperature increased. Observations on the host specificity of S. cribellata indicated that it is available almost throughout the year, on one host or another.
Mahr, D.L. 2001. Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America: A workshop of assessment
and planning. Florida Entomologist 84(4): 465-473. [Mahr2001]
Notes: Cactoblastis cactorum in North America, A Workshop of Assessment and Planning, was held in Tampa, Florida in September 2000. Major subject areas covered include the biology and economic importance of Opuntia, the biology, biological control history, and current status of Cactoblastis, and potential methods of controlling Cactoblastis in North America. This paper summarizes findings of the workshop and provides an introduction to the workshop proceedings. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has been an important biological control agent of introduced and weedy prickly pear cacti (Opuntia spp., Cactaceae) in many parts of the world. Cactoblastis, a native of Argentina, was introduced into the Caribbean in 1957 to control weedy, but native species of prickly pear infesting rangeland. It has spread through the Caribbean and in 1989 was first found in Florida. It has now spread as far north as coastal Georgia. Prickly pear cacti constitute a highly important and uniquely desert-adapted subsistence food and cash crop in Mexico. Prickly pears have other valuable uses, such as in the production of cochineal dye and in desert landscaping. Because Cactoblastis readily attacks many novel hosts within Opuntia, it will likely have serious impacts on the ecology of desert environments and on the agricultural and horticultural uses of prickly pears. Further, if Cactoblastis does result in significant damage, it is likely to serve as another source of criticism of classical biological control.
Mani, M. & Krishnamoorthy, A. 2001. Suppression of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on guava. Insect
Environment 6(4): 152. [ManiKr2001]
Notes: A study on the biological control of the pink mealybug, M. hirsutus, on guava by the Australian ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, is presented. The ladybird beetle was released at 20/plant in the first week of June, in 1992, in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. A mean mealybug population of 918.50/plant was observed in the first week of June at the time of releasing the predator. There was a reduction in the mealybug population, a month after the release of the predator, and a mean of 4.60/plant was recorded by the end of August 1992 on the predator-released plants compared to 781.40 on the control plants.
Marotta, S., Priore, R. & Lopez, C. 2001. [Morphological and bioethological observation on Acanthococcus
araucariae (Maskell, 1897) (Sternorrhyncha Coccoidea Eriococcidae).] (In Italian; Summary In English). Bollettino
del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri'. Portici 56: 69-79. [MarottPrLo2001]
Notes: [Original title: Note morfologiche e bio-etologiche su Acanthococcus araucariae (Maskell, 1897) (Sternorrhyncha Coccoidea Eriococcidae).] Acanthococcus araucariae is an Australian felted scale living on Araucaria plants and has a worldwide distribution, mostly in warm and/or temperate climate countries, where it is often reported as a pest of ornamentals. Morphological studies were carried out to identify male and female instars and to provide a key for their identification. Life history and poorly known aspects of its behaviour were investigated. The scale has seven generations per year, and overwinters at the egg stage in the egg sac.
Marotta, S., Russo, A. & Ben-Dov, Y. 2002. On a new synonym of Lichtensia viburni Signoret, 1873 (Hem.,
Coccoidea, Coccidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 107(1): 42. [MarottRuBe2002]
Notes: Coccus lentiscicola Mina Palumbo, 1882, described from Pistacia lentiscus in Sicily, is a junior synonym of Lichtensia viburni Signoret, 1873. Other species mentioned include Lecanium oleae (Saissetia oleae), Aspidiotus lentisci (Aspidiotus nerii) and Coccus gossipifera (Planococcus vovae).
Marotta, S., Van Harten, A. & Mahyoub, M.A. 2002 (2001). Mealybugs found on agricultural crops in Yemen.
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 233-238. [MarottVaMa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] This paper reports on seven mealybug species collected on different agricultural crops in Yemen: Dysmicoccus carens on sorghum, Ferrisia virgata on guava, Maconellicoccus hirsutus on mango, Paracoccus burnerae on Citrus sp., Phenacoccus madeirensis on grapevine, Planococcus citri on Citrus sp. and P. ficus on grapevine.
Martelli, G.P., Agranovsky, A.A., Bar Joseph, M., Boscia, D., Candresse, T., Coutts, R.H.A., Dolja, V.V. Falk,
B.W., Gonsalves, D. & Jelkmann, W. 2002. The family Closteroviridae revised. Archives of Virology 147(10):
Notes: [Additional authors: Karasev, A.V., Namba, S., Vetten, H.J., Wisler, G.C., Yoshikawa, N.] Recently obtained molecular and biological information has prompted the revision of the taxonomic structure of the family Closteroviridae. In particular, mealybug [Pseudococcidae]-transmitted species have been separated from the genus Closterovirus and accommodated in a new genus named Ampelovirus (from ampelos, Greek for grapevine).
Maryanska-Nadachowska, A. 2002. A review of karyotype variation in jumping plant-lice (Psylloidea,
Sternorrhyncha, Hemiptera) and checklist of chromosome numbers. Folia biologica (Krakow) 50(3-4): 135-152.
Notes: Karyotype variation in Psylloidea (Hemiptera) was analysed. Chromosome numbers and type of chromosome sex determination of 153 species belonging to 51 genera and five out of six families (except tropical Phacopteronidae) are listed. Some important cytological characteristics, such as chromosome type, structure of karyotypes, sex determination type, pattern of male meiosis, type of chromosome rearrangements, and B chromosome occurrence, as well as the C-heterochromatin and NOR localization, are discussed. In addition, a comparison of chromosome systems between Psylloidea and other superfamilies of Sternorrhyncha (Aphidoidea, Coccoidea, and Aleyrodoidea) was undertaken.
Matallo, H., Casas-Castaneda, F. & Migongo-Bake, E. 2002. Use of live fences of Nopal (Opuntia) and
associated crops to rehabilitate and protect sloping land in Loja, Ecuador. Mountain Research and Development
22(1): 22-25. [MatallCaMi2002]
Notes: A live fences project in Ecuador sought environmental recovery, with an agro-ecological focus, and within a framework of social and economic development. Cultivation of the Opuntia cactus and the cochineal insect (Dactylopus (Dactylopius?) coccus), environmentally and culturally adapted to the region, permitted the recovery of several degraded areas and generated income for rural dwellers, especially during periods of drought. Among the most important project impacts were: recovery of traditional knowledge, cultural values, ancestral skills, and inveterate attachment to communal properties; determination of the ecotones of the cactus for production of cochineal, fruits, forage, and live barriers; and recovery of areas eroded by overexploitation and inadequate management.
Matile Ferrero, D. & Germain, J.F. 2002. [A scale insect discovered on tomato.] Une cochenille decouvre la
tomate. (In French). Phytoma No. 552. [MatileGe2002]
Notes: The pseudococcid Atrococcus paludinus, known in France and other countries on various herbaceous plants, was recorded for the the first time on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a greenhouse on 15 May 2002 in Ille-et-Vilaine, France. Notes are given on other food plants and distribution of this insect in England and France.
Matile-Ferrero, D. & Oromí, P. 2001. Hemiptera. Coccoidea. (In Spanish). In: Izquierdo, I., Martín, J.L., Zurita,
N. & Arechavaleta, M. (Eds.), [List of wild species from the Canaries (mushrooms, plants and land animals).]
Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente Gobierno de Canarias, Tenerife. 186-190, 193, 195-196.
Notes: [Original title: Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (Hongos, plantas y animales terrestres).] Species listed are from the Dactylopiidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Margarodidae and Pseudococcidae.
Matsumoto, T., Itioka, T. & Nishida, T. 2002. Fitness cost of parasitoid avoidance behavior in the arrowhead
scale, Unaspis yanonensis Kuwana. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 105(2): 83-88. [MatsumItNi2002]
Notes: We examined trade-offs between fitness components and the parasitoid avoidance behavior of the arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis Kuwana (Homoptera: Diaspididae). We examined the performance of two settling modes: singleton and double settling with the burrower under the burrowee. Each of these modes differs in vulnerability to parasitism by Aphytis yanonensis DeBach et Rosen and Coccobius fulvus Compere et Annecke (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), and performance. Field and laboratory observations revealed smaller body size and lower parasitism of burrower scales, while both singletons and burrowees showed the opposite tendency (larger body size and a greater parasitism rate). Laboratory observations under parasitoid-free conditions revealed greater mortality and reduced growth rate for simulated burrowers than for singletons during the 40-day nymphal period. This suggests that competition for food resources reduces performance. The results also suggest trade-offs between parasitoid avoidance and resource acquisition ability in U. yanonensis. The trade-offs also explain our previous findings, that introduction of the parasitoids increased the proportion of burrowers, but that within seven years equilibrium was reached at fairly low levels (ca. 5%) in the field, even under intense parasitism.
Mazzeo, G., Longo, S., Benfatto, D., Palmeri, V. & Di Leo, A. 2002 (2001). Trials of biological control of
Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) in citrus groves in Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di
Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 485-488. [MazzeoLoBe2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The authors report the results of field trials during 1999-2000, that assessed the potential of biological control of California red scale Aonidiella aurantii in Citrus groves, using Aphytis melinus. The trials, performed under the P.O.M. project (Multiregional operative project) A36, were carried out in 1999-2000 in five farms: three located in Sicily and two in Calabria. In each farm, three lots of one hectare were established, two of which biologically treated and one acted as the control. Monitoring of Aonidiella aurantii male flight was achieved using California Citrus I.P.M.-type traps (one per lot) that were checked weekly and the dispensers were replaced monthly. Releases, six in all, started in April and continued to September, each time releasing 20,000 specimens/ha, for a total of 120,000 Aphytis year-1 ha-1. The parasitization was assessed on 1 m of branches about 1 cm in diameter, taken from 4 plants within each lot, at the time of the third and sixth releases, and observing the specimens present. On commercial ripening, we assessed the percentage of infested fruits out of 100 fruits per treatment and the percentage of parasitization out of 500 scale specimens counted on 100 fruits picked from 5 infested plants. Data underwent statistical analysis (ANOVA). Results revealed no statistically significant differences in the treatments. In 60% of cases the percentage of fruits infested by the armoured scale were higher in lots in which Aphytis melinus adults were released, with values varying between 39 to 77% in 1999 and 25 to 37% in 2000. On branches and fruits taken from these lots, in 2000, the parasitization rates were higher than those in the control areas (varying between 29.37 and 46.84%). Also in relation to the different levels of infestation of the trees, the parasitic activity of Aphytis melinus was insufficient to limit damage by Aonidiella aurantii within economically viable limits.
Mazzoni, E. & Cravedi, P. 2002 (2001). Observations on the overwintering and winter mortality of the San José
scale in fruit orchards in Emilia Romagna (Northern Italy). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano)
33(3): 373-383. [MazzonCr2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] To establish the developmental stage of overwintering San José Scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus] specimens in Northern Italy, a monitoring programme was carried out in Emilia-Romagna during winter 1998-99, mainly on stone fruit. According to the data collected, most of the specimens spend the greatest part of the winter in the first stage. By March specimens begin to develop quite quickly towards the second and then the adult stage. The natural winter mortality recorded is significant but so is the fact that important differences exist between years. The importance of these data for timing insecticide treatment also with IGRs and for choosing the most satisfactory and suitable winter control strategy of the pest, is discussed.
Mazzoni, E. & Polesny, F. 2001. Overwintering of the San José Scale on stone fruit in Northern Italy. IOBC/WPRS
Bulletin 24(5): 201-205. [MazzonPo2001]
Notes: [Proceedings of the IOBC-WPRS Fifth International Conference on Integrated Fruit Protection, Lleida, Spain, 22-26 October, 2000. Avilla, J. (Ed.)] A monitoring programme was carried out in Emilia Romagna (Italy) during winter 1998-99 to establish the developmental stage of overwintering Q. perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus] specimens in northern Italy, mainly on stone fruits. Some stone fruit orchards and one pear orchard (used for comparison) were sampled. Samples were collected at the end of the autumn and three times during winter. Living San José scale specimens were removed and slide mounted. Microscopic observations were conducted to assess developmental stage and stylet development. According to the data collected, most scales spend the greatest part of the winter in the first stage. Only at the end of the winter do scales begin to develop quickly towards the second and adult stage. No significant differences have been observed between the different crops. Data on the phenology of this pest are very useful in choosing control strategies mainly based on IGR application during winter.
Meekes, ETM., Fransen, J.J. & van Lenteren, J.C. 2002. Pathogenicity of Aschersonia spp. against whiteflies
Bemisia argentifolii and Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 81(1): 1-11.
Notes: Entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Aschersonia are specific for whitefly and scale insects. They can be used as biological control agents against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Forty-four isolates of Aschersonia spp. were tested for their ability to sporulate and germinate on semi-artificial media and to infect insect hosts.
Mehrnejad, M.R. & Ak, B.E. 2001. The current status of pistachio pests in Iran. (In English; Summary In French).
Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes 56: 315-322. [MehrneAk2001]
Notes: [XI GREMPA Seminar on pistachios and almonds. Proceedings of the XI GREMPA Seminar organized by the University of Harran with the collaboration of the FAO-CIHEAM Inter-Regional Cooperative Research and Development Network on Nuts, Sanliurfa, Turkey, 1-4 September 1999.] The injurious pests of pistachio orchards could be classified into three groups based on economic damage and distribution in Iran. The first group contains the major pests which are distributed throughout the main pistachio-producing areas and usually cause significant loss on pistachio yields by either attacking pistachio leaves, fruits or twigs. The second group comprises phytophagous insects and mites which are locally important pests like the pistachio scale insects including: the pistachio twig and fruit scale, Pistaciaspis pistaciae, the pistachio trunk and branch scale, Melanaspis inopinata. The third group contains the phytophagus insects and mites which are only minor pests. However, under certain conditions, they occur as local injurious pistachio pests, e.g., pistachio soft scale, Anapulvinaria pistaciae; pistachio spherical scale, Eulecanium rugulosum; and pistachio Noghi scale, Salicicola pistaciae.
Melzer, M.J., Karasev, A.V., Sether, D.M. & Hu, J.S. 2001. Nucleotide sequence, genome organization and
phylogenetic analysis of pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus-2. Journal of General Virology 82(1): 1-7.
Notes: The genome of pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes) wilt-associated closterovirus-2 (PMWaV-2) was cloned from double-stranded RNA isolated from diseased pineapple and its sequence determined. The 3'-terminal 14861 nt of the single-stranded RNA genome contains ten open reading frames (ORFs) which, from 5' to 3', potentially encode a >204 kDa polyprotein containing papain-like protease, methyltransferase and helicase domains (ORF1a), a 65 kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (ORF1b), a 5 kDa hydrophobic protein (ORF2), a 59 kDa heat shock protein 70 homologue (ORF3), a 46 kDa protein (ORF4), a 34 kDa coat protein (ORF5), a 56 kDa diverged coat protein (ORF6), a 20 kDa protein (ORF7), a 22 kDa protein (ORF8) and a 6 kDa protein (ORF9). A 132 nt untranslated region was present at the 3' terminus of the genome. This genome organization is typical of the monopartite closteroviruses, including the putative +1 ribosomal frameshift allowing expression of ORF1b. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that within the family Closteroviridae the mealybug-transmitted PMWaV-2 is more closely related to other mealybug-transmitted members than to those which are transmitted by aphids or whiteflies. Within this group, PMWaV-2 shares the greatest sequence identity with grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3, another mealybug-transmitted closterovirus.
Mesbah, H.A., Fata, A.A.S., Moursi, K.E., Mourad, A.K. & Abdel Razak. S.I. 2001. The population dynamics
of Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and factors affecting its seasonal abundance in Egypt.
Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Universiteit Gent 66(2b):
Notes: [Proceedings of the 53rd International Symposium on Crop Protection, Gent, Belgium, 8 May 2001. Part II.] Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni) was observed attacking Callistemon lanceolatus at the Experimental Farm of the Agricultural Research Station and Ruscus hypoglossum at Antoniades park in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. The infestation rate on Ruscus hypoglossum, reached its maximum (98.0%) during autumn months, while the minimum rate 68.3%, was recorded during summer months. The fluctuating population density of F. fioriniae showed three distinct peaks. The first peak of 731.0 individuals/10 branches was recorded in October 1998, the second (734.1) in December 1998, and the third, (506.9) in April 1999. The highest number of counted insects (1991.1/plant) was observed during the autumn season, followed by winter (1467.9), spring (978.2) seasons and the least number (271.6/plant) was recorded in summer. On the contrary, the highest rate of infestation by the immature stages was recorded during the winter season, followed by spring, summer and autumn seasons (42.8, 29, 24.6 and 21.9%) of the total counted insects, respectively. The scale insect has been parasitized with the aphelinid species Encarsia citrina (Aphelinidae) with a maximum rate of 28.1 of the total count during August. The statistical analysis was performed for determining the relationship between the prevailing weather factors of daily mean temperature, daily relative humidity, wind speed and day-light in one hand and the population activity of F. fioriniae on R. hypoglossum plants on the other hand.
Mihal, I. & Cicak, A. 2001. [Biotic vectors of beech necrotic disease of tracheomycotic type.] (In Slovakian;
Summary In English). Ekologia (Bratislava) 20(4): 404-413. [MihalCi2001]
Notes: The authors present results of a survey on three significant species of biotic vectors spreading beech necrotic disease. The results were obtained from 40 sites situated throughout the whole Slovakia territory. The occurrence frequency of the Cryptococcus fagi, one of the species tracked, was from 2.0 to 100%.
Miklaszewska, K. 2001. [Protection of home pot plants (19). (Maranta leuconeura).] Ochrona domowych roslin
doniczkowych (19). Maranta. (In Polish; Summary In English). Ochrona Roslin 45(5-6): 18-19. [Miklas2001]
Notes: The natural and domestic growth conditions of the ornamental plant Maranta leuconeura is described. The disturbances in the development of the plant caused by unfavourable soil and moisture conditions, and the occurrence of scales [Coccidae] and mites are also discussed.
Millar ,J.G., Daane, K.M., McElfresh, J.S., Moreira, J.A., Malakar, K.R., Guillen, M. & Bentley, W.J. 2002.
Development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug Planococcus ficus
(Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. Journal of Economic Entomology 95(4): 706-714.
Notes: The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identified as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of males at higher doses. Rubber septum lures loaded with 10- to 1,000-mug doses of the pheromone were equally attractive, and lures loaded with 100 mug of racemic pheromone remained attractive for at least 12 wk under field conditions. Delta traps were more effective than double-sided sticky cards and minimized captures of nontarget insects. Pheromone-baited traps had an effective range of at least 50 m. Comparison of visual sampling methods and sampling of males with pheromone-baited traps revealed that trap catches were significantly correlated with the results from visual sampling methods, and with economic damage.
Millar, I.M. 2002. Mealybug genera (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) of South Africa: identification and review.
African Entomology 10(2): 185-233. [Millar2002]
Notes: A key is provided to distinguish the 50 genera of Pseudococcidae recorded from South Africa. Diagnostic morphological features are provided for each genus, the general distributions and host plant ranges of the included species are noted, and the 109 mealybug species recorded from South Africa are listed.
Miller, D.R. & Kozár, F. 2002. Systematic analysis of afrotropical Newsteadia (Hemiptera, Coccoidea:
Ortheziidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 37(103): 201-250. [MillerKo2002]
Notes: Adult females of nine new species of Newsteadia ortheziids are described and detailed redescriptions are provided for the four species previously known from the Afrotropical Region including N. gomyi Richard, N. mauritiana Mamet, N. montana Mamet and N. wacri Strickland. A key is presented for the 13 species known to occur in the area and a detailed discussion is presented on the homology of the wax plates that cover the body of these fascinating scale insects.
Miller, D.R. & Pellizzari, G. 2002 (2001). Evelyna M. Danzig: a powerful force in scale insect systematics.
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 11-17. [MillerPe2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The coccidologist community recognizes the very significant contributions made by Dr. Evelyna M. Danzig during her 42 year career as a research scientist with the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (and her career continues). She has authored more than 120 scientific papers and books on the systematics of scale insects and whiteflies and has studied the faunas of Central Asia, Caucasus, Siberia, the Far-Eastern Russia, northern Russia, Mongolia, Afghanistan and Vietnam, to name a few. She has been a mentor of many students of scale-insect systematics, and has written articles on faunistics, life history, polymorphism, phylogeny, identification, classification, and nomenclature. She is an avid collector and has spent many summers observing scale insects in the field as well as mounted on microscope slides. Within the pit scales, soft scales, margarodids, armoured scales, and mealybugs, she has characterized 10 new genera and 129 new species. Two species mentioned as a focus for her work on intraspecific variation are Lepidosaphes ulmi and Eulecanium franconicum. Kiritshenkella, Puto, Peliococcus and Trionymus are examples of genera for which she has produced revisionary studies.
Miller, D.R., Ben-Dov, Y., Gimpel, M.E., German, V. & Gibson, G.A.P. 2002 (2001). Recent enhancements in
ScaleNet: a queriable systematic database of the scale insects of the world (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Bollettino di
Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 19-28. [MillerBeGi2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] A number of changes have been implemented in ScaleNet since it was last discussed in 1998 at the International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies. These changes include addition of databases on the following 18 families: Aclerdidae, Beesoniidae, Carayonemidae, Cerococcidae, Dactylopiidae, Grimaldiellidae, Halimococcidae, Inkaidae, Jersicoccidae, Kermesidae, Kerriidae, Kukaspididae, Labiococcidae, Lecanodiaspididae, Micrococcidae, Phenacoleachiidae, Phoenicococcidae, and Stictococcidae making a total of 23 families on line. The bibliographic file has grown from 11,000 to over 14,700 references and a system has been developed to look for variant spellings of author names. A new query has been added that allows a search for a string of letters in a species epithet and very soon a section on invasive species will be added. The "Scales in a Region/Country/Subunit Query" now allows a search for all of the species in a zoogeographic region, country, or country subunit in a particular scale family or genus. The "Hosts, Natural Enemies and Associates of a Scale Query" allows a search for all of the species that are found on a specified host, have specified natural enemies, or have specified associates in a particular scale family or genus. Significant progress has been achieved on the armored scale, margarodid, and asterolecaniid databases.
Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L. & Watson, G.W. 2002. Invasive species of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and
their threat to U.S. agriculture. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104(4): 825-836
Notes: We provide a compilation of 158 species of mealybugs that are either a pest or threat to United States agriculture. Included for each species, where applicable, is reference to: the United States origin and date of introduction; whether it is established in the United States; its pest or threat status in the United States along with a validation citation; its principle hosts; and its biogeographical region of origin.
Miller, G.L. & Miller, D.R. 2002. Dysmicoccus Ferris and similar genera (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)
of the Gulf State Region including a description of a new species and new United States records. Proceedings of the
Entomological Society of Washington 104(4): 968-979. [MillerMi2002a]
Notes: A key to the species of Dysmicoccus, Oracella, and Paradoxococcus of the Gulf State Region is presented. D. radinovskyi Miller and Miller, n. sp., is described and illustrated from the adult female, third-instar female, and second-instar female. D. merrilli (Ferris) is a new synonym of D. boninsis (Kuwana). D. grassii (Leonardi), D. mackenziei Beardsley, and D. neobrevipes Beardsley represent new distribution records.
Miller, G.L. & Williams, M.L. 2002. Systematics of the adult male soft scales from America north of Mexico
(Hemiptera: Coccidae). Contributions on Entomology, International 5(2): 53-126. [MillerWi2002]
Notes: A key to 33 species of adult male soft scales for America north of Mexico is provided. Descriptions and illustrations are presented for 16 species within Ceroplastes, Eriopeltis, Eulecanium, Milviscutulus, Parasaissetia, Parthenolecanium, Philephedra, Pulvinaria, Pulvinariella and Sphaerolecanium.
Miller, G.L., Miller, D.R. & Watson, G.W. 2002 (2001). Mealybug invasions, a threat to plants everywhere.
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 507. [MillerMiWa2002a]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Paracoccus marginatus and Planococcus ficus have recently become established in the U.S. Cataenococcus hispidus, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Planococcus minor and P. lilacinus are most likely to be introduced in the future.
Mita, E., Tsitsimpikou, C., Tsiveleka, L., Petrakis, P.V., Ortiz, A., Vagias, C. & Roussis, V. 2002. Seasonal
variation of oleoresin terpenoids from Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea and host selection of the scale insect
Marchalina hellenica (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Margarodidae, Coelostonidiinae). Holzforschung 56(6): 572-578.
Notes: Seasonal variation of the volatile terpenoids of Pinus pinea Ten and Pinus halepensis Mill, infested and uninfested by the caterpillar Marchalina hellenica, was followed by GC and GC-MS analyses of the pines cortical oleoresin. a-Pinene was found to be the dominant monoterpene in P. halepensis, while in P. pinea limonene was the most abundant compound. A significant decrease in the number of identified volatiles from winter to summer was observed and was more pronounced in the minor metabolites. Variation of the terpenoids according to the depth of the draining (drilling) holes in the trees was also determined. In addition, terpenoids were correlated with the results of cross feeding experiments designed for the study of the host preference of M. hellenica. All results revealed the dependence of M. hellenica on the secondary chemistry of the host. P. pinea, having a high content of limonene, appears to be more resistant to the caterpillar. Canonical discriminant analysis, in the discriminant space of the relative contribution of the ten major terpenes, separated R. pinea from P. halepensis, and infested from uninfested P. halepensis trees.
Mizuta, T. 2001. [Differences in survival rate of the mulberry scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni
(Hemiptera : Diaspididae) in tea cultivars and its use for evaluation of insect resistance. (In Japanese). Kyushu Plant
Protection Research 47: 135-139. [Mizuta2001]
Mohan, K.N., Paramita, R., Chandra, H.S. & Ray, P. 2002. Characterization of the genome of the mealybug
Planococcus lilacinus, a model organism for studying whole-chromosome imprinting and inactivation. Genetical
Research 79(2): 111-118. [MohanPaCh2002]
Notes: The co-occurrence of three chromosome-wide phenomena -- imprinting, facultative heterochromatization and diffuse centromere -- in the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus makes investigation of the genomics of this species an attractive prospect. In order to estimate the complexity of the genome of this species, 300 random stretches of its DNA, constituting _0.1% of the genome, were sequenced. Coding sequences appear to constitute _53.5%, repeat sequences _44.5% and non-coding single-copy sequences _2% of the genome. The proportion of repetitive sequences in the mealybug is higher than that in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (_30%). The mealybug genome (_220 Mb) is about 1.3 times the size of the fly genome (_165 Mb) and its GC content (_35%) less than that of the fly genome (_40%). The relative abundance of various dinucleotides, as analysed by the method of Gentles and Karlin, shows that the dinucleotide signatures of the two species are moderately similar and that in the mealybug there is neither over-representation nor under-representation of any dinucleotide.
Mohan, K.N., Ray, P. & Chandra, H.S. 2002. Characterization of the genome of the mealybug Planococcus
lilacinus, a model organism for studying whole-chromosome imprinting and inactivation. Genetical Research 79(2):
Notes: The co-occurrence of three chromosome-wide phenomena imprinting, facultative heterochromatization and diffuse centromere in the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus makes investigation of the genomics of this species an attractive prospect. In order to estimate the complexity of the genome of this species, 300 random stretches of its DNA, constituting [similar]0DT1% of the genome, were sequenced. Coding sequences appear to constitute [similar]53DT5%, repeat sequences [similar]44DT5% and non-coding single-copy sequences [similar]2% of the genome. The proportion of repetitive sequences in the mealybug is higher than that in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ([similar]30%). The mealybug genome ([similar]220 Mb) is about 1DT3 times the size of the fly genome ([similar]165 Mb) and its GC content ([similar]35%) less than that of the fly genome ([similar]40%). The relative abundance of various dinucleotides, as analysed by the method of Gentles and Karlin, shows that the dinucleotide signatures of the two species are moderately similar and that in the mealybug there is neither over-representation nor under-representation of any dinucleotide.
Molina, J.C., Pereira, P.G. & De Gonzalez, M.Q. 2002. [Insects and mites of Guava, (Psidium guajava L.) in
commercial orchards of Zulia State, Venezuela.] Insectos y Acaros del guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) en
plantaciones comerciales del estado Zulia, Venezuela. (In Spanish; Summary In English). Revista de la Facultad de
Agronomía, Universidad del Zulia 19(2): 140-148. [MolinaPeDe2002]
Notes: A taxonomic survey of the insects and mites of Guava, Psidium guajava L., was conducted in commercial orchards of Mare, Paez, La Canada de Urdaneta, Jesus Enrique Lossada, Miranda and Sucre counties of Zulia state, Venezuela, from March 2000 to July 2001. Phytophagous and entomophagous species were collected with entomological nets, aspirators and ethyl acetate killing jars, as well as they were identified and preserved in the collection of the Arthropod Museum of the University of Zulia (MALUZ). Leaves, fruits, flowers and twigs with the insects or mites were brought to the lab for observation and rearing. A total of 47 insect species and 8 mite species were found on this crop, of which 29 and 25 are new reports for the region and for Venezuela respectively. Forty-four species were phytophagous, 10 were predators and one was a parasitoid. Among the most common phytophagous species is: Capulinia sp. near jaboticabae von Ihering (Homoptera: Eriococcidae).
Mony, R., Kenne, M., Orivel, J. & Dejean, A. 2002. Biology and ecology of pest ants of the genus Melissotarsus
(Formicidae: Myrmicinae), with special reference to tropical fruit tree attacks. Sociobiology 40(3): 645-654.
Notes: We show in this study that Melissotarsus beccarii and M. weissi, two myrmicine species, are pest ants that dig galleries in the bark of trees in order to nest and attend Diaspididae (Hemiptera). Among the trees attacked figure species of economical importance such as Mangifera indica (mango tree; Anacardiaceae), Dacryodes edulis (safoo tree), and Aucoumea klaineana (okoume); both latter species Burseraceae). The extent of the damage is due to large polygynous colonies with a monomorphic worker caste. Indeed, we estimated that a safoo tree supported a M. beccarii colony of 1,585,000 individuals (larvae included) attending 556,000 Diaspis sp., while two mango trees supported 412,000 and 361,000 M. weissi individuals attending 405,000 and 330,000 Morganella pseudospinigera, respectively. During a survey conducted on 185 safoo and 513 mango trees we noted that most old, large trees were attacked, while young trees, apparently, were not. Bimonthly samplings of bark permitted us to note the year round presence of winged sexuals in mature M. beccarii colonies; the periods of higher presence of females and males being globally the same. On the contrary, we noted an asynchrony in the presence of winged females and males in M. weissi, a situation probably related to a strategy favoring intercolonial mating. Although the production of females was widespread throughout the year, founding queens were mostly observed between March and June (rainy season), suggesting that during the other seasons mated females join their nests.
Mori, N., Pellizzari, G. & Tosi, L. 2002 (2001). Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera, Coccoidea): new
pest of ornamentals in Europe? Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 331-336.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The presence of the wax scale C. ceriferus in Italian gardens is reported. The species was found in North Italy on several ornamental species and appears to be already established. It is thought to be the first outdoor record of this species in Europe. C. ceriferus is probably native to Asia and is presently widespread in many countries of the world where it is reported as a pest of ornamental plants. It is a polyphagous species, has one generation per year and overwinters as an adult female.
Mourad, A.K., Mesbah, H.A., Fata Aziza, A.S., Moursi Khadiga, S. & Abdel Razak Soad, I. 2001. Survey of
scale insects of ornamental plants in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en
Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Universiteit Gent 66(2B): 571-580. [MouradMeFa2001]
Notes: This investigation covers a survey of the scale insects associated with some ornamental plants at three chosen public gardens as well as at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Station in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. A total of nineteen scale insect species belonging to sixteen genera related to four families of the super-family Coccoidea were found infesting eighteen ornamental plants during the period from April, 1998 up to March, 1999. These species are: Family: Asterolecaniidae - Represented by one species only. The fig scale Russelaspis pustulans; (Cockerell)=(Asterolecanium pustulans Cock). Family: Coccidae - represented by seven species: Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, Green shield scale, Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell), Long brown scale, Coccus elongatus (Douglas), Brown soft scale, Coccus hesperidum (Linn.), Tessellated scale, Eucalymnatus tessellatus (Signoret), Hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker), and Olive soft scale, S. oleae (Olivier); Family: Diaspididae - represented by ten species: Oleander scale, Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot), Minute cypress scale, Carulaspis minima (Targioni-Tozzetti), Dictyosprmum scale, Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), Palm fiorinia scale, Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni), Latania scale, Hemiberlisia lataniae (Signoret), Fig scale, Lepidosaphes ficus (Signoret), Snow scale, Lineaspis striata (Newstead), Masked scale, Mycetaspis personata (Comstock), Olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), and White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti); and Family: Eriococcidae - represented by one species only Eriococcus araucariae (Maskell). During the same study, many species of natural enemies (nine parasitoids and eight predators) were also found to be associated with the aforementioned scale insects.
Moursi Khadiga, E., Mesbah, H.A., Mourad, A.K., & Abdel Razak Soad, I. 2001. Ecological studies on the
snow scale insect, Lineaspis striata (Newstead) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Thuja orientalis in Egypt.
Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Universiteit Gent 66(2B):
Notes: The snow scale insect, Lineaspis striata (Newstead) was recorded as an important insect pest of Thuja orientalis in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. The present study revealed a large population (143.7+-43; 141.8+-20.7 and 149.0+-48.5) during May, June and January, respectively. The fluctuating number of the immature stages have two peaks during June and November (6.9+-0.7) and (20.5+-5.0), respectively. The number of adult males reached the maximum (73.9+-7.5) in October, while the females reached the maximum (88.7+-2.2) in January. The insect has two annual generations. It is usually parasitized by Encarsia citrina (Aphelinidae), with a maximum parasitization rate of 17.8+-2.8 during August.
Moursi Khadiga, E., Mourad, A.K., Mesbah, H.A. & Abdel Razak Soad, I. 2001. The bionomics of the scale
insect Eriococcus araucariae (Muskell) (Homoptera: Eriococcidae) on Araucaria excelsa in Egypt. Mededelingen
Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Universiteit Gent 66(2B): 547-552.
Notes: The eriococcid species, Eriococcus araucariae (Muskell) is considered an economic pest of Araucaria excelsa at Montazah garden, in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. This study was carried out from June, 1998 till May, 1999. The data revealed that populations were relatively low in autumn and winter, then increased at the beginning of May to 72.0+-1.60 per tree; continued its increase to reach 200.3+-36.9/tree in the second half of May and during June, July and August, with the highest population (641.3+-76.8/tree) in the first half of July. Thereafter, the population began to decrease in the beginning of September 51.3+-2.5/tree up to the end of April. Similarly, the occurrence of both immature stages and adults was also month-dependant all the year round. Adult males appeared three times in June, January and late March. There was a positive and significant correlation between the total population of E. araucariae and the daily mean temperature, wind speed and daylight. This relation was negatively correlated with relative humidity.
Murua, M.G. & Fidalgo, P. 2001. [Preliminary list of natural enemies of Saissetia oleae (Homoptera: Coccidae) in
olive groves in the province of La Rioja, Argentina.] (In Spanish; Summary In English). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal,
Plagas 27(4): 447-454. [MuruaFi2001]
Notes: [Original title: Listado preliminar de los enemigos naturales de Saissetia oleae (Homoptera: Coccidae) en olivares de la provincia de La Rioja, Argentina.] Saissetia oleae is an important pest in Mendoza, San Juan and La Rioja provinces, Argentina. During 1964 and 1967, two parasitoids were introduced for its control: Metaphycus lounsburyi and M. helvolus. These species were recovered in very small percentages, and their establishment was not evaluated. An inventory was carried out of natural enemies in La Rioja to check if the biological control agents introduced in Mendoza were present. Predators found included Azya bioculata, Linepithema humile and Chrysopidae sp. The parasitoids present were Metaphycus lounsburyi, M. flavus, Coccophagus caridei, Lecaniobius utilis and the hyperparasitoids were Ablerus ciliatus, Marietta caridei [Coccophagus caridei] and Brasema sp.
Narai, Y. & Murai, T. 2002. Individual rearing of the Japanese mealybug, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana)
(Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on germinated broad bean seeds. Applied Entomology and Zoology. Tokyo 37(2):
Notes: The Japanese mealybug, Planococcus kraunhiae was reared on germinated broad bean seeds as an alternative food source. The developmental period from egg stage to adult oviposition was 65 days at 20degreeC and 46 days at 24degreeC. Egg hatchability was higher than 98% at both temperatures. Survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was 76% at 20degreeC and 81% at 24degreeC. The total number of eggs per female was 588 at 20degreeC and 965 at 24degreeC. Adult longevity of females at 20degreeC and 24degreeC was 32 days and 26 days, respectively. The suitability of germinated broad bean seeds for P. kraunhiae is discussed in comparison with other alternative food sources.
Negm, M.F., Assem, S.M. & El Sisi, A.G. 2001. Comparison between some mineral oils and cidial for controlling
mealybug Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) on mulberry trees by using knapsack motor sprayer. (In English;
Summary In Arabic). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 79(2): 453-461. [NegmAsEl2001]
Notes: The efficacy of KZ-oil and CAPL-2 mineral oils at 420 and 630 litres/feddan against I. seychellarum on Japanese mulberry was evaluated in Qualubia, Egypt, during 1998. Cidial [phenthoate] at the same concentration was also evaluated for comparison. The lower insecticide rate (420 litres/feddan) was more effective in controlling I. seychellarum compared with the higher rate (630 litres/feddan). Cidial at 420 litres/feddan was most effective in controlling the pest population after one (86.2% reduction), two (95.0%), three (86.4%), and four (95.5%) weeks of spraying. Among the mineral oil treatments, KZ-oil at 420 litres/feddan gave the highest percent reductions of 66.7, 84.8, 71.0, and 83.6% after one, two, three, and four weeks of application.
Nelson, J., Lambdin, P., Grant, J. & Mendel, Z. 2002. New distribution record for Elatophilus inimicus
(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Florida Entomologist 85(1): 284-285. [NelsonLaGr2002a]
Notes: A margarodid (Matsucoccus resinosae) predator, E. inimicus, was most commonly collected in stands of Pinus pungens on dry, rocky ridges between 914m and 1392m. These collection data represent new state (Tennessee) and county (Blount, Knox, and Sevier) records, and the southernmost distribution recorded for this species, besides suggesting a relationship with habitats dominated by P. pungens. Although the geographical range of prey and this predator is unresolved, its documentation on scale insects and adelgids may encourage further evaluation of this species as a biological control agent against these soft-bodied pests of pines.
Nelson, J.D., Lambdin, P.L., Grant, J.F. & Mendel, Z. 2002 (2001). Predators attracted to the sex pheromones of
Matsucoccus spp. (Margarodidae) in pine dominated forests. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura
(Milano) 33(3): 409-416. [NelsonLaGr2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Predators attracted to the sex pheromones of M. josephi, M. feytaudi, M. matsumurae, and controls (without pheromones) in east Tennessee (USA) were collected from May 1999 to July 2000. Delta style sticky traps (n=60) baited with the sex pheromones of Matsucoccus spp. were placed in 5 pine sites along elevation gradients in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. From 468 sticky inserts processed, 7,972 insect specimens representing 112 species, 83 families, and 12 orders were identified. Some 99% (n=546) of all neuropterans and 88% (n=72) of all hemipterans were captured from pheromone traps, compared to the control traps. Hemerobiidae was represented by 510 specimens of Hemerobius stigma (=stigmaterus), two specimens of Sympherobius barberi, and three specimens of Micromus posticus. Highest numbers of individuals were captured in the sex pheromone traps of M. josephi (267), M. feytaudi (224), M. matsumurae (25), and the control (1), respectively. Significantly high numbers of predators were captured at pine sites at Little Greenbriar Trail and Bullhead Trail on Mt. LeConte in traps baited with pheromones of M. feytaudi and M. josephi in stands of Pinus pungens, on dry, rocky ridges between 914 m and 1392 m. Twenty-five specimens of Elatophilus inimica were also captured from sites at Little Greenbriar Trail and Bullhead Trail on Mt. LeConte, University of Tennessee Arboretum, and Foothills Parkway sites. Of these, 14 were captured from pine site at Little Greenbriar Trail in traps baited with pheromones of M. matsumurae and M. feytaudi. These data suggest that E. inimica, like H. stigma, were most abundant in stands of P. pungens on dry, rocky ridges between 914 m and 1392 m. Collection of E. inimica represents new county and state records, and the southernmost distribution recorded for this species.
Normark, B.B. 2002 (2001). Genetic conflict and the dizygotic soma: on the adaptive significance of polar body
transmission and the polyploid bacterio me in Pseudococcidae and Diaspididae. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di
Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 151-160. [Normar2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Metazoans typically have a single-celled stage in the life cycle, a sexually produced zygote or apomictically produced asexual propagule. Some metazoans have vegetative reproduction, in which new individuals are formed from a large number of cells. Two families of scale insects, Pseudococcidae and Diaspididae, are apparently unique among Metazoa in that each individual is founded by two genomically distinct cells. One of these cells is a normal diploid zygote formed from fusion of ovum and sperm; it gives rise to the germline and most of the soma. The other cell is a polyploid secondary zygote, typically a pentaploid product of the fusion of the first (2N) and second (1N) polar bodies with a cleavage nucleus derived from the first zygote (2N). The secondary zygote gives rise to a specialized somatic tissue, the bacteriome, which houses vertically transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria. The bacteriome is analogous to endosperm in that it is a polyploid nutritive tissue with an enriched maternal genomic contribution, but differs in that it remains an integral and active part of the organism (at least in females) throughout ontogeny. Especially given the prevalence of brooding, and sex determination by paternal genome elimination in males, there is enormous scope for intragenomic conflict in these insects, especially over the sex ratio. Consistent with the conflict hypothesis there is considerable variation in genomic composition of the bacteriome between species.
Normark, B.B. 2003. The evolution of alternative genetic systems in insects. Annual Review of Entomology 48:
Notes: The Iceryini, Neococcoidea [Neococcids], Pseudococcidae, Stictococcus, Icerya purchasi and Aspidiotus nerii are among the taxa discussed.
Noyes, J.S. & Schauff, M.E. 2003. New Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera) from papaya mealybug (Paracoccus
marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae). Proceedings of the
Entomological Society of Washington 105(1): 180-185. [NoyesSc2003]
Notes: Two new Encyrtidae, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagus papayae, are described and illustrated. Both species have been reared as part of exploration to find parasitoids of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink. Biological control programs currently underway are investigating these species, and we herein provide names and taxonomic information so these parasites can be utilized in the field.
Nunez, S., Scatoni, I. & Polesny, F. 2001. Current pest management status in IFP in Uruguay. IOBC/WPRS
Bulletin 24(5): 259-263. [NunezScPo2001]
Notes: [Proceedings of the IOBC-WPRS Fifth International Conference on Integrated Fruit Protection held in Lleida, Spain, 22-26 October, 2000. Avilla, J. (Ed.)] The integrated fruit production programme (IFP) in Uruguay began in 1997 with the participation of 25 growers. At the present time there are more than 100 growers in the programme. Most of the growers have apples, pears, and peaches in the same orchard. In spite of the high incidence of secondary pests, growers on IFP, sprayed 50% less insecticides than those on conventional production. To decrease current insecticide input in IFP, research programmes are focused in attracticides to control leafrollers, combined mating disruption for OFM and CM on apples and pears and selective insecticides to control mealybug.
O'Brien, J.G., Ostry, M.E., Mielke, M.E., Mech, R., Heyd, R.L. & McCullough, D.G. 2001. First report of
beech bark disease in Michigan. Plant Disease 85(8): 921. [OBrienOsMi2001]
Notes: The scale insect Cryptococcus fagisuga has been found in beech (Fagus grandifolia) stands in Michigan, USA, with the heaviest beech scale infestations distributed around Ludington state Park and Bass Lake Forest Campground. The extent of the insect infestation suggests that it has been present in Michigan for many years, with anecdotal accounts placing the first observations of beech scale at Ludington State Park around 1990. This is thought to be the first report of the beech scale and beech bark disease in Michigan, with Nectria galligena and N. coccinea var. faginata identified as the pathogens.
Ohashi, H. & Naka, K. 2001. [Diminishing efficacy of buprofezin against the arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis
(KUWANA), and the substitute insecticides.] (In Japanese). Proceedings of the Kansai Plant Protection Society
35(3): 198-201. [OhashiNa2001]
Oliviere. 2002. (In French). Arboriculture Fruitière No. 542: 67. [Olivie2002]
Notes: The French olive cv. Oliviere is described. This early maturing cultivar produces up to 100 kg/tree (starting after 2-3 years). The best pollinator is the Spanish cv. Arbequine. Olives are harvested in November-December and used for olive oil. Resistance to frost is strong, but the tree is susceptible to Bactrocera oleae and Saissetia oleae infestation.
Ozaki, K. 2002. [Environmentally friendly methods for controlling Aulacaspis marina, a mangrove infesting scale
insect in Bali, Indonesia.] (In Japanese). Tropical Forestry No.53: 39-46. [Ozaki2002]
Notes: The control methods discussed include spraying sea water, ant predation and the use of other natural enemies.
Pan, Z.P., Zeng, L., Ye, W.F., Pan, Z.P., Zeng, L. & Ye, W.F. 2002. [The natural enemies and biological control
of the loblolly pine mealybug, Oracella acuta.] (In Chinese). Chinese Journal of Biological Control 18(1): 36-38.
Panis, A. 2002 (2001). Hymenopteran parasitoids of Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera, Coccidae) and associated
insects in southern France. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 417-425. [Panis2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Hymenopteran parasitoids of S. oleae, 17 other scale insect species nearby (mostly Coccidae), and of insects associated with these scale infestations, were studied at 210 sample localities in southern France for over 20 years. Most of the 47 parasitoids were Chalcidoidea but a few Ceraphronoidea, Ichneumonoidea, and Proctotrupoidea were also found. S. oleae was associated with predators and detritivores feeding on honeydew, sooty mould, and scale debris. The scale host-plants surveyed were citrus, olive, oleander [Nerium oleander], and maquis vegetation. A table is provided, listing the parasitoid species found, identities of their hosts and associated host-plants, the host life cycle stages parasitized, the number of parasitoid generations per year, and distribution (which was related to winter cold-hardiness).
Panis, A. & Warlop, F. 2002. [The black olive scale: practical feasibility of farm rearing of Metaphycus
lounsburyi.] La cochenille noire de l'olivier: faisabilite pratique d'un elevage artisanal de Metaphycus lounsburyi.
(In French). Arboriculture Fruitière No. 564: 27-30. [PanisWa2002]
Notes: Notes are given on the biology and ecology of Saissetia oleae, a pest of olives, and of the parasitoid Metaphycus lounsburyi, in France. Commercial production and rearing of this parasitoid by farmers are discussed.
Paskins, M. 2001. Harrisia cactus: (Eriocereus martinii). Agnote (Northern Territory of Australia) No.500: 2 pp.
Notes: The morphological description, geographical distribution, ecological importance and some related plants of Harrisia cactus (Eriocereus martinii), a Class C noxious weed, are presented. Control measures include hand weeding and the use of biological control agents (such as Hypogeococcus festerianus).
Pellizzari, G. & Fontana, P. 2002 (2001). The genus Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccidae): present
status and remarks on species identification. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 179-187. [PellizFo2002a]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] This paper deals with the results of a revision on the genus Lecanopsis. All the type slides and other specimens from the main European museums and collections have been studied. The revision highlighted synonyms among species and misidentifications of species erroneously placed in this genus. Before the revision the genus included 18 species, but at the end of this study the number of Lecanopsis species was reduced to 11, plus 3 unrecognizable species. In addition, two new species have been recently collected in Italy. Little is known about the morphology of young instars of several species. In fact, all developmental stages are known for only two species, namely L. formicarum and L. clodiensis. The importance of the first-instar nymphs for identifying Lecanopsis at the species level is reported.
Pellizzari, G. (Ed.) 2002 (2001). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 531 pp.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] 48 papers and 31 posters were presented. 59 papers and 14 posters were published in this volume in the categories of morphology and systematics, biology, monitoring, population dynamics, scales of economic importance, natural enemies: biology and host interaction, and scale insect pest control. A list of participants and their mail and email addresses is provided.
Pellizzari-Scaltriti, G. & Fontana, P. 2002. A systematic revision of the genus Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti
(Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) Ser. II, 34(2): 129-212. [PellizFo2002]
Notes: This paper deals with the results of a revision on the genus Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti (Coccidae) carried out during the last years. The revision highlighted synonymies among species and misidentifications of species erroneously placed in this genus. Before the present revision the genus included 17 species, but at the end of this study the number of Lecanopsis species was reduced to 11, plus 3 unrecognizable species. All the Lecanopsis species and their young instars (when known) have been redescribed and illustrated. In addition, two new species, L. marottai and L. mirabilis, recently collected in Italy, are described and illustrated.
Pencheva, A. & Georgieva, G. 2001. [Species composition relating to the decline of tree vegetation in Sunny Beach
resort.] Nauka za Gorata 38(3-4): 71-86. [PencheGe2001]
Notes: About 15 tree species were investigated revealing a total number of 104 insect pests. In coniferous species significant damage is caused by piercing-sucking pests, the most harmful being Dreyfusia picea, representatives of genus Leucaspis and Chloropulvinaria floccifera on Taxus baccata. In deciduous trees, significant damage is due to Lytta vesicatoria, Stereonichus fraxini and Xantogaleruca luteola along with Tetraneura ulmi, Drepanosiphum platanoides and Prociphilus fraxini) and Cortucha ciliata. The main recommendations are yearly monitoring for appearance and development of pests, improving the physiological status of trees, and applying weak toxic treatment.
Persad, A. & Khan, A. 2002. Comparison of life table parameters for Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Anagyrus kamali,
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Scymnus coccivora. Biocontrol Dordecht 47(2): 137-149. [PersadKh2002]
Notes: The pink mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) was recently introduced to Trinidad. M. hirsutus almost immediately attained pest status and despite the implementation of cultural and chemical control measures, the population increased above the economic injury level. Three natural enemies, Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Scymnus coccivora Ayyar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were introduced. Life fecundity tables were constructed for the pest-natural enemies complex in the hope of understanding the interaction of each natural enemy with its host, and, in so doing, form a comparative approach to assessing the effectiveness of each natural enemy. The studies were carried out in the laboratory at 27.0 +/- 3.0 degreesC and 58.0 +/- 3.0% RH, which is within the average field conditions in Trinidad. The net reproductive rates (R-o), the innate capacity for increase (r(m)) and the finite rate of increase (lambda) were found to be higher for the natural enemies compared to the pest. The doubling time for M. hirsutus was 8.83 days, while A. kamali, C. montrouzieri and S. coccivora populations doubled in 2.09, 5.13 and 4.45 days respectively. The significantly higher population parameters of the natural enemies, coupled with their shorter doubling times, mean that their populations can grow faster and thus exert a controlling effect on pest numbers.
Ping, Y.M. & Zeng, B.L. 2001. [The occurrence of citrus root powdery scale and its control.] (In Chinese). South
China Fruits 30(3): 27. [PingZe2001]
Notes: In recent years, citrus root powdery scale [Cribrolecanium andersoni] has become an important pest in the Nanfeng county, in Jiangxi, China. This pest has 3-4 generations a year, and it usually overwinters in the upper soil layer. The peak period of its occurrence is in early May. Its nymphs and adults usually concentrate on the fibrous roots of the tree and suck the sap, resulting in the damage of the root cortex, abscission of upper flowers and fruitlets, and production of smaller leaves with light green colour. Soil application of 78.5% Tamaron [methamidophos] or 92.3% Furadan [carbofuran] was appropriate for its control.
Pitan, O.O.R., Mwansat, G., Akinyemi, S.O.S., Adebayo, O,S. & Akiniosotu, T.A. 2002. Effect of mango
mealybug and sooty mould attack on mango and the impact of the released Gyranusoidea tebygi Noyes on yield. (In
English). Fruits 57(2): 105-113. [PitanMwAk2002]
Notes: The mango mealybug Rastrococcus invadens is a pest of horticultural crops, especially mango. Though this fact has been demonstrated and its parasitoid, Gyranusoidea tebygi, released for its control in many countries, quantitative information on the damage inflicted by the mealybug and post-release mango fruit production are still scanty. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the damage caused by mango mealybug and its associated sooty mould on mango plants and to assess mango fruit production after the release of G. tebygi in 1989. Laboratory experiments were set up to determine the effect of different populations of mango mealybug (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 adults/cage) on the chemical constituents of mango leaves. The mould associated with the mango mealybug was identified and its effect on leaf temperature was studied. A mango orchard was studied for fruit production from the time of fruitlessness in 1990 to 1998 when fruit yield peaked. The resultant effect of the parasitism of mango mealybug by G. tebygi was monitored on the chemical composition of mango leaves during this period. Protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, crude fibre and moisture contents were depleted with increase in mealybug population. The isolated mould fungus Capnodium mangiferae was found to raise leaf temperature of infected mango seedlings. The population density of G. tebygi was found to be negatively but significantly correlated with mango mealybug population and positively correlated with mango fruit yield. Parasitism was highly correlated with mealybug population and yield, and was considered a major factor in the control of the pest and the subsequent increase in mango fruit yield. Rainfall did not have a significant impact on yield, mealybug population or sooty mould score. The injury inflicted by R. invadens and its associated mould, and the enhancement of mango fruit production by the activities of G. tebygi on the mealybug were discussed.
Podsiadlo, E. 2002. A note on the position of thoracic spiracles in Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie
Pismo Entomologiczne 71: 159-164. [Podsia2002]
Notes: The paper presents results of the study on position of thoracic spiracles in Lepidosaphes ulmi and Quadraspidiotus zonatus. It is demonstrated that in feeding instars of Diaspididae, the mesothoracic spiracles are positioned on the prothorax. Such a migration of the anterior spiracles from the mesothorax was probably a result of degeneration of thoracic muscles following a loss of legs. The approach of the thoracic anterior spiracles to the mouthparts would help in supplying the highly active mandibulo-maxillary muscles with oxygen, and thus increases the intensity of gas exchange.
Podsiadlo, E. 2002 (2001). A discussion on the location of the anterior and posterior thoracic spiracles on Coccinea.
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 73-75. [Podsia2002a]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] In the superfamily Coccoidea, the number of thoracic spiracles is reduced to two pairs. On members of most scale insect families, these pairs of spiracles are generally considered to be located either near the anterior margins of the meso- and metathorax or in the intersegmental furrows between the pro- and mesothorax and between the meso- and metathorax. However, on Diaspididae, the anterior pair of spiracles is here considered to have migrated onto the prothorax.
Porcelli, F. 2002 (2001). On the term describing the post-embryonic development of Diaspididae female
(Sternorrhyncha Coccoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 189-195.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The term catametabolism is reintroduced and redefined to describe the postembryonic development of diaspidid females. The three-stage scheme has been considered, until now, erroneously as neoteny. This stresses the striking difference between catametabolism and neoteny as from the literature and from observation. Catametabolism is defined as a postembryonic developmental scheme showing an early specialization through a morphological simplification; life cycle shortening is considered part of the catametabolic process. The occurrence of catametabolism in all the known species of Diaspididae suggests that this term should be reported in the diagnosis of this taxon. The occurrence of neoteny and catametabolism in other Families of the Coccoidea is suggested.
Porcelli, F. & Di Palma, A. 2002 (2001). Formation of the monomerous female antenna in Diaspis echinocacti
(Bouche) 1833 (Rhynchota Diaspididae). I. The second instar antenna. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di
Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 85-109. [PorcelDi2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Previous authors have described the adult Diaspididae (Coccoidea) antenna as bearing very few or no structures. But a recent paper demonstrated the full sensory function of the small seta placed on the adult female antenna of D. echinocacti. To clarify the nature of the female antenna, this paper discusses the question of formation of the uniarticulate second instar antenna as it is transformed from the six-segmented first instar antenna. Based on interpretation of the results of amputation experiments, the authors hypothesize that the uniarticulate second instar antenna is formed as a result of a fusion of all the articles of first instar antenna. It is suggested that this fusion process is common to all Diaspididae. This study suggests that we should investigate the adult female antenna in others species of Diaspis for joined seta, and eventually to evaluate the importance of the character in the systematics of the taxon. We further suggest that the adult female of other Diaspis species should be examined to evaluate the importance of antennal structures as characters that can be used in systematics.
Porcelli, F., Pizza, M. & Pellizzari, G. 2002 (2001). The recovery of a forgotten copy of "Chermoteca italica".
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 510-511. [PorcelPiPe2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] The Chermoteca Italica is an exsiccata collection of identified Italian scale insects on infested-part of plant with short information on the scale insects species. The forgotten copy of this 5 volume set, edited first by Berlese and Leonardi, and later by Leonardi, was found among the separata of the Istituto di Protezione delle Piante dalle Malattie -- Università degli Studi di Bari.
Portillo, L. & Vigueras, A.L. 2002 (2001). The genus Dactylopius (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae) and its hosts in
Jalisco, Mexico. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 249-251. [PortilVi2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] A preliminary study on taxonomy of dactylopiids and the records of their hosts from Jalisco, Mexico was carried out. Three species of Dactylopius are present in this region: D. coccus, D. confusus, and D. opuntiae. It is necessary to collect additional specimens and from more host plant species to verify the presence of at least another two reported species: D. ceylonicus and D. tomentosus. This paper is the base to start a nationwide taxonomic study on Mexican dactylopids.
Prance, D.A. 2001. Cybocephalus fodori Endrody-Younga, 1965 (Coleoptera: Cybocephalidae) new to Britain.
Entomologist's Gazette 52(2): 125-127. [Prance2001]
Notes: C. fodori was recorded for the first time from the UK (London) in 2000 from Betula pendula. Species of this genus are predatory on scale insects, but none were noted on or near any of the trees examined.
Provencher, L. 2002 (2001). Is Aspidiotus nerii Bouché a complex of multiple biotypes of sexual and asexual
lineages within a single species? Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 512. [Proven2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] A molecular systematic approach based on mitochondrial DNA to investigate the A. nerii complex of biparental and uniparental populations will be presented.
Razak, T.A. & Jayaraj, S. 2002. Incidence of spiralling whitefly and leaf mealybug on coconut. Insect
Environment 8(1) 38-39. [RazakJa2002]
Notes: Heavy infestations of spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) and leaf mealybug (Dysmicoccus carens) were observed on coconuts during March-May 2000, at Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India. These pests remained on the undersurface of the leaflets, desapping the plant heavily and causing severe yellowing. D. carens excreted honeydew on which the sooty mould (Capnodium sp.) developed, resulting in the reduction of the effective photosynthetic area of the leaflets.
'Reasoned agriculture' olive growing in France moves towards 'reasoned' crop health protection. 2001. Olivae
No. 86: 43-45. [Reasonagol2001]
Notes: Integrated pest management implementation in olive orchards in France against olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), olive moth (Prays oleae) and black scale (Saissetia oleae) are discussed. Tabulated data on the choice of plant health products in olive orchards are presented.
Regis, S. 2002. [Integrated pest management of olive trees.] Pour la santé de l'olivier: la lutte integree, une méthode
plus ecologique. (In French; Summary In English). Phytoma No. 547: 32-36. [Regis2002]
Notes: With environmental concerns high on their list of priorities, olive growers are adopting the technique of integrated pest management (for pests such as Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae and Saissetia oleae) in ever-increasing numbers. This article provides a review of the use of this strategy in France and deals with cultivation methods, ranging from planting to general orchard maintenance. High quality observation is essential to establish objective plant protection in a given situation. For each pest, procedures for sampling and monitoring are presented. To help the olive grower to analyse the observations and to choose the right treatment, thresholds of tolerance are proposed for French orchards. Climatic conditions affecting pests are summarized. Finally, pest control methods which are available and suitable for olive growers who wish to apply integrated pest management, are classified in order of priority.
Reinhardt, D.H., Cabral, J.R.S., Souza, L.F. da S., Sanches, N.F. & Matos, A.P. 2002. [Perola and Smooth
Cayenne pineapple cultivars in the state of Bahia, Brazil: growth, flowering, pests, diseases, yield and fruit quality
aspects.] (In Spanish). Fruits 57(1): 43-53. [ReinhaCaSo2002]
Notes: Perola, the most important cultivar in Brazil, almost unknown in other countries, and Smooth Cayenne, the most widely grown cultivar in the world, belong to different pineapple groups with distinct botanical, morphological and agronomic characteristics. The principal characteristics and behaviour of cv. Perola pineapple were analysed and compared with those of cv. Smooth Cayenne, based upon results and observations made in studies carried out by Embrapa in Brazil, during the past 20 years. Perola is more sensitive than Smooth Cayenne to natural and artificial flower induction, but it is less susceptible to the wilt disease transmitted by mealy bugs [Dysmicoccus sp.] and to the stem borer Castnia icarus [Castnia Penelope].
Ren, Y.D., Shen, X.C., Liu, Y.X., Wang, H.Y. & Ren, D.G. 2001. Studies on biological characteristics of
Neomargarodes sp. and its control. (In Chinese; Summary In English). Acta Agriculturae Boreali Sinica 16(Spec.
issue): 48-52. [RenShLi2001]
Notes: Neomargarodes sp. is an increasingly serious underground pest of groundnut, and produces one generation per year in Henan Province, China. It overwinters with its second larva at 15-17cm depth in the soil. The second half of May is the main emergence and oviposition period of this insect. The average egg stage is 33 days. The young larva bores into leaves in late June and July is the most harmful period of this pest. From late July to early August, the young larva moves to the second stage and changes into a pearl like body. In the harvest season of groundnut in September, the pearl falls into the soil for overwintering. The whole overwintering period takes 7 months.
Rodrigues, A.N., Torres, L.M. & Polesny, F. 2001. Phenology of San José Scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus
(Comstock) on apple in Guarda region (central eastern Portugal). IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 24(5): 195-199.
Notes: [Proceedings of the IOBC-WPRS Fifth International Conference on Integrated Fruit Protection, Lleida, Spain, 22-26 October, 2000. Avilla, J. (Ed.)] San José Scale, Q. perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus], phenology was studied in an unsprayed apple orchard of the cultivar Golden Delicious, near Guarda (central eastern region of Portugal), during 17 March until 30 November 1997. Three major periods of male flight activity were shown by pheromone traps in this study, for two periods of crawler emergence, which suggest that the insect developed two generations and a partial third one. Spring flight began by the end of March, at 116 degree-days (base 10 ̊C from 1 March) and occurred until mid-April, during bloom in the apple variety studied. Emergence of first male generation started in the beginning of July at 656 degree-days and continued through mid-September, while that of second generation males, began in mid-September, at 1,535 degree-days and ended by mid-October. First generation crawlers emerged in mid-May, at 326 degree-days and continued to appear through the end of July. Second generation crawlers emerged in mid-August, at 1,161 degree-days and were active throughout November. Approximately 210 degree-days elapsed between first caught of spring males in pheromone traps and the release of first generation crawlers. The use of these data in pest management programmes is discussed.
Rodríguez, L.C., Mendez, M.A. & Niemeyer, H.M. 2001. Direction of dispersion of cochineal (Dactylopius
coccus Costa) within the Americas. Antiquity 75: 73-77. [RodrigMeNi2001]
Notes: Dactylopius coccus has been used in Mexico and Peru as a source of natural dyes since pre-Columbian times. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Dactylopius, and the disjoint distribution of D. coccus, suggest that the origin of D. coccus is South America and it was introduced into North America by sea routes.
Saez, C.C., Macola Guido, S., Holgado, M.G. & Garcia Saez, J.G. 2001. [Entomological fauna associated with
aguaribay Mendoza (Argentina).] Entomofauna relacionada con el aguaribay Mendoza (Argentina). (In Spanish).
Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo 33(2): 21-24. [SaezMaHo2001]
Notes: Pests and beneficial species present on Schinus molle L. var. Areira were monitored in order to obtain an inventory of its entomological fauna. Observations were made in different zones of Mendoza from 1988 to 1991, and from 1994 to 1996. The main pests recorded were Calophya sp. (Homoptera - Psyllidae), Ceroplastes grandis (Homoptera - Coccidae) and Aphis schinifoliae (Homoptera - Aphididade). The important beneficial fauna found were Coccinellidae, parasitoids, Syrphidae and Chrysopidae.
Sagarra, L.A., Vincent, C. & Stewart, R.K. 2001. Body size as an indicator of parasitoid quality in male and
female Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera : Encyrtidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 91(5): 363-367.
Notes: The parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi was recently introduced into the Caribbean as a biological control agent against the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green. In the laboratory, parasitoid size, as measured by left hind tibia length, was positively correlated with several indicators of the parasitoid's fitness: longevity, mating preference, fecundity, reproductive longevity, progeny emergence and sex-ratio. When fed ad libidum with honey drops, large male parasitoids lived significantly longer than small ones. Large females also lived significantly longer than small females. Females showed no significant mating preference between large and small males. Lifetime fecundity was positively correlated with the size of adult females. The reproductive longevity, daily oviposition rate, and number of progeny were also higher among large parasitoids. The sex ratio of progeny from small female parasitoids was higher than that of large individuals.
Sagarra, L.A., Vincent, C. & Stewart, R.K. 2001. Suitability of nine mealybug species (Homoptera:
Pseudococcidae) as hosts for the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Florida Entomologist
84(1): 112-116. [SagarrViSt2001a]
Notes: The parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae] has been recently introduced into the Caribbean as a biological control agent against the Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green [Homoptera: Pseudococcidae]. In order to understand host/parasitoid ecological interactions and optimize the mass-production system of this parasitoid, eight mealybug species (Planococcus citri (Risso), P. halli Ezzat & McConnell, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, Saccharococcus sacchari (Cockerell), Puto barberii (Cockerell), Nipaecoccus nipae (Newstead), and Plotococcus neotropicus (Williams & Granara de Willink) common to Trinidad were tested to determine their potential as alternative hosts for the parasitoid. Susceptibility, preference and suitability tests were conducted. In addition to M. hirsutus (4.5 plus or minus 2.04 hosts parasitized per female parasitoid in 30 min), Planococcus citri (1.1 plus or minus 1.23 hosts parasitized) and P. halli (0.8 plus or minus 1.41 hosts parasitized) were the only species parasitized. However, the parasitoid did not complete its development in the latter two hosts. Out of nine mealybug species, M. hirsutus was the only suitable host for the complete development of A. kamali progeny. This level of host specificity by A. kamali may prevent adverse effect to other Caribbean mealybug species.
Sagarra, L.A., Vincent, C. & Stewart, R.K. 2002. Impact of mating on Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hym.,
Encyrtidae) lifetime fecundity, reproductive longevity, progeny emergence and sex ratio. Journal of Applied
Entomology 126(7-8): 400-404. [SagarrViSt2002]
Notes: The solitary endoparasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hym., Encyrtidae) and the Hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Hom., Pseudococcidae), were used as a parasite/host model to test the effect of mating on several fitness parameters, i.e. longevity, lifetime fecundity, progeny emergence and sex ratio. At 27 +- 2degreeC, 8 h light : 16 h dark, mating significantly affected the survival of male parasitoids. Virgin males lived longer (32.2 +- 9.51 days) than mated males (23.9 +- 7.52 days). Female longevity (40.7 +- 16.3 days for virgins and 36.2 +- 10.7 days for mated females) was not affected by mating. The lifetime fecundity of female parasitoids and their oviposition period was not significantly affected by mating. However, the number of hosts parasitized was greater for mated wasps (7.54 +- 4.85 hosts parasitized/day) compared with virgin ones (5.12 +- 2.19 hosts parasitized/day). This resulted in greater progeny production from mated A. kamali females. The progeny of virgin females consisted only of males, whereas the mated ones had a more female-biased sex ratio. The lowest sex ratio (0.41 M/F +- 0.123) was attained when females had free access to males and were multi-mated.
Saha, A. & Ghosh, A.B. 2001. Biological studies on the mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) on various host
plants. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 21(1): 75-78. [SahaGh2001]
Notes: The biology of the mealybug, N. viridis was studied on various host plants: bhant, Clerodendron infortunatum; jackfruit, Artocarpus integra [A. heterophyllus]; Citrus sp.; and soyabean, Glycine max. The average developmental periods of males and females on bhant, jackfruit, citrus and soyabean were 18.19, 16.89, 16.86 and 16.23 days, and 16.19, 15.36, 15.46 and 14.62 days, respectively. The average pre-oviposition, oviposition and fecundity were 6.33 days, 9.67 days and 235 eggs on jackfruit, 7.33 days, 8.33 days and 176.33 eggs on citrus, 8.33 days, 7.66 days and 78.67 eggs on soyabean and 7.67 days, 6.33 days and 66.33 eggs on bhant.
Saha, A. & Ghosh, A.B. 2001. Ovicidal activity of some plant extracts and insecticides on eggs of Nipaecoccus
viridis (Newstead). Environment & Ecology 19(4): 764-766. [SahaGh2001a]
Notes: The effect of some plant extracts and insecticides on the eggs and hatched nymphs of the mealybug (Nipaecoccus viridis) was investigated. The treatments comprised alcohol and aqueous extracts of leaves of kurchi (Holarrhena antidysenterica [H. pubescens]) and babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) at 5 and 10%, fosmite 50 EC (ethion 50 EC) and carina 50 EC (profenofos 50 EC) at 0.025 and 0.05%, cilcord (cypermethrin 10 EC) and rocket 44 EC (40% profenofos + 4% cypermethrin) at 0.01 and 0.02%, nemazal F (5% (w/w) azadirachtin) at 0.05 and 0.10%, and water and alcohol as control. Among the treatments, carina 50 EC at 0.05% exhibited the highest ovicidal activity causing 100% egg mortality. Carina 50 EC at 0.025% and rocket 44 EC at 0.02% were the most lethal to the hatched nymphs, followed by rocket 44 EC at 0.01%.
Salas, H. & Goane, L. 2001. [Monitoring of the principal pests of lemon in Tucumán.] Monitoreo de las principales
plagas del limón en Tucumán. (In Spanish). Avance Agroindustrial 22(3): 27-30. [SalasGo2001]
Notes: The main pests of lemons in Tucumán, Argentina, are listed, with notes on monitoring, biology and control. These include: Aceria sheldoni, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, Aonidiella aurantii, Planococcus citri and Phyllocnistis citrella.
Salem, A.G., Abdella, M.K. & Abdel Nabi, L.M. 2001. Effect of saline irrigation water on growth, oil yield and
quality and associated insects of some Ocimum species. (In English; Summary In Arabic). Egyptian Journal of
Agricultural Research 79(2): 563-586. [SalemAbAb2001]
Notes: The effects of irrigation of some Ocimum species (O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and O. minimum) with saline solution of 750, 1500, 2400 and 3600 ppm along with the control of 315 ppm on its growth yield, oil composition, soil and insect attacking were studied during 1998-99. The results indicated that the high salinity levels (2400 and 3600 ppm) significantly reduced fresh herb yield of all studied Ocimum species. Mealy bugs (Icerya aegyptiaca) were among the species that attacked Ocimum species during the two experimental seasons.
Saminathan, V.R. & Jayaraj, S. 2001. Evaluation of botanical pesticides against the mealybug, Ferrisia virgata
Cockrell (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton. Madras Agricultural Journal 88(7-9): 535-537. [SaminaJa2001]
Notes: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate botanical pesticides (Jatropha, Ipomoea and Vitex leaf extracts (at 10% each), neem (Azadirachta indica) oil, pungam (Pongamia glabra [P. pinnata]) oil, madhuca (Madhuca indica [M. longifolia]) oil (at 0.3 or 3.0% each) and 30% dimethoate) against F. virgata. The leaf dip method was used in both experiments and pest mortality was recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. In experiment 1, at 24 h, the mortality was negligible, although at 48 h, it was 0-16.67%. Treatment with 3% neem oil recorded the highest mortality (43.33%). Neem recorded a 50% mortality at 72 h, which was statistically at par with pungam and madhuca oils. Dimethoate recorded a 63.33% mortality at 48 h, which increased to 66.67% at 72 h. Generally, non-edible oils were more effective (36.67-50.00%) when compared to leaf extracts (26.67-33.33%). In experiment 2, all the botanical pesticides were at par in their effectiveness at 24 h. At 48 h, fortified (0.3%) neem oil recorded a maximum mortality of 49.3%, which was at par with fortified pungam and 3% neem and 3% madhuca oils. Fortified formulations of non-edible oils were more effective than unformulated (3%) oils at 72 h. At 72 h, fortified neem oil recorded a 63.6% mortality, which was at par with that recorded by 3% neem oil (54%).
Santa Cecilia, L.V.C., Goncalves, G.R. de C.R., Souza, B. & da Silva, J.R. 2001. [Phenolic contents associated
with the bug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll, 1893. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) versus pineapple plant wilt.] Teores
de fenois associados ao complexo cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll, 1893) versus Murcha-do-abacaxeiro. (In
Portuguese; Summary In English). Ciencia e Agrotecnologia 25(2): 467-470. [SantaCGoSo2001]
Notes: This study investigates one of the chemical alterations which characterize the pineapple wilt disease. The results suggest that when Swain and Hillis' (1959) method is utilized for phenolic determination, extraction by water is the most efficient method. The uncommon bright rose color of the leaves correlates with the incidence of pineapple wilt and high phenolic content.
Santa Cecilia, L.V.C., Reis, P.R. & Souza, J.C. 2002. [About the nomenclature of coffee mealybug species in
Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo States, Brazil.] Sobre a nomenclatura das especies de cochonilhas-farinhentas do
cafeeiro nos Estados de Minas Gerais e Espirito Santo. (In Portuguese). Brazil Neotropical Entomology 31(2): 333-334. [SantaCReSo2002]
Notes: Root coffee mealybugs (Coffea arabica L.) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) collected in Boa Esperanca, southern Minas Gerais State, were identified as Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley) (=bispinosus Beardsley) and those from steams and leaves collected in Castelo, State of the Espirito Santo, as Planococcus minor (Maskell). However, Brazilian literature mentions other mealybug species of coffee as Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel on roots and Planococcus citri (Risso on leaves. Therefore, more than one mealybug species may occur on coffee.
Santa Cecilia, L.V.C., Simoes, J.C. & Souza, I.F. 2002. [Population dynamics and preferential feeding of
mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki) to purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus).] Dinamica de populacoes e
preferencia alimentar da cochonilha-da-raiz (Pseudococcus comstocki) pela tiririca. (In Portuguese; Summary In
English). Planta Daninha 20(1): 39-43. [SantaCSiSo2002]
Notes: The population dynamics of P. comstocki and preferential feeding on Cyperus rotundus were investigated in Minas Gerais, Brazil from March 1996 to March 1997. The mealybug fed on the plant the whole year at different intensities depending on location. Air temperature and relative humidity were the factors that most influenced insect infestation.
Schweizer, H., Morse, J.G., Luck, R.F. & Forster, L.D. 2002. Augmentative releases of a parasitoid (Metaphycus
sp. nr. flavus) against citricola scale (Coccus pseudomagnoliarum) on oranges. Biological Control 24(2): 153-166.
Notes: Augmentative release trials with Metaphycus sp. nr. flavus (Howard), an encyrtid parasitoid of citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), were conducted in two orange groves in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Between mid-February and early May 1998, over 4000 female parasitoids were released per experimental tree. Control trees, where no parasitoids were released, were at least eight trees (45 in) distant from release trees. Samples taken between 18 April and 20 May indicated that levels of live citricola scales on release trees were significantly reduced on twigs, greater numbers of female M. sp. nr. flavus were recovered from scales, and the fraction of scales parasitized by Metaphycus spp. was significantly higher. These data support the hypothesis that parasitism by the released wasps suppressed the scale population. By mid-May, more M. helvolus (Compere) were recovered from control than from release trees, suggesting that released M. sp. nr. flavus had depleted the scales available to M. helvolus. Additionally, in May, more male Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker) were recovered from release trees. C. lycimnia procedures male offspring by heterospecifically or conspecifically hyperparasitizing parasitoids of citricola scale. The implications of these results for developing augmentative parasitoid release strategies against citricola scale in California citrus are discussed.
Seepersad, J., Ganpat, W. & Zijp, W. 2002. Trinidad & Tobago: contracting for extension communications
services -- the Hibiscus Mealy Bug information campaign. 99-103 In: Rivera, W.M. (Ed.), Contracting for
agricultural extenison: international case studies and emerging practices. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
Notes: This chapter discusses the experiences of the Ministry of Agriculture in Trinidad and Tobago using commercial mass media agencies to produce and disseminate extension messages on the identification and control of the Pink Hibiscus Mealy Bug. The impact, sustainability, and replicability of the extension arrangement are discussed, as well as the lessons learned from the case.
Senal, D., Karaca, I. & Undag, H. 2002 (2001). Storage possibilities of scale insect predator Chilocorus
bipustulatus (L.) eggs at different temperatures. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3):
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Mass production and release of natural enemies are among applications related to biological control. Storage of the eggs and adults of natural enemies without depriving their characteristics is an important element for the support of the release when needed in the intensive release period. In this study, possibilities have been investigated of the storage of 1-, 3-, and 5-day-old eggs of C. bipustulatus, one of the natural enemies of California Red Scale, Aonidiella aurantii, kept at 4, 8, and 12̊C for different periods. Effects of the storage at different temperatures and periods on hatching rate, rate of reaching adult stage, and the sex ratio were examined. No hatching was observed on 1-, 3-, and 5-day-old eggs of C. bipustulatus stored for 25 days at different temperatures except for one- and 3-day-old eggs stored at 12̊C. The highest hatching rate (94%) was found with the 3-day-old eggs kept for 5 days at 8̊C. The highest rate of adult development was obtained with 5-day-old eggs stored at 12̊C for 5 days. The percentage of females reaching adult stage was higher than that of males.
Serrano, M.S. & Lapointe, S.L. 2002. Evaluation of host plants and a meridic diet for rearing Maconellicoccus
hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its parasitoid Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera : Encyrtidae). Florida
Entomologist 85(3): 417-425. [SerranLa2002]
Notes: Biological control programs of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in the Caribbean have relied on Japanese pumpkins and sprouted potatoes as hosts for rearing both the mealybug and its parasitoids. However, seasonal shortages of these substrates have necessitated that others be found with equal or better qualities for sustaining large mealybug populations. In this paper, we report experiments comparing mass-rearing M. hirsutus on acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo L, var. 'Turbinata'), chayote (Sechium edule [Jacques]), and prickly pear, Opuntia ficus-indica [L.]) with Japanese pumpkin and sprouted potato. In addition, a simple meridic diet based on canned pumpkins was developed and compared. Acorn squash produced large quantities of females (up to 1,300 per squash) with a life cycle and reproductive potential equal to that of mealybugs reared on Japanese pumpkin. Parasitoids reared on these mealybugs developed normally and had a female-biased sex ratio similar to those reared on mealybugs on Japanese pumpkins or potato sprouts. Development of M. hirsutus reared on chayote and prickly pear was delayed by 1.5-5.0 days compared to that of mealybugs reared on Japanese pumpkins. Mealybugs on these substrates produced parasitoids with prolonged developmental times and male-biased sex ratios. On diet, development and reproduction of M. hirsutus was possible only for 3 to 4 consecutive generations. Mealybugs with longer developmental time, lower survival, and smaller ovisacs with lower percentage eclosion were obtained. Parasitoids reared from these mealybugs did not possess desirable characteristics for biological control. The developmental rate of adult parasitoids increased linearly with that of female hosts depending on the quality of the rearing substrate for the mealybugs.
Sether, D.M. & Hu, J.S. 2002. Yield impact and spread of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 and
mealybug wilt of pineapple in Hawaii. Plant Disease 86(8): 867-874. [SetherHu2002]
Notes: The impact of mealybug feeding and Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-1 (PMWaV-1) and PMWaV-2 infection on pineapple fruit yield, and the spread of PMWaV-1 and mealybug wilt of pineapple (MWP) were evaluated under field conditions with a randomized complete block design. Plots of PMWaV-1-free or infected plants were maintained mealybug-free or inoculated with mealybugs (Dysmicoccus spp.) at monthly intervals. Plants infected with PMWaV-2, an integral part of MWP etiology, were nested within plots that were maintained free of mealybugs, and in the plots of PMWaV-1 infected plants exposed to mealybugs. MWP, which only developed in PMWaV-2 infected plants exposed to mealybugs, resulted in a 35% reduction in yield when compared to PMWaV-free plants. Yield reductions were dependent on time of MWP symptom development; the earlier the expression of symptoms the greater the impact on fruit yields. An interaction effect between PMWaV infection, inclusive of both PMWaV-1 and PMWaV-2 infected plants, and mealybug exposure was detected in the plant crop (P < 0.02) but not in the ratoon crop (P > 0.59). This could be explained by the presence of MWP symptom expression during the plant crop and subsequent plant recovery in the ratoon crop. Virus infection, inclusive of PMWaV-1 and PMWaV-2, suppressed yield (P < 0.01) in the ratoon crop. The commercially desirable fruit sizes were most frequently obtained from PMWaV-free plants. Spatial analysis of PMWaV-2 spread, and MWP symptom expression in mealybug inoculated plots showed patterns of aggregation within rows and within beds but not between beds over the course of the study. Initial occurrence of MWP symptom expression in mealybug-inoculated plots was underdispersed indicating random occurrence of PMWaV-2 plants. After 6 months of mealybug exposure, patterns of both PMWaV-2 incidence and MWP were overdispersed. Management strategies are discussed.
Sether, D.M. & Hu, J.S. 2002. Closterovirus infection and mealybug exposure are necessary for the development of
mealybug wilt of pineapple disease. Phytopathology 92(9): 928-935. [SetherHu2002a]
Notes: The roles of Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated viruses (PMWaVs) and mealybug (Dysmicoccus spp.) feeding in the etiology of mealybug wilt of pineapple (MWP) were evaluated. Container-grown pineapple (Ananas comosus) plants from five commercially grown Hawaiian proprietary selections and a field study utilizing a randomized complete block design were used to test four treatments for induction of MWP: PMWaV-1-free and PMWaV-1-infected plants maintained mealybug-free, and PMWaV-1-free and PMWaV-1-infected plants that received monthly applications of nonviruliferous mealybugs. A second PMWaV, PMWaV-2, was identified in some of the test plants during the course of these studies and was shown to be an integral factor in MWP etiology. Typical MWP symptoms developed only in plants infected with PMWaV-2 and exposed to mealybugs. MWP did not develop in PMWaV-1-free or PMWaV-1-infected plants that were exposed to mealybugs, or in mealybug-free plants infected with PMWaV-1, PMWaV-2, or both viruses. Plants from all five Hawaiian proprietary selections developed MWP when PMWaV-2 infected plants were exposed to mealybug feeding. A PMWaV-2-specific monoclonal antibody was produced that decorated the particles in immunosorbent electron microscopy and detected the virus in tissue blot immunoassays. PMWaV-2 was acquired and transmitted by pink and gray pineapple mealybugs (Dysmicoccus spp.) to pineapple plants, and these plants subsequently developed MWP symptoms while sustaining mealybug populations.
Sether, D.M., Karasev, A.V., Okumura, C., Arakawa, C., Zee, F., Kislan, M.M., Busto, J.L. & Hu, J.S. 2001.
Differentiation, distribution, and elimination of two different pineapple mealybug wilt-associated viruses found in
pineapple. Plant Disease 85(8): 856-864. [SetherKaOk2001]
Notes: Surveys for Pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes) wilt-associated virus-1 (PMWaV-1) and PMWaV-2 were conducted on pineapple samples from Hawaii and around the world. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIAs) with two different monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific to either PMWaV-1 or PMWaV-2 indicated that both closteroviruses are widely distributed throughout the pineapple-growing areas of the world. In the worldwide survey, PMWaV-1 was found in 801 of the mealybug wilt of pineapple (MWP)-symptomatic and 78% of the asymptomatic pineapple plants tested. A subset of plants was tested for PMWaV-2; 100% of the symptomatic plants and 1246 of the asymptomatic plants were positive for this virus. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to differentiate between PMWaV-1 and PMWaV-2. Oligonucleotide primers were designed using distinct regions of the HSP 70 homolog genes of the two viruses. PMWaV-specific RT-PCR assays and TBIAs were used to screen the pineapple accessions maintained at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service National Clonal Germplasm Repository for PMWaV infection; 73% of the accessions were found infected with at least one PMWaV. Pineapple accessions found PMWaV-free were challenged with viruliferous mealybugs to test for immunity to PMWaV-1. No immune germ plasm was identified. Potential alternative virus hosts were screened for infection with virus-specific RT-PCR assays and TBIAs and were also challenged with viruliferous mealybugs. No alternate hosts of PMWaV-1 or PMWaV-2 were identified. PMWaV-1 infection was eliminated through axillary and apical bud propagation from infected crowns. Strategies to manage MWP are discussed.
Sharma, D.C. & Kashyap, N.P. 2002. Impact of pesticidal spray on seasonal availability of natural predators and
parasitoids in the tea ecosystem. Journal of Biological Control 16(1): 31-35. [SharmaKa2002]
Notes: The most important pests attacking tea bushes in Himachal Pradesh are purple mite, Calacarus carinatus, thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, leafroller, Gracillaria theivora [Caloptilia theivora], aphid, Toxoptera aurantii, mealybug, Nipaecoccus sp. and leafminer, Tropiomyts theae [?Tropicomyia theae]. The important natural enemies in the tea orchards are Syrphus sp., Coccinella septempunctata, Oxyopes sp. and the parasitoid, Diaeretiella sp. A field experiment was conducted in Himachal Pradesh, India, during 1994-97 to investigate the impact of pesticides on pests of tea and their natural enemies.
Sharma, K.K., Jaiswal, A.K. & Kumar, K.K. 2001. New record of fungi associated with Indian lac insect Kerria
lacca. Indian Journal of Entomology 63(3): 369-371. [SharmaJaKu2001]
Notes: This paper presents a new record of three fungi associated with Indian lac insect, Kerria lacca. These fungi belonging to family Eurotiaceae/Aspergillaceae were Aspergillus awamori, A. terricola and Penicillium citrinum.
Shivakumar, G. & Lakshmikantha, B.P. 2001. Biology of Orthezia insignis Browne (Ortheziidae: Homoptera) on
coleus. Pest Management and Economic Zoology 9(2): 197-200. [ShivakLa2001]
Notes: The biology of O. insignis was studied on coleus (Coleus bluemi [C. blumei]) under greenhouse conditions. The life cycle was completed in 30 days. The insect passed through three nymphal instars lasting 13.5, 15.5, and 14.0 days, respectively. Reproduction was parthenogenetic as only females were produced. After a brief pre-larval oviposition period of 3.6 days, the offsprings were deposited for the next 24 days, followed by a brief post-reproduction period. The fecundity in terms of the number of nymphs produced varied from 80-102 per female.
Shoubu, M. & Kawai, S. 2002. Taxonomic position of Chionaspis miyakoensis (Homoptera: Coccoidea:
Diaspididae). Esakia (42): 151-160. [ShoubuKa2002]
Notes: Chionaspis miyakoensis Kuwana 1931 was synonymized with Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley, 1897) in Takagi (1970). However, our morphological study of their second instar males revealed that they are clearly distinguishable from each other in the males, in spite of their resemblance in the adult females. We redescribe the adult female and, for the first time, the second instar male of C. miyakoensis, and raise it to the species level again as Pseudaulacaspis miyakoensis.
Singh, S. & Hayat, M. 2002. New species and new record of Microterys (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae)
from Northeastern India. Oriental Insects. New Delhi 36: 405-421. [SinghHa2002]
Notes: Four new species of Microterys Thomson, i.e., M. ouasii, imphalensis, coffeae, and jorhatensis are described from Northeastern India. Microterys newcombi (Girault) is recorded from India for the first time. A key to the Indian species is given. Saissetia coffeae is mentioned as host.
Singh, S.S., Tiwari, H.C. & Rai, K.M. 2001. Evaluation of some modern insecticides against San José scale,
Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) on apple. Journal of Entomological Research. New Delhi 25(1): 69-71.
Notes: Six insecticides viz., methyl demeton [demeton-methyl] 25 EC, koranda 28 EC (fenvalerate 3%+acephate 25% EC), carbosulfan 25 EC, profenofos 50 EC, polytrin C44 (profenofos+cypermethrin) and thiamethoxam 25 WG, applied at 0.05% in two spray schedules against San José scale (Q. perniciosus) [Diaspidiotus perniciosus] infesting apple during a field experiment conducted in Almora, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, India from September to October 1999 significantly reduced the scale population. All the insecticides caused maximum reduction of scales over the control 14 days after the second Spray. Among these, koranda was the most effective, the reduction in scale population being 97.33% followed by methyl demeton and carbosulfan which caused 94.66 and 83.33% reduction, respectively. Profenofos and polytrin exhibited moderate reduction i.e. 53.66 and 51.66% over the control, respectively. Thiamethoxam was the least effective.
Sipes, B.S., Sether, D.M. & Hu, J.S. 2002. Interactions between Rotylenchus reniformis and Pineapple mealybug
wilt associated virus-1 in pineapple. Plant Disease 86(9): 933-938. [SipesSeHu2002]
Notes: The individual and combined effects of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-1 (PMWaV-1) infection in pineapple, Ananas comosus, and Rotylenchus reniformis on pineapple growth were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. Under greenhouse conditions, no effect of PMWaV-1 infection on pineapple growth or nematode reproduction was observed. Under field conditions, the interaction of PMWaV-1 and nematodes was evaluated in plant and ratoon crops. In the plant crop, pineapple in plots treated with the nematicide 1,3-dichloropropane showed increased vegetative growth, whereas virus infection had no effect on vegetative growth. Nematodes reduced the average fruit weight (P = 0.01), whereas PMWaV-1 infection did not (P > 0.14). However, more fruit in the largest size classes (sizes 7 and 8) were produced in PMWaV-1-free plots than in PMWaV-1-infected plots (P = 0.03). The average fruit weight decreased in the presence of virus or nematodes. The smallest fruits were from PMWaV-1-infected plants infested with R. reniformis. More early-ripening fruit (30%) were produced by plants infected with PMWaV-1 than by PMWaV-free plants (P < 0.05). PMWaV-1 infection may be one of the reasons for asynchronous fruit ripening, which is a top limiting factor for pineapple production in Hawaii. In the ratoon crop, PMWaV-1 infection reduced fruit weight by 9% (P < 0.01), whereas nematode effects were similar across treatments (P > 0.10). More fruit in the three largest size categories were produced in PMWaV-1-free plots than in PMWaV-1-infected plots (P < 0.01). PMWaV-1 infection reduced the number of fruit produced in the ratoon crop (P < 0.02). An interaction (P < 0.03) between R. reniformis and PMWaV-1 infection status was detected in the ratoon crop. The fewest fruit were produced in plots with PMWaV-1-infected plants that were nematode infected.
Siscaro, G., Mazzeo, G. & Zappala, L. 2002 (2001). The parasitoid complex of Scythia aetnensis Russo & Longo
(Hemiptera, Coccidae) in Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 435-441.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The natural enemies of Scythia aetnensis on Festuca circummediterranea from Mount Etna, Italy were surveyed in 1994-95. The most common species were the primary parasitoids Baeocharis pascuorum and Discodes (=Phaenodiscus) aeneus, and the secondary parasitoids Cerapterocerus mirabilis and Marietta picta. A few specimens of unidentified predators belonging to Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Acari: Phytoseidae were also found. A first attempt to use different kinds of chromotropic traps as a parasitoid-monitoring method is described.
Skotnicki, M.L., Selkirk, P.M., Kitajima, E., McBride, T.P., Shaw, J. & Mackenzie, A. 2 2003. The first
subantarctic plant virus report: Stilbocarpa mosaic bacilliform badnavirus (SMBV) from Macquarie Island. Plant
Disease 87(2): 199. [SkotniSeKi2003]
Notes: We report here the finding of a new plant virus, Stilbocarpa mosaic bacilliform badnavirus (SMBV) in Stilbocarpa polaris (Homb. et Jacq.) Gray on subantarctic Macquarie Island. This is the first vascular plant virus reported from any of the remote subantarctic islands, and represents the southernmost plant virus found anywhere. The virus causes mild to severe yellow mosaic symptoms in the perennial megaherb S. polaris. DNA sequencing of a conserved part of the virus genome showed it is most closely related to badnaviruses of temperate and tropical plants, which are mainly transmitted by mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). No mealybugs have been found on Macquarie Island, where the vector may be an aphid (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) or thrip (Thysanoptera).
Song, J.Y. 2002. [Bionomics of Lepidosaphes pineti and its control.] (In Chinese). Forest Research 15(4): 503-505.
Notes: Lepidosaphes pineti Borchesnius is a serious pest of pine tree. The pest exhibits sexual dimorphism, with one or two generations per year in Nanping, Fujian and overwinters as the second instar larva or fertilized adult. Its alternation of generation is very serious. The best time to control it is during the period of newly emerged nymphs (late May and mid July). Effective insecticides include 20% methidathion by 1:700, 40% fenvalerate by 1:3 000. The pest has many natural enemies such as Fusarium coccophilum, Aphytis lingnanensis and Encarsia citrina which should be protected.
Srikanth, J., Easwaramoorthy, S. & Kurup, N.K. 2001. Camponotus compressus F. interferes with
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant activity in sugarcane. Insect Environment 7(2) 51-52. [SrikanEaKu2001]
Notes: This paper discusses the observations made on ant-homoptera interactions, which often excludes predatory coccinellids i.e. the interaction involving the pink mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari, the ant Camponotus compressus and the predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri in sugarcane.
Srivastava, S.C., Kumar, P. & Saha, D. 2002. In-vitro callus development for organogenesis in lac host plants. (In
English; Summary In Hindi). Indian Forester 128(3): 325-328. [SrivasKuSa2002]
Notes: Plant parts like seed cotyledons and axillary buds of lac, a versatile biodegradable natural resin secreted by a group of tiny scaled insects called Kerria lacca, host plants such as Flemingia macrophylla, Albizia lucida, Ziziphus sp., F. semialata [F. macrophylla], and Schleichera oleosa were cultured under different auxin (2,4-D) concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0 ppm) to determine their ability to produce callus. In most cases, 2,4-D concentrations at 4-10 ppm resulted in maximum callus development. Results indicate the possibility of improvement in lac host plant through biotechnology. Further studies on organogenesis and regeneration into complete plantlets are suggested.
Stathas, G.J. & Eliopoulos, P.A. 2001. Prey consumption of the predator Chilocorus bipustualtus Linnaeus on
Aspidiotus nerii Bouché. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki (N.S.) 19: 125-133. [StathaEl2001]
Notes: The average consumption of each stage, duration of development, the average total prey consumption, and the average longevity of A. nerii are examined.
Stathas, G.J. & Kontodimas, D.C. 2001. Ecological data of the scale Targionia vitis on grapes in southern Greece.
Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki (N.S.) 19: 134-139. [StathaKo2001]
Notes: The phenology and natural enemies of the diaspidid, Targionia vitis (Homoptera: Diaspididae) were studied in an infested vineyard in southern Greece in 1998-99. Biological notes are given. The impact of the aphelinid parasitoid (Aphytis abnormis) and the predator (Cybocephalus fodori) were recorded.
Stathas, G.J., Eliopoulos, P.A., Kontodimas, D.C. & Siamos, D.T. 2002. Adult morphology and life cycle under
constant temperatures of the predator Rhyzobius lophanthae Blaisdell (Col., Coccinellidae). Anzeiger für
Schädlingskunde 75(4): 105-109. [StathaElKo2002]
Notes: The external and internal morphological characteristics of the predator Rhyzobius lophanthae Blaisdell (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) were studied. The head, antenna, thorax elytra, hind wings, legs and abdomen are described. The adult has an average length of about 2.5 mm and width of 1.8 mm. The flagellum of the antenna consists of 9 segments. The whole surface of thorax and elytra is covered by setae. The tarsus of the 3 legs is 3-segmented. An external morphological difference between male and female is the outline of the 5(th) sternite. The alimentary canal, the central nervous system, and the reproductive system of both male and female are also described. The testes consist of 10 follicles and the ovaries of 10 ovarioles. The life cycle of R. lophanthae was studied by rearing the predator on the diaspidid Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus). The duration of the development of the embryo, 1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd), 4(th) larval instars, pupa and preoviposition period of adults were measured at 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C.
Stathas, G.J., Kavallieratos, N.G. & Eliopoulos, P.A. 2002 (2001). The wax scale Ceroplastes sinensis Del
Guercio on citrus in central Greece. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 513.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] This study deals with biological and ecological aspects of the scale Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio (Homoptera: Coccidae) on citrus in central Greece.
Staver, C., Guharay, F., Monterroso, D., Muschler, R.G. & Muschler, R.B.J. 2001. Designing pest-suppressive
multistrata perennial crop systems: shade-grown coffee in Central America. Agroforestry Systems 53(2): 151-170.
Notes: During most of its cultivation in Central America, coffee (Coffea arabica) suffered few serious pest problems. However, over the past three decades, three factors contributed to significantly increase pest levels and losses: the recent introduction of new pests; more favourable conditions for existing pests, diseases, and weeds due to lower shade levels; and secondary pest problems caused by pesticide use. The strategy of maximizing coffee production with pest control dominated by synthetic pesticides has not only increased yields substantially, but also production costs, pesticide resistance, and both human health and environmental risks. An analysis of the response of the food web in coffee plantations to varying levels of light and humidity associated with different shade levels provides the basis for identifying the optimum shade conditions which minimize the entire pest complex and maximize the effects of beneficial microflora and fauna acting against it. These optimum shade conditions for pest suppression differ with climate, altitude and soils. The selection of tree species and associations, density and spatial arrangement, as well as shade management regimes is critical for shade strata design. Site-specific knowledge of the seasonal food web dynamics permits growers to determine the appropriate seasonal shade management in order to further suppress pest levels. For example in a low-elevation dry coffee zone, 35 to 65% shade promotes leaf retention in the dry season and reduces Cercospora coffeicola, weeds, and Planococcus citri; at the same time, it increases the effectiveness of microbial and parasitic organisms without contributing to increased Hemileia vastatrix levels or reducing yields. In these conditions, shade should be at a maximum early in the dry season and at a minimum by the middle of the rainy season.
Steurich, F. & Feyerabend, R. 2001. [Allergy due to Campari, Carmine, and Cochenille. Dyes in foodstuffs, drugs,
and cosmetics.] Campari-/Karmin-/Cochenille-Allergie: Farbstoffe in Lebensmitteln, Medikamenten und Kosmetika.
(In German). Allergologie 24(2): 66-72. [SteuriFe2001]
Notes: A case of allergy to Campari is reported. Campari is coloured with Carmine, a natural dye (E 120). Furthermore, Cochineal Red A (E 124), a synthetic dye of the same colour, and Indigo-Carmine (E 132), another artificial dye, exist. Allergies are known especially to Carmine with severe clinical impact, often as an occupational disease. Sensitisation takes place by oral intake, by inhalation or via the skin. Allergic alveolitis due to Carmine is also described. Cochineal Red A (E 124) and Indigo-Carmine (E 132) also cause allergies.
Stuart, R.J. & Polavarapu, S. 2002. On the relationship between the ant, Acanthomyops claviger, and the
blueberry mealybug, Dysmicoccus vaccinii. Journal of Insect Behavior 15(2): 299-304. [StuartPo2002]
Notes: This blueberry mealybug occurs on the roots of highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum in New Jersey and Delaware. This paper reviews the damage caused to hosts, the associated ant species, and the degree and nature of interaction between mealybugs and ants.
Stumpf, C.F. & Lambdin, P.L. 2002 (2001). Distribution and phylogenetic relationships of native and introduced
pit scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Asterolecaniidae) in North and South America. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di
Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 139-150. [StumpfLa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The pit scales or Asterolecaniidae represent a diverse group found in all major biogeographic regions of the world on a variety of host plants. Specimens representing both known and unknown species were obtained from institutions in North and South America for study. Species were described and illustrated based on morphological characters of the adult females. This study assessed the morphological characters for 48 of the 64 species of pit scales found in North and South America representing the genera Asterodiaspis, Asterolecanium, Bambusaspis, Neoasterodiaspis, Palmaspis, Planchonia, and Russellaspis. Because of the presence of recent descriptions, eight species of Grammococcus and Palmaspis were not described, but were included in a systematic key in addition to 11 new species (two species of Asterolecanium, five species of Bambusaspis, and four species of Palmaspis). Also, three species in the genus Bambusaspis were synonymized and the genus Grammococcus was included in the subfamily Asterolecaniinae. Computer-generated phylogenetic trees were developed and tested for robustness. The phylogenetic relationships of 38 species in the subfamily Asterolecaniinae were evaluated based on 43 morphological characters of the adult females. A complete consensus tree of the 40 most parsimonious trees was developed. This study suggests that most genera may be monophyletic, while the genera Asterolecanium and Palmaspis appear to be paraphyletic. Pit scale biodiversity has not been adequately investigated, and many additional discoveries of new species are expected from tropical regions.
Su, M.S., Ye, Z.W., Wu, Y.L., Lian, X.X. & Xu, R.H. 2001. [The main jujube diseases and pests in Shanghai area
and their control.] (In Chinese). South China Fruits 30(2): 33-34. [SuYeWu2001]
Notes: Three diseases and four pests of Chinese jujube are reported. The most common disease is jujube rust (caused by Phakopsora zizyphi-vulgaris), which attacks the leaves, resulting in extreme defoliation. An effective method to control jujube rust involves spraying with Bordeaux mixture + 800-times solution of 50% carbendazim. Other important diseases are trunk canker and fruit black spot disease. The most common pests is Ceroplastes japonicus, which has only one generation per year. The best method to control this pest is by spraying lime sulfur [calcium polysulfide] before April and 400-times solution of 25% Phosmet in early July (at the nymph hatching period).
Sudoi, V., Bii, V.K. & Lang'at, J.K. 2001. The efficacy of petroleum oil (Murphoil) and neem seed oil product
(Achook) sprays on mortality of scale insects (Aspidiotus sp.) on tea: preliminary indications. Tea 22(2): 79-82.
Notes: A greenhouse experiment was conducted on tea clone 54/40 to determine the efficacy of petroleum oil (2%) and Achook (3%) against scale insects (Aspidiotus sp.). High scale insect mortality (92%) was recorded with petroleum oil+Achook treatment. Two weeks after application, scale insect mortality was higher with petroleum oil+Achook or petroleum oil alone than Achook alone and the control.
Sugonyaev, E.S. & Voinovich, N.D. 2001. Reversion of species diversity in chalcidoid parasites (Hymenoptera,
Chalcidoidea) of the birch soft scale Eulecanium douglasi (Homoptera, Coccidae) in the subarctic. (In Russian).
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 80(6): 680-687. [SugonyVo2001]
Notes: An intrinsic trait of hemicyclism (biennial life cycles) of Eulecanium douglasi Sulc (host), assumes differentiation of individuals by their seasonal development, is the basis for reversion of species diversity of parasites in the subarctic. The E. douglasi population under subarctic conditions is represented by two alternative factions that create a possibility for segregation of ecological niches in chalcidoid parasitic species infesting their host. The biotic heterogeneity of the host population in the subarctic stipulates the formation of a cline more saturated by parasitic species than in the Eurasian boreal plain forests (10 and 5 species, respectively).
Suma, S.P., Russo, A., Dunkelblum, E., Zada, A. & Mendel, Z. 2002 (2001). Pheromonal and kairomonal activity
of Planococcus citri pheromone and some of its analogs. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano)
33(3): 305-312. [SumaRuDu2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The pheromonal and kairomonal activity of the P. citri sex pheromone and of three analogues: methyl-ester, ethylidene analogue (E/Z mixture) and homologue were studied. Traps baited with these compounds as well as traps baited with the pheromone +10% of its alcohol were exposed in Italy and Israel in avocado, persimmon, and Citrus orchards from August to October 1999 and in June and August 2000. Control traps were baited with dispensers loaded with hexane used as solvent for the pheromone and its analogues. The highest captures of males were obtained with the sex pheromone. Addition of 10% of the corresponding alcohol to the sex pheromone did not affect the level of trapping. The methyl-ester showed no activity while the ethylidene analogue displayed moderate activity. It caught considerable numbers of males, but significantly less than the sex pheromone. The homologue displayed strong activity, which was the same as the pheromone in some of the tests. Since its synthesis is easier and cheaper than that of the pheromone, it may replace the pheromone in fieldwork. Captures of natural enemies was not recorded in Israel and in Italy. Only a few specimens of the encyrtid Anagyrus pseudococci have been captured in pheromone-baited and in the control traps, in spite of the fact that the parasitoid as well as other natural enemies of the mealybug were abundant at the time of the field tests. These findings indicate that the studied compounds are not kairomones.
Sun, J.H., Clarke, S.R., DeBarr, G.L. & Berisford, C.W. 2002. Yellow sticky traps for monitoring males and two
parasitoids of Oracella acuta (Lobdell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Entomological Science 37(2):
Notes: Yellow sticky traps were tested as a method of monitoring populations of males and parasitoids of the mealybug, Oracella acuta (Lobdell). Male O. acuta were captured even when female populations appeared very low. The parasitoids, Allotropa n. sp. and Zarhopalus debarri Sun, were trapped less frequently than O. acuta males, and more traps or longer trapping periods were required to adequately monitor their populations. Significantly more males than females of Z. debarri were trapped, suggesting that yellow traps were more attractive to males, or that males disperse more than females. Yellow sticky traps could be used as part of a biological control program monitoring the establishment and spread of O. acuta and its parasitoids in China.
Sun, S.F. & Yang, C.L. 2002. Bionomics of Perissopneumon xyliae and life tables of its natural population.
Entomological Knowledge 39(4): 289-291. [SunYa2002]
Notes: Perissopneumon xyliae (Ayyar) [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae] distribute mainly in chestnut areas in Yuxi, Qujing and Chuxiong, Yunnan Province, and is one of the main insect pests of chestnut tree. One generation occurs each year in Yimen, Yunnan. The nymph has three instars. They overwinter as the third instar nymph in bark crevices or on the base part of the tree trunks. High temperature, raining, predatory ladybirds, Eublemma amabilis and Microterys ericeri are the main natural factors manapulating its population dynamics.
Sunil, J., Poorani, J. & Singh, S.P. 2002. Bioecology of Sticholotis cribellata Sicard (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae),
a potential predator of Melanaspis glomerata (Green) (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Journal of Biological Control
15(1): 21-26. [SunilPoSi2002]
Notes: S. cribellata is recorded for the first time as a predator of M. glomerata. The biology and seasonal incidence of S. cribellata on M. glomerata was studied on sugarcane cv. CON 84/131, in a field in Karnataka, India, from August to December in 1999-2000. The egg, larval and pupal stages of the predator lasted for 6.9, 19.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, and adult longevity was 40.41 days. The average fecundity was 48.9 eggs per female. Predator larvae and adults consumed an average of 653.95 and 1822.49 M. glomerata crawlers, respectively. S. cribellata populations peaked during the last week of December 1999 and disappeared in the first week of January, when the temperature increased. Observations on the host specificity of S. cribellata indicated that it is available almost throughout the year, on one host or another.
Sushil, S.N., Bhattacharya, A., Jaiswal, A.K. & Kumar, P. 2002. Predatory response of Chrysoperla carnea
(Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) against lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr.). Journal of Applied Zoological
Research 13(1): 100-101. [SushilBhJa2002]
Notes: A number of insect predators and parasitoids are reported to cause severe damage to lac crops. C. carnea is the most widely used beneficial predator in India, and its predatory response against the lac insect, Kerria lacca was studied during July to October 2000, under laboratory conditions and in the field using lac insect colonies on Flemingia macrophylla. The predator, when offered early instar K. lacca nymphs in the laboratory, fed on these insects, but failed to complete its life cycle. In the field, C. carnea did complete development, but the prolonged larval period indicates that lac insects are not the preferred prey. However, caution must be observed in the use of C. carnea in lac-growing areas -- particularly when the lac crop is in its early stage.
Sushil, S.N., Bhattacharya, A., Jaiswal, A.K. & Kumar, P. 2002. Record of Telenomus remus Nixon as an egg
parasitoid of Chrysopa spp. -- a predator of lac insect. Journal of Applied Zoological Research 13(1): 102.
Notes: T. remus is thought to be reported for the first time as an egg parasitoid of Chrysopa spp. Caution must be observed in using T. remus and Chrysopa spp. for the control of various agricultural insect pests.
Swirski, E., Wysoki, M. & Izhar, Y. 2002. (In Hebrew). In: Subtropical Fruit Pests in Israel. Fruit Board of Israel,
Tel Aviv. 284 pp. [SwirskWyIz2002]
Notes: A preface (i-iii) in provided in English as well as an index to the Latin names of pests, predators and parasitoids (iv-viii). The chapter on the Coccoidea on is found on pages 60-122. This chapter presents the life history, economic importance, host plants, control, and natural enemies of Icerya purchasi, I. aegyptiaca, Planococcus citri, Planococcoides lindingeri, Pseudococcus longispinus, P. cryptus, P. affinis, Trionymus internodii, Coccus hesperidum, C. elatensis, C. longulus, Protopulvinaria pyriformis, Ceroplastes floridensis, C. rusci, Saissetia oleae, S. coffeae, S. privigna, Parthenolecanium persicae, Parasaissetia nigra, Asterolecanium pustulans, Abgrallaspis cyanophylli, Aspidiotus nerii, A. spinosus, Hemiberlesia lataniae, H. rapax, Aonidiella aurantii, A. orientalis, Chrysomphalus aonidum, Fiorinia fioriniae and Parlatoria oleae.
Szklarzewicz, T. 2002 (2001). Structure of ovaries in scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccinea). Bollettino di Zoologia
Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 514. [Szklar2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] Comparative studies on the structure of ovaries in scale insects support the hypotheses of a monophyletic origin of scale insects: (1), a close relationship between primitive families and aphids (2) a monophyletic origin of advanced families (3), a gradual reduction of the germ cell number per ovariole (from 58 in ortheziids to 4 in advanced families) during anagenesis of the scale insect ovaries.
Szklarzewicz, T., Vogelgesang, M., Jagiela, K. & Oskwarek, J. 2002. Cytoarchitecture of the ovarioles in scale
insects (Hemiptera, Coccinea). Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 40(2): 227-228. [SzklarVoJa2002]
Notes: Telotrophic ovarioles of scale insects are subdivided into tropharia (=trophic chambers) and vitellaria that contain single developing oocytes. Tropharium encloses trophocytes (=nurse cells) and arrested oocytes. The central area of the tropharium, termed the trophic core, is devoid of cells. Both trophocytes and oocytes are connected to the trophic core: trophocytes by cytoplasmic processes, oocytes by means of nutritive cords. The trophic core, processes and nutritive cords are filled with bundles of microtubules. The trophocytes contain large lobated nuclei with giant nucleoli. Fluorescent labelling with DAPI has shown that trophocyte nuclei are characterized by high contents of DNA. In the cortical cytoplasm of trophocytes, numerous microfilaments are present. The developing oocyte is surrounded by a simple follicular epithelium. The cortical cytoplasm of follicular cells contains numerous microtubules and microfilaments.
Tabar Purroy, A.I., Alvarez Puebla, M.J., Acero Sainz, S., Garcia Figueroa, B.E., Echechipia Madoz, S.,
Olaguibel Rivera, J.M. & Quirce Gancedo, S. 2003. Carmine (E-120)-induced occupational asthma revisited.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111(2): 415-419. [TabarPAlAc2003]
Notes: Occupational asthma (OA) caused by carmine (E-120) has been reported. The 24 current employees and one worker who had recently left work because of asthma completed a questionnaire and underwent skin and other testing for carmine, cochineal, carminic acid, curcuma, annato, and chlorophyll. The prevalence of sensitization and OA caused by carmine was 41.6% and 8.3%, respectively.
Takagi, S. 2002. One new subfamily and two new tribes of the Diasididae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Insecta
Matsumurana 59(N.S.): 55-100. [Takagi2002]
Notes: Ulucoccinae, subfam. n. and Thysanaspidini and Smilacicolini, tribe, n., are erected on the basis of Ulucoccus, Thysanaspis, and Smilacicola, respectively. The subfamily Ulucoccinae is one of very primitive forms of the Diaspididae, lacking distinct pygidial appendages, and may approach a remote ancestor of the Diaspidinae, which is similar to the second instar males of some species of the tribe, especially of the Chionaspidina. The tribe Thysanaspidini represents the most primitive form of the Aspidiotinae in the pygidial appendages, which are composed of well-developed pectinae alone in the nymphal stages. Thysanaspis is pupillarial, so that the nymphal stages of the genus give some idea of the putative ancestor of the extant Aspidiotinae. The Smilacicolini inhabit a constricted space on the plant body as the Odonaspidini do, and may have derived from a group of forms related to, but more primitive than, the extant Parlatoriini, to which the Odonaspidini are also related. Five other diaspidids are decribed or figured for comparison with the Thysanaspidini and the Smilacicolini. Two of them, occurring in the Philippines, are new species belonging to a new genus: Ligaspis maculata and L. pala. Another species, Mongrovaspis quadrispinosa, is newly recorded from eastern Asia and is redescribed. The new higher taxa and the other higher taxa mentioned in this study are primarily gradal units, and comments are made on the reason why such a view of taxa is adopted.
Takagi, S. & Verma, S.P. 2001. Occurrence of Chlidaspis asiatica (Archangelskaya) in India, with taxonomic
notes (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae). Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology 7(2): 195-202.
Notes: The diaspidid scale insect Chlidaspis asiatica (Archangelskaya) (=Chionaspis asiatica Arch.; Phenacaspis prunorum Borchsenius; Voraspis adlei Balachowsky and Kaussari) is recorded from India for the first time on the basis of material collected on apple and plum in Himachal Pradesh. The adult female and the second instar male are described. This species is referred to its own genus Chlidaspis, and may belong to the subtribe Fioriniina.
Tang, C., Huang, D.C., Tong, X.L. & Huang, Z. 2001. [Effect of alternate temperatures on the experimental
population of Oracella acuta.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Journal of South China Agricultural University
22(1): 46-48. [TangHuTo2001]
Notes: The development, survival and reproduction of the overwintering females and eggs of O. acuta were studied under nine different alternate temperature treatments. The results indicated that survival rate decreases as the alternate temperature increases. Similar trend was observed with the number of eggs per female, but the effect of temperature on this parameter was less than the effect on survival rate. The females were not able to survive for long periods at high temperatures (35-29̊C). The alternate temperature 27-21̊C was considered as the best temperature based on the development and survival rate of adults, while the alternate temperature 29-23̊C was considered as the best temperature based on the development and survival rate of eggs. Altering the low temperature range below the alternate temperature 29-23̊C slowed down the development of O. acuta eggs, but altering the high temperature range above the alternate temperature 29-23̊C accelerated the development of O. acuta eggs.
Tarasco, E. 2001. [Damaging insects in asparagus.] Gli insetti dannosi alla coltura dell'asparago. (In Italian).
Informatore Agrario 57(50): 36-38. [Tarasc2001]
Notes: Saissetia coffeae is among the insect pests identified on asparagus in Italy.
Tawfik, M.H. & Mohammad, Z.K. 2002 (2001). Ecological studies of two scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea)
on Morus alba in Egypt. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 267-273.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Population fluctuations and seasonal abundance of Hemiberlesia lataniae, as well as its parasite Habrolepis aspidioti, and of Icerya seychellarum on Morus alba were studied in Egypt (Giza governorate) during 1997-1998. Both Hemiberlesia lataniae and Habrolepis aspidioti had four population peaks during the year, while I. seychellarum had two peaks. Hemiberlesia lataniae was more abundant than I. seychellarum. The effects of climatic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, photoperiod, dew point, and wind velocity are discussed.
Teixeira, I., Botton, M. & Enimar, L.A. 2002. [Insecticide evaluation for Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera:
Margarodidae) control on new vineyards.] Avaliaco de inseticidas visando ao controle de Eurhizococcus
brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em novos plantios de videira. (In Portuguese). Neotropical
Entomology 31(3): 457-461. [TeixeiBoEn2002]
Notes: The ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (Vitis sp.) causing plant death. Infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. Neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). Imidacloprid was diluted using one liter of water per plant while thiamethoxan was applied directly to the soil using granular formulation. A single application in November provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 L, three times a year). The dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. These results show the possibility of controlling E. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.
Teixeira, M.A., Bettiol, W. & Cesnik, R. 2001. [Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Orthezia
praelonga, pathogenic agent, to citrus leaves, flowers and fruits.] Patogenicidade do fungo Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides, patogeno de O. praelonga, para folhas, frutos e flores cit. (In Portuguese; Summary In English).
Summa Phytopathologica 27(4): 352-357. [TeixeiBeCe2001]
Notes: The pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides [Glomerella cingulata], a pathogen of O. praelonga, to different tissues of citrus, i.e. leaves, flowers and fruits of 'Pera' orange, 'Cravo' lime and 'Cravo' tangerine, was evaluated. The pathogenicity of these isolates were compared with that of Colletotrichum sp. isolated from injured petals of citrus (CCC) and that of C. acutatum (CCA), the causal agent of post-bloom fruit drop of citrus. The isolated fungi did not show any evidence of pathogenicity to citrus leaves. On the other hand, all inoculated fruits exhibited symptoms typical of anthracnose, but the average diameter of injuries for each citrus sample varied with the isolated fungi studied. Flowers inoculated in the field did not show any symptoms of floral rot even after one year following inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculation of flowers with CTAA4, CTAA5, CCC and CCA resulted in typical symptoms of post-bloom fruit drop. The results are discussed in relation of the potential use of C. gloeosporioides for the biological control of O. praelonga in citrus.
Tekelenburg, A. 2001. (In English). In: Cactus Pear and Cochineal in Cochabamba; The development of a cross-epistemological management toolkit for interactive design of farm innovation. Wageningen University, Wageningen,
Netherlands. 191 pp. [Tekele2001]
Notes: [Thesis]. Opuntia ficus-indica and Dactylopius coccus production is discussed in detail.
Thao, M.L., Gullan, P.J. & Baumann, P. 2002. Secondary (theta-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts infect the
primary (ß-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts of mealybugs multiple times and coevolve with their hosts. Applied and
Environmental Microbiology 68(7): 3190-3197. [ThaoGuBa2002]
Notes: Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae) are plant sap-sucking insects that have within their body cavities specialized cells containing prokaryotic primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts). The P-endosymbionts have the unusual property of containing within their cytoplasm prokaryotic secondary endosymbionts (S-endosymbionts). Four-kilobase fragments containing 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were obtained from the P-endosymbionts of 22 mealybug species and the S-endosymbionts of 12 representative species. Phylogenetic analyses of the P-endosymbionts indicated that they have a monophyletic origin and are members of the ß-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. These organisms were divided into five different clusters. The S-endosymbionts were members of the lambda-subdivision of the Proteobacteria and were grouped into clusters similar to those observed with the P-endosymbionts. The S-endosymbiont clusters were distinct from each other and from other insect-associated bacteria. The similarity of the clusters formed by the P- and S-endosymbionts suggests that the P-endosymbionts of mealybugs were infected multiple times with different precursors of the S-endosymbionts and once the association was established, the P- and S-endosymbionts were transmitted together. The lineage consisting of he P-endosymbionts of mealybugs was given the designation Candidatus Tremblaya gen. nov., with a single species, "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps sp. nov. The results of phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA fragments encoding cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II from four representative mealybug species were in agreement with the results of 16S rDNA analyses, suggesting that relationships among strains of Candidatus T. princeps are useful in inferring the phylogeny of their mealybug hosts.
Theilmann, J., Mozafari, J., Reade, R., Wu, Z., Xie, W., Jesperson, G., Bernardy, M., Eastwell, K.C. &
Rochon, D. 2002. Partial nucleotide sequences and genome organization of a Canadian isolate of Little cherry virus
and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based diagnostic test. Phytopathology 92(1): 87-98.
Notes: Approximately 12.4 kb of the genome of a mealybug-transmissible, North American isolate of Little cherry virus (LChV-3, previously designated LChV-LC5) has been cloned and sequenced. The sequenced portion of the genome contains 10 open reading frames (ORFs) and, based on sequence comparisons, encodes a putative RNA helicase (HEL), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (POL), two coat proteins (CPs), a homologue of HSP70, a 53K protein (p53) that is similar to an equivalent-size protein in other closteroviruses, and a 22K (p22) protein of unknown function. The genome also potentially encodes two small proteins (p5 and p6), one of which is similar to the small hydrophobic proteins of other closteroviruses. Phylogenetic analyses utilizing sequences of the HEL, POL, and HSP70 homologue suggest that LChV-3 is most similar to other mealybug-transmitted closteroviruses. Further comparisons between LChV-3 and a 4.7-kb region of the recently described Little cherry virus-2 (LChV-2) reveals 77% nucleotide sequence identity. Based on this low sequence identity, we propose that LChV-3 be considered a separate species, designated LChV-3. Unexpectedly, the LChV-3 CP duplicate ORF was found to lie upstream of the HSP70 ORF; therefore, the genome organization of LChV-3 is distinct from that of other closteroviruses. Polyclonal antiserum raised to bacterially expressed LChV-3 CP was useful for detection of LChV-diseased trees in the cherry-growing districts of British Columbia, Canada.
Thiribhuvanamala, G. & Doraisamy, S. 2001. Survey for important virus diseases of banana. Madras Agricultural
Journal 88(1/3): 148-149. [ThiribDo2001]
Notes: Banana growing areas in Coimbatore, Theni, Salem, Namakkal, Periyar, Tanjore, Kanyakumari, Dindigul and Trichy (Tamil Nadu, India) were surveyed to assess the incidence of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV; transmitted by the aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV; transmitted by the aphid, Aphis gossypii), banana streak virus (BSV; transmitted by mealy bug, Planococus citri) and banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV; transmitted by different species of aphids).
Tian, M.C., Wang, M.Q. & Luo, Y.M. 2002. [Occurrence of Drosicha corpulenta on tobacco and its control.] (In
Chinese). Entomological Knowledge 39(3): 239. [TianWaLu2002]
Tipping, C., Bikoba, V., Chander, G.J. & Mitcham, E.J. 2003. Efficacy of Silwet L-77 against several arthropod
pests of table grape. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(1): 246-250. [TippinBiCh2003]
Notes: Silwet L-77, an organosilicone surfactant, was applied to several arthropod pests of California table grapes. Eggs of grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) were tolerant to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5% treatment solutions. Grape mealybug crawlers had 100% mortality when treated with 0.5 and 1.0% Silwet L-77 solutions; however, mortality was only 6.7% when 0.1% Silwet L-77 was applied. 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes were not damaged when treated with up to 1% Silwet L-77; however, grapes treated with the 0.5 and 1.0% solutions appeared wet after removal from cold storage because of the effect of the surfactant spreading the water condensation. Grapes dried with the normal bloom on the berries when they reached room temperature.
Tobias, I. 2002. Closteroviridae: a new family of flexous plant viruses. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica
Hungarica 37(1-3): 17-24. [Tobias2002]
Notes: Members of the family Closteroviridae have been traditionally defined as plant viruses with thread-like particles having messenger-sense single-stranded RNA, the largest genomes among RNA plant viruses. Individual virus species are distributed worldwide and some of them cause devastating crop losses. The natural host range is usually narrow. Diseases symptoms are yellowing type or pitting and/or growing of the woody cylinder. Infection is systemic, but usually limited to the phloem. Natural vectors are aphids, whiteflies, coccids and mealybugs. Transmission is semipersistent.
Tobih, F.O., Omoloye, A.A., Ivbijaro, M.F. & Enobakhare, D.A. 2002. Effects of field infestation by
Rastrococcus invadens Williams (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on the morphology and nutritional status of mango
fruits, Mangifera indica L. Nigeria Crop Protection 21(9): 757-761. [TobihOmIv2002]
Notes: Investigations at Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria assessed the effects of field infestations of Rastrococcus invadens on the morphology and nutritional contents of mango, Mangifera indica L. fruit. Five ripe and unripe fruits were plucked from each of the four randomly selected fruit bearing trees (>135 cm diameter at breast height by 9.7 m high) with different levels of crown infestation. Infestation of fruits caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in weight and size of fresh mango fruits compared to the uninfested control. Similarly, field infestation also caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in the ash content, crude fibre and reducing sugar levels of both ripe and unripe fruits compared to the control. Fat content of infested and uninfested unripe fruits were not significantly different (P>0.05). Ripe mango fruits contained significantly higher (P<0.05) crude protein than unripe fruits. Potassium, phosphorus and sodium in ripe and unripe fruits were significantly (P<0.05) higher than other available elements on a dry matter basis. Severe infestation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the status of microelements (iron, sodium and copper) compared to the control.
Torres, L.M., Rodrigues, A.N., Avilla, J. & Polesny, F. 2001. Chemical control of Quadraspidiotus perniciosus
(Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in apples and side effects on phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae).
IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 24(5): 207-212. [TorresRoAv2001]
Notes: [Proceedings of the IOBC-WPRS Fifth International Conference on Integrated Fruit Protection, Lleida, Spain, 22-26 October, 2000. Avilla, J. (Ed.)] Investigations on the effectiveness of several insecticides, in prebloom and postbloom sprays, on San José Scale (SJS), Q. perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus], and on the toxicity of these products against naturally occurring populations of phytoseiid mites, were carried out on apple orchards, in Guarda region (central eastern region of Portugal), during 1997.
Tozlu, G. 2001. [Determination of the harmful insects on trembling aspen (Populus tremula L.) and studies on the
biology of some important species in Sarikamis (Kars) district.] (In Turkish; Summary In English). Turkiye
Entomoloji Dergisi 25(2): 133-146. [Tozlu2001]
Notes: [Original title: Sarikamis (Kars)'ta Titrek Kavak (Populus tremula L.)'ta zarar yapan bocek turlerinin tespiti ve bunlardan bazi onemli turlerin biyolojisi uzerinde calismalar.] Eighteen insect pests belonging to different orders and families were determined as pests on aspen (Populus tremula) in Sarikamis (Kars), Turkey during 1996-97. The forests in this region are composed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) mixed with aspen constituting individual native groups. Among the determined species, Chaitophorus tremulae, Chionaspis salicis, Lepidosaphes ulmi, Chrysomela collaris, Crepidodera aurea, Byctiscus betulae and Phyllonorycter apparella were the most important and abundant pests, with a widespread distribution. Poecilonota variolosa, Cerambyx (Mesocerambyx) scopoli, Hylotrupes bajulus, Leptura quadrifasciata [Strangalia quadrifasciata], Rhagium bifasciatum, Saperda (Anacrea) carcharias, S. (Argalia) perforata and Xylotrechus rusticus were rare and had low population densities. Biological characteristics are described.
Trjapitzin, V.A. & Myartseva, S.N. 2001. A new species of the genus Adelencyrtus from Malaysia (Hymenoptera:
Encyrtidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 10(1): 163-165. [TrjapiMy2001]
Notes: Adelencyrtus sarawaki sp. nov. reared from the California Red Scale Aonidiella aurantii on Citrus in Sarawak, Malaysia is described. It is compared with Adelencyrtus quadriguttus parasitizing the same host species in India.
Trjapitzin, V.A. & Trjapitzin, S.V. 2002. A new species of Neoplatycerus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Egypt,
parasitoid of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Entomological News 113(3):
Notes: A new species of the little known encyrtid wasp genus Neoplatycerus is described from the Nile River delta in Egypt. A part of the type series of N. kemticus, sp. n., was reared from the P. ficus on grape, and this host association makes it a candidate agent for introduction into California vineyards for the on-going classical biological control program against this pest. A key to the three described species of Neoplatycerus in the world is provided. Other scale insects mentioned include Eriopeltis sp., Planococcus citri and Ferrisia virgata.
Trotter, R.T., Cobb, N.S. & Whitham, T.G. 2002. Herbivory, plant resistance, and climate in the tree ring record:
interactions distort climatic reconstructions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Washington 99(15):
Notes: To understand climate change, dendrochronologists have used tree ring analyses to reconstruct past climates, as well as ecological processes such as herbivore population dynamics. Such reconstructions, however, have been hindered by a lack of experiments that separate the influences of confounding impacts on tree rings, such as herbivores and the interactions of multiple factors. Our long-term experiments with scale insects on resistant and susceptible pines demonstrate three major points that are important to the application of this commonly used tool. (i) Herbivory reduced tree ring growth by 25-35%. (ii) The impact on ring growth distorted climate reconstruction, resulting in the overestimation of past moisture levels by more than 2-fold. Our data suggest that, if distortion because of herbivory has been a problem in previous reconstructions, estimates of the magnitude of recent climate changes are likely to be conservative. (iii) Our studies support a detectible plant resistance x herbivore x climate interaction in the tree ring record. Because resistance and susceptibility to herbivory are known to be genetically based in many systems, the potential exists to incorporate plant genetics into the field of dendrochronology, where it may be used to screen distortions from the tree ring record.
Uematsu, Y., Hirata, K., Suzuki, K., Iida, K. & Kamata, K. 2002. Survey of residual solvents in natural food
additives by standard addition head-space GC. Food Additives and Contaminants 19: 4, 335-342.
Notes: Residual levels of 12 solvents in 87 natural food additives (66 samples of food colours including cochineal, 19 samples of natural antioxidants and 2 natural preservatives) collected between 1997 and 1999 were determined by automated head-space GC using FID (flame ionization detector), with a porous-polymer (PLOT) column. Calibration curves were prepared by the method of standard addition. Confirmation was by manually injected head-space GC using mass spectrometric detection.
Ülgentürk, S. 2001. Parasitoids and predators of Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea) species on ornamental plants in
Ankara, Turkey. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 36(3/4): 369-375. [Ulgent2001]
Notes: 10 predators, 14 parasitoids and 2 hyperparasitoids were identified on nine different soft scale insects, namely, Coccus hesperidum, Eulecanium ciliatum, E. tiliae, Filippia follicularis, Palaeolecanium bituberculatum, Parthenolecanium rufulum and Physokermes piceae.
Ülgentürk, S. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) associated with soft scale insects in Turkey: a preliminary list.
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 36(2/3): 405-409. [Ulgent2001a]
Notes: Ten ant species were found associated with 12 coccid species on various host plants in Turkey. Host plants and distributions are given for the following coccids: Coccus hesperidum, Eulecanium ciliatum, E. tiliae, Filippia follicularis, Parthenolecanium corni, Physokermes piceae, Rhizopulvinaria sp., Rhodococcus sp., Saissetia coffeae and Sphaerolecanum prunastri.
Ülgentürk, S., Kaydan, M.B., Zeki, C. & Toros, S. 2001. [Rhodococcus perornatus (Cockerell & Parrott)
(Homoptera: Coccidae): a new record on the pest of oil roses.] Rhodococcus perornatus (Cockerell Parrott)
(Homoptera: Coccidae): Yag güllerinin yeni bir zararlisi. (In Turkish; Summary In English). Turkiye Entomoloji
Dergisi 25(2): 127-132. [UlgentKaZe2001]
Notes: Rhodococcus perornatus is a new record for Turkey. It was recorded for the first time on Rosa damascena in Isparta province, Turkey. Data on morphological characters, host plant, distribution and biology were given.
Ülgentürk, S., Kaydan, M.B., Zeki, C. & Toros, S. 2002 (2001). Sphaerolecanium prunastri Boyer de
Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Coccidae): distribution, host plants and natural enemies in the Turkish Lake District.
Entomologica 33(3): 357-363. [UlgentKaZe2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] S. prunastri was an economically important pest of almond, apricot, and sweet cherry, sour cherry, peach, and plum in the Turkish Lake District (Afyon, Burdur, and Isparta provinces in Turkey) in 1999-2001. Although there are numerous natural enemies of S. prunastri, it reached very high population densities in Afyon. Hymenopteran parasitoids recorded were: Discodes coccophagus, Microterys hortulans, Metaphycus sp.; Coccophagus lycimnia, Coccophagus sp., Cerapterocerus mirabilis, Pachyneuron muscarum, Aprostocetus sp. (Eulophidae). Predators recorded were: Cybocephalus fodori minor, Chilochorus bipustulatus, Exochomus quadripustulatus, Calymma communimacula and an unidentified species of Hemiptera (Heteroptera).
Vahedi, H.A. 2002. A revision of the genus Porphyrophora (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Margarodidae) with particular
reference to the Middle East and with a discussion on the relationships of the hypogaeic Margarodids. Department of
Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College at Wye, Wye, Ashford, Kent, UK. 358 pp. [Vahedi2002]
Notes: [Thesis.] The adult females of thirty species of Porphyrophora from Egypt, France, Iran, Kazakhstan, Poland, Russia, Spain, Uzbekistan and Turkey were studied and illustrated in detail. Of these, 15 were re-described, a further 5 could not be identified to species and may be new.; and one species (P. cynodontis) was considered to be a synonym of P. hamelii. In addition, the third instar male of P. crithmi is described. A representative species of the other hypogaeic margarodid genera were also studied and compared with Porphyrophora. From this study, it is concluded that Sphaeraspis and Promargarodes should be considered synonyms of Margarodes. The importance of various characters was reconsidered and some new ones found. In addition a phylogenetic analysis was undertaken to look at the relationships of (i) the 30 Porphyrophora species, and (ii) Porphyrophora with the other hypogaeic genera and three outgroups. It is considered that both the hypogaeic margarodids and the genus Porphyrophora form monophyletic groups. These relationships are discussed.
Vahedi, H.A. & Hodgson, C.J. 2002 (2001). A study of a species of Lithophyllus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a
predator of Porphyrophora species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Margarodidae) from Iran. Bollettino di Zoologia
Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 515. [VahediHo2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] Predators of hypogean scales, such as Porphyrophora sp., have rarely been recorded. An unknown species of Lithophyllus, belonging to the family Lithophyllinae, is fairly common in the Kermenshah Region of Iran, where it feeds on all stages of Porphyrophora tritici and Porphyrophora sp.
Vahedi, H.A. & Hodgson, C.J. 2002 (2001). A brief review of the characters and character-states for separating
species of Porphyrophora (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Margarodidae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura
(Milano) 33(3): 516. [VahediHo2002a]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] The most important characters and character-states used to diagnose species are thoracic spiracles, antennal structure, claws, legs, hair-like setae, multilocular disc-pores and microducts.
Vaissayre, M. & Frydrych, R. 2001. [Some findings on the origin of honeydews and control of the insects causing
it.] Quelques donnees sur l'origine des miellats et la lutte contre les insectes en cause. (In French). 41-43 In: Gourlot,
J.P. (Ed.), Mesure du collage des fibres de cotton et moyens de lutte. Actes du seminaire, 26 juin 2000, Montpellier,
France. Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD),
Montpellier, France. [VaissaFr2001]
Notes: Stickiness of cotton fibre is related to outbreaks of sucking insects (including Aphis gossypii, Bemisia tabaci, Ferrisia virgata and Pseudococcus filamentosus) and the honeydew they produce, towards the end of the growing period of the crop. Populations of these insect pests have been increasing over several years, as a result of the development of new biotypes, but also encouraged by the development of new growing conditions. Direct chemical control measures are ineffective at this stage of plant growth, and it is necessary to develop new cultural practices in an integrated approach to control, based on eliminating or reducing the support for the pests that is provided by the foliage persisting at the end of the cycle.
van Klinken, R.D., Walter, G.H. & Ross, M.K. 2002. Drosophilidae (Diptera) of Australia's Northern Territory:
ecology and Biogeography. Australian Journal of Entomology 41(3): 236-242. [vanKliWaRo2002]
Notes: The drosophilid fauna is well documented in eastern Australia but is poorly known in other parts of the continent. This paper summarizes what is known of this fauna in the Northern Territory (NT), and includes results from banana trapping in the humid and arid zones. The 42 recorded species include species that breed in fruit, fungi and/or flowers, and a larval predator of scale insects.
Van Mele, P. & Cuc, N.T.T. 2001. Farmers' perceptions and practices in use of Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith)
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for biological control of pests of sapodilla. Biological Control 20(1): 23-29.
Notes: In 1996, a majority (61%) of 190 sapodilla farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam considered the black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith), beneficial in decreasing damage by the fruit borer Alophia sp. (51%), the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell) (43%), and "bad" ants, notably Cardiocondyla wroughtoni (Forel) (38%). A significantly greater proportion of orchards in Can Tho had D. thoracicus (60%) than orchards in Tra Vinh (42%) (P < 0.05). In orchards where D. thoracicus were present, 25% fewer farmers sprayed insecticides than in orchards without D. thoracicus. Promoting greater farmers' acceptance of D. thoracicus may be difficult because 30% of the farmers said that D. thoracicus increases mealybug populations. The influence of D. thoracicus on both Alophia sp. and P. lilacinus infestations was tested in both provinces in 1996 and 1997. The mealybug P. lilacinus was not affected, but Alophia sp. damage was significantly smaller in ant-abundant trees (P < 0.01). In Tra Vinh, the use of high-pressure pumps to spray tree canopies with water hampered D. thoracicus and lessened Alophia sp. control. Farmer-to-farmer training and mass media campaigns about the beneficial effect of D. thoracicus should be conducted to promote wider use of this ant species as a biological control agent and to reduce pesticide use in sapodilla orchards.
Vandermeer, J., Perfecto, I., Nunez, G.I., Phillpott, S. & Ballinas, A.G. 2002. Ants (Azteca sp.) as potential
biological control agents in shade coffee production in Chiapas, Mexico. Agroforestry Systems 56(3): 271-276.
Notes: The role of Azteca sp. ants as potential biological control agents was studied in an organic coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico. Individual larvae of Pieris rapae were placed on trees with artificially enhanced ant activity and both time to disappearance of the larvae and ant activity were recorded. There was a general negative relationship between time to disappearance and ant activity. A census of spiders was made of coffee bushes with and without foraging Azteca, encountering a negative relationship between ants and spiders. These results indicate that Azteca ants have potential as pests through their positive effect on scale insects, but also have potential as biological control agents, through their negative effect on potential herbivores. Furthermore, the correlation between ant and spider densities suggests a complicated relationship between these two predatory organisms, implying a more complicated food web structure than simply ants, Homoptera and other herbivores.
Varadarajan, M.K. & David, P.M.M. 2002. Population dynamics of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer
(Acari: Eriophyidae) and associated arthropods in Tamil Nadu, India. (In English; Summary In French). Insect
Science and its Application 22(1): 47-59. [VaradaDa2002]
Notes: The population dynamics of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) infesting the coconut fruits was studied during September 1999-May 2000 in Tamil Nadu, India where the mite is a new pest. Mite population declined by 62.6% when the tepal area decreased by 24.3% due to mealybug (Pseudococcus cocotis Mask.) infestation which caused the tepals to deform. The predatory mites Amblyseius sp. and mealybugs were most abundant on the innter tepals.
Vasquez, J., Delgado, C., Couturier, G. & Matile-Ferrero, D. 2002. [Harmful insects for the guava tree (Psidium
guajava L.: Myrtaceae) in Peruvian Amazonia.] Les insectes nuisibles au goyavier (Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae)
en Amazonie péruvienne. (In French). Fruits 57(5-6): 323-334. [VasqueDeCo2002]
Notes: The guava tree, Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, is a native fruit tree of the neotropical area. It is very common in intertropical zones and used in agroindustry to produce juice, nectar, sorbet, etc. To inventory the pests of the guava tree, a survey was done in different localities of Peruvian Amazonia where this fruit tree develops in a rustic, often spontaneous, way. Insect larvae and adults were collected in Peru on various parts of guava trees. Caterpillars were reared on the substrate corresponding to their feeding mode. The fruits with larvae were followed in the laboratory until the pupa formation. 36 species associated with the guava tree were recorded. Several species presented in this work are mentioned for the first time in Peru and four, new to science, are in the process of being describedzhangko. Scale species listed include Abgrallaspis cyanophylli, Acutaspis albopicta, Alichtensia couturieri, Coccus viridis, Hemiberlesia palmae, Icerya zeteki, Nipaecoccus annonae, N. nipae, Perilecanium sp., Pharangococcus iquitosensis, Philephedra crescentiae, Protopulvinaria pyriformis, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis, Pseudoparlatoria turgida, Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi, P. landoi and Velataspis dentata.
Vasquez, S. & Coviello, R. 2002. New and reemerging grape pests. California Grower 26(6): 8-10.
Notes: Planococcus ficus.
Venkatesan, T., Singh, S.P. & Jalali, S.K. 2001. Development of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant
(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of mealybugs on freeze-dried artificial diet. Journal of Biological Control
15(2): 139-142. [VenkatSiJa2001]
Notes: Development of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied on a freeze-dried artificial diet devoid of insect components. The artificial diet was composed of beef liver (5 g), hen's egg yolk (5g), sucrose (1g), honey (1g), hydrolysed yeast (1g), milk powder (0.5g), brewer's yeast (0.5g), groundnut oil (0.3g), multivitamin (0.04g), vitamin E (0.04g), niphagine (0.004g) and water (16 ml). Biological attributes of the artificial diet reared C. montrouzieri were compared with the mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) reared. Mean adult emergence of the predators reared on artificial diet and mealybug reared were 58.0 and 90.0 per cent, respectively. Differences in developmental period, adult weight and female emergence between artificial diet and mealybug reared predators were non-significant. Pre-ovipositional period of the predators reared on artificial diet was significantly longer than the mealybug reared. The mean fecundity of artificial diet reared predator was only 8 eggs/female, which was significantly lower than the mealybug reared (204eggs/female). Artificial diet reared predators laid fertile eggs and the mean viability of the eggs was 93.0 per cent, which was not significantly different from the mealybug reared (94.0%).
Vigueras G., A.L. & Portillo, L. 2001. Uses of Opuntia species and the potential impact of Cactoblastis cactorum
(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico. (In English; Summary In Spanish). Florida Entomologist 84(4): 493-498.
Notes: In Mexico, cactus pears (Opuntia spp.) are regarded as very important plants, especially in semi-arid and arid regions where few crops can be cultivated. Among their uses is dye. A list of 13 Opuntia species and one Nopalea species are reported as hosts of Dactylopius coccus, which are used for dye production.
Vogelgesang, M. & Szklarzewicz, T. 2002 (2001). Egg envelopes in scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccinea).
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 517. [VogelgSz2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] Ovaries and eggs of Acanthococcus aceris, Aspidiotus nerii, Eriopeltis stammeri, Eulecanium sericeum, Gossyparia spuria, Nipaecoccus nipae and Orthezia urticae have been examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy.
Wakgari, W.M. & Giliomee, J.H. 2002 (2001). Potentials and prospects of the Integrated Pest Management of
Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in citrus orchards in South Africa. Bollettino di Zoologia
Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 443-453. [WakgarGi2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor, has become a common pest in some Citrus orchards in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa over the past six to eight years. A study over three consecutive years (1997-2000) on the biology of C. destructor and the seasonal abundance of its natural enemies indicated that there is a temporal synchrony between the population densities of the susceptible scale stages and some of its natural enemies, showing that the scale-natural enemy association contained a density-dependent regulatory mechanism. Parasitoids and predators acted as density-dependent mortality factors during the pre-ovipositing female stage. Bioassays of some of the insecticides commonly used for the control of red scale and false codling moth indicated that most are highly detrimental to one of the major parasitoids of C. destructor. This could represent one of the reasons for the increase in the distribution and densities of C. destructor over the past decade. Our study has also indicated that the sex ratio of Aprostocetus (=Tetrastichus) ceroplastae, a dominant primary endoparasitoid of C. destructor, reared from early third-instar was male-biased while that of parasitoids reared from mature adult females was slightly female-biased. The implication of this for a possible mass rearing of A. ceroplastae and biological control of C. destructor is discussed.
Waldkircher, G. & Maschwitz, U. 2003. Nest building behavior of the South East Asian weaver ant Camponotus
(Karavaievia) texens (Formicidae : Formicinae). Sociobiology 41(2): 383-402. [WaldkiMa2003]
Notes: Camponotus texens is a weaver ant found in South East Asia. The species weaves single chambered silk pavilions using larval silk. Tree bark particles are incorporated in the silk network of the chamber walls. Independent from actual pavilion constructions these particles are gained in a complicated collecting procedure only performed after heavy rainfall. Usually they are kept in specifically constructed stores until used. The temporary fastening of particles constitutes a new functional context of silk usage in weaver ants. The construction features of the pavilions vary greatly and depend on the given leaf structures. However, they always remain single chambered even after being enlarged by worker ants. Pavilions are part of a complex polydomous nest housing containing at the same time adult ants, brood, and a huge number of trophobiotic scale insects of various species. C. texens is active at night but weaving activity can be observed during day and night. It is shown as a complex behavioral interaction of the involved worker ants between each other and between ants and larvae with a subtly differentiated division of labor comprising weavers, transporters, building organizers and guards. The weaving action itself is completely controlled by worker ants. Finally the nest building strategies of Camponotus texens are compared with those of other weaving ants.
Wang, D.X., Lou, Z., Li, P. & Gao, Z.H. 2002. [The main diseases and pests of pomegranate in Huaiyuan area and
their control.] (In Chinese). China Fruits No. 1: 36-38. [WangLoLi2002]
Notes: Investigation over 4 years revealed that there were more than 20 important pests and diseases in this pomegranate producing area in Anhui, China. Insect pests included aphids, cottony cushion scale [Icerya purchasi], mulberry white scale [Pseudaulacaspis pentagona] and hard wax scale, and others. Hard wax scale was controlled by spraying of 20% fenvalerate (solution of 1200) in late June-early July.
Wang, H.X., Chen, G.Q., Li, W.D., Gong, J.Q. & Liang, K.H. 2001. [The occurrence and identification of
Arbutus scales and their control in the Taizhou area.] (In Chinese). South China Fruits 29(1): 30-32.
Notes: Taizhou area is a famous Arbutus-producing area in China, Ten species of scales infesting the crop were identified: Lepidosaphes ulmi L., Pseudaonidia duplex Cockerell, L. abdominalis Takagi, Parlatoria theae Cockerell, P. trilobitiformis Green, Fiorinia taiwana Takahashi, Metatachandia myricae Tang, Icerya purchasi Maskell, Ceroplastes ceriferus And., and Chrysomphalus dictylospermi Morgan. The first two are the most important pests. The first has two generations a year, the female scales have a variable colour, tea-brown, dark-brown and red-brown; it has parthenogenetic reproduction and usually attacks two-year-old branches.
Wang, H.X., Chen, G.Q., Li, W.D., Gong, J.Q. & Liang, K.H. 2001. [On the chemical control strategies of
arrowhead scale Unaspis yanonensis in citrus garden.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Acta Phytophylacica
Sinica 28(1): 67-72. [WangChLi2001a]
Notes: Investigations of rational chemical control techniques in citrus orchards damaged by the arrowhead scale Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) was carried out in 1995-1998, and the control strategies separately suitable to different damage levels of this insect pest were proposed. In seriously damaged orchards, chemical control was focussed both on overwintering and first generations, with rosin-soda compound against the overwintering generation in spring and a mixture of supracide (or omethoate) and lubricant emulsion (or buprofezin) at peak occurrence of 1st instar nymph in 1st generation. Those in a generally damaged orchard was on 1st generation only with the same mixture mentioned above, and the action thresholds in winter and spring were 1.0 and 0.5 overwintering adult per twig end, respectively. In an initially damaged orchard, chemical control should be avoided in order to promote natural enemies to keep U. yanonensis under control.
Wang, T.F., Yan, X.H., Liu, C.H. & Dang, Y.P. 2002. [The leading pests of jujube in the northern jujube
producing area of Shaanxi province.] (In Chinese). China Fruits No.2: 43-44, 46. [WangYaLi2002]
Notes: Six important pests are described, including Chihuo zao, Carposina niponensis, Ancylis sativa, jujube beetle, Contaria sp. and Ceroplastes japonicus. Life cycle and control measures are outlined. Chihuo zao and Carposina niponensis can be controlled by 3 applications of 1500 times solution of 25% chlorbenzuron. Control of Ceroplastes japonicus nymphs is possible with spraying 500-800 times solution of 50% carbaryl.
Watson, G.W. 2002 (2001). A pictorial key to important Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the world.
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 175-178. [Watson2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] A pictorial key to 48 genera and 100 species of Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of economic or quarantine importance worldwide has been compiled, using Linnaeus II software developed by the Expert Centre for Taxonomic Identification (ETI). The CD-ROM will provide information on each species (diagnosis, synonymy, taxonomy, host range, symptoms of infestation, distribution, biology and ecology, economic impact, detection and natural enemies, separation from similar species, and literature, according to the information available). There are also modules on: Methods (collection, preservation, preparation, and storage), Host Plants and Higher Taxa. A hyper-linked Glossary and an Index to both Latin and common names is also provided. The CD-ROM is part of the series 'Arthropods of Economic Importance', a project of the Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam. ETI, the Natural History Museum (London) and CAB International are some of the collaborators in the project. The CD-ROM will be published by ETI (http://www.eti.uva.nl) and should be available from bookstores by the summer of 2002.
Watson, G.W. & Foldi, I. 2002 (2001). The identity of red-striped soft scale on sugarcane in Egypt, Pulvinaria
tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte 79: 37-42.
Notes: This species is also known in Egypt as Pulvinaria elongata and was previously known as Saccharolecanium krugeri. Other species previously confused with this one are discussed. A table of characters that compares S. krugeri with P. tenuivalvata is presented. It is possible that P. saccharia is synonymous with P. tenuivalvata.
Wheeler, A.G. 2003. Brumoides septentrionis davisi (Leng) (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae): Distribution, host-plant
associations, and habitats of a seldom-collected lady beetle. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of
Washington 105(1): 50-58. [Wheele2003]
Notes: The chilocorine coccinellid Brumoides septentrionis davisi (Leng) is an infrequently collected lady beetle whose broad distribution in eastern North America has been mapped; few specific localities, however, have been published. Despite a known association with pines, the Pinus species on which it is found have not been recorded. Historical locality data are provided based on specimens in five museum collections, and new records from recent field work are presented. This coccinellid's plant and habitat associations are discussed. Its populations apparently have declined in the Northeast in recent years. Certain scale insects probably serve as prey.
Williams, D.J. 2001. Descriptions of a new genus and three new species of Rhizoecinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea)
associated with ants of the genus Acropyga Roger in Dominican amber. American Museum Novitates (New York)
No. 3335: 16-18. [Willia2001c]
Notes: [This separately titled appendix appears in Acropyga and Azteca Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Scale Insects (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea): 20 Million Years of Intimate Symbiosis by Johnson, C., Agosti, D., Delabie, J.H., Dumpert, K., Williams, D.J., von Tschirnhaus, M. & Maschwitz, U., pp. 1-18.] Electromyrmococcus Williams, new gen., E. abductus, new sp., E. inclusus Williams & Agosti, new sp., and E. reginae Williams, new sp. are briefly described and illustrated.
Williams, D.J. 2002. The identity of the armoured scale insect Mytilaspis (Lepidosaphes) bicolor Newstead (Hem.
Diaspididae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 138: 156. [Willia2002a]
Notes: This brief report discusses the taxonomic status of this species.
Williams, D.J. 2003. A mealybug (Hem., Pseudococcidae) increasing its range on bamboo. Entomologist's Monthly
Magazine 139: 68. [Willia2003]
Notes: Palmicultor bambusum Tang, 1992 is synonymized with Trionymus lumpurensis Takahashi, 1951 under the name of Palmicultor lumpurensis (Takahashi).
Williams, D.J. & Miller, D.R. 2002. Systematic studies on the Antonina crawi Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea:
Pseudococcidae) complex of pest mealybugs. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104(4): 896-911. [WilliaMi2002]
Notes: Careful analysis of specimens identified as Antonina crawi Cockerell has shown that three very similar species are involved, i.e., A. crawi, A. nakaharai Williams and Miller, new species, and A. socialis Newstead (reinstated status). A key is provided for 11 species reported on bamboos and a description is given for a bamboo-infesting species from Taiwan, i.e., A. maai Williams and Miller, new species. Antonina crawi is reported from China, Japan, and the U.S. (California) but is suspected to have disappeared from the latter country.
Williams, M.L. & Kondo, T. 2002 (2001). Characteristics of first-instar nymphs in the soft scale insects
(Hemiptera: Coccidae): surprising indicators of relationships. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura
(Milano) 33(3): 35-42. [WilliaKo2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Recent studies on the adult males and immatures have shown that characteristics of these stages can provide some surprising indications of relationships within the soft scale insect family Coccidae. In this study of the taxonomic characters in first-instar nymphs, characteristics of 120 species of first instars in eight of the ten subfamilies of Coccidae (Cardiococcinae, Ceroplastinae, Coccinae, Eriopeltinae, Eulecaniinae, Filippinae, Myzolecaniinae, and Pseudopulvinariinae) were compared. Emphasis is placed on a comparison of some unusual features of first instars within the subfamily Myzolecaniinae and between the more typical characters seen in other first-instar soft scale insects.
Wolff, V.R.S., Bernardi, J.M., Costa, M.K.M., Menezes, A.O., Prade, C.A., Pulz, C.E. & Silva, D.C. 2002
(2001). Natural enemies of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in citrus orchards in Rio Grande do Sul,
Brazil. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 33(3): 518. [WolffBeCo2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] [abstract of poster] Predators from the Chrysopidae (Neuroptera), Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) and Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) families were found on Chrysomphalus aonidum, Cornuaspis beckii, Insulaspis gloverii, Parlatoria pergandii, Pinnaspis aspidistrae and Unaspis citri in Citrus sinensis orchards.
Wu, G.Y., Xu, Z.H. & Lou, J.X. 2001. [Two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on scale
insects from Liaoning, China.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Entomotaxonomia 23(4): 296-300.
Notes: Two new species, Mayridia parva sp. nov. and Doliphoceras brachyclavae sp. nov. are described. Both were collected from Fuxin, Liaoning Province. Genera Mayridia and Doliphoceras are also new records from China. All the specimens are deposited in the Institute of Applied Entomology, Agriculture and Biotechnology College, Zhejiang University.
Wu, L., Nie, Y.P. & Huang, Y.H. 2001. Bionomics and control methods of Didesmococcus koreanus.
Entomological Knowledge 38(4): 292-295. [WuNiHu2001]
Notes: Upon studying the bionomics and control methods of D. koreanus, results showed that the scale insect had one generation each year in Kunming and Central Yunnan, China. Female adults began to oviposit during the last ten days of March and the peak period of egg hatching was in the middle ten days of April. Effective control methods for this plant pest are proposed.
Yan, X.S., Zeng, C.X., Xie, J.X., Wu, R. & Chen, Y.W. 2001. [Study on spatial distribution type and control
techniques of Kermes nawae.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Journal of Zhejiang Forestry Science and
Technology 21(5): 20-22. [YanZeXi2001]
Notes: Results are presented of a study on the spatial distribution and control techniques of Kermes nawae in Castanea mollissima stands in Jiangshan, Zhejiang, China.
Yanik, E., Yucel, A. & Ak, B.E. 2001. The pistachio (P. vera L.) pests, their population development and damage
state in Sanliurfa province. (In English; Summary In French). Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes 56: 301-309.
Notes: [XI GREMPA Seminar on pistachios and almonds. Proceedings of the XI GREMPA Seminar organized by the University of Harran with the collaboration of the FAO-CIHEAM Inter-Regional Cooperative Research and Development Network on Nuts, Sanliurfa, Turkey, 1-4 September 1999.] Periodic surveys were conducted in 6 orchards in Sanliurfa province in Turkey during March-August of 1996 and 1997 to determine the insect population in pistachio and their population development. Evaluations were carried out by shoot examination, visual observation and beating umbrella technique. Insect species belonging to Heteroptera; Homoptera (Idiocerus stali [Sulamicerus stali], Suturaspis pistaciae, Eulecanium rugulosum, Anapulvinaria pistaciae and Agonoscena pistaciae); Coleoptera; and Lepidoptera were recorded.
Yasnosh, V., Rtskhiladze, M. & Tabatadze, E. 2002 (2001). Coccids (Hemiptera, Coccinea) and their natural
enemies in the vineyards of Georgia: present situation. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano)
33(3): 351-355. [YasnosRtTa2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] Several scale insect species are recorded in Georgian vineyards. Among them the mealybug, Planococcus ficus, and the cottony scale, Neopulvinaria innumerabilis, are the most prevalent and serious pests in the dry eastern regions. In the humid regions of the Black Sea coast the mealybug Pseudococcus viburni is an occasional noxious pest. Other common coccids, Parthenolecanium corni, P. persicae, and Pulvinaria betulae, are rare, minor pests in the vineyards and have no economic importance. Two hymenopterous species, Anagyrus pseudococci and Allotropa mecrida, are parasitoids of Planococcus ficus. Some species of hyperparasitoids have also been recorded, namely Pachyneuron muscarum, Chartocerus subaeneus, and Marietta picta. Currently, the key pest of vine in eastern Georgia is the cottony maple scale, where many outbreaks have occurred. This species of American origin (Canada and USA), spread in the Caucasus (Georgia and Armenia) and in some European countries (France and Italy) without the natural enemies that suppressed it in America. No effective natural enemies have been found in Georgia. Three chalcid parasitoids, known as parasitoids of local coccids, have been recorded on this pest: Coccophagus maculipennis (whose natural host is Acanthopulvinaria orientalis), C. palaeolecanii, and C. lycimnia. The larvae of Leucopis alticeps, Chrysopa spp. and Scymnus spp. have been recorded as predators. Breeding programmes were initiated more than 50 years ago for the introduced coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, to control coccids. In regions with drier climates, where C. montrouzieri is less effective, a C. montrouzieri strain introduced from Israel is being tested and preliminary experiments have found it to be more effective. In conclusion, indigenous natural enemies are not capable of reducing the impact of P. ficus and N. innumerabilis populations to non-economic levels. Developing effective biological control of these pests will be essential.
Yerushalmi, N. & Cohen, E. 2002. Acetylcholinesterase of the California red scale Aonidiella aurantii Mask.:
Catalysis, inhibition, and reactivation. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 72(3): 133-141. [YerushCo2002]
Notes: The properties of the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were studied using various substrates, inhibitors, and reactivators. The enzyme is inhibited by di(p-allyl-N-methylaminophenyl)pentane-3-one, is insensitive to tetraisopropyl pyrophospho amid ate, and displays the substrate inhibition phenomenon. The insect AChE deviates from its vertebrate counterparts by requiring a comparatively higher level of substrate to attain inhibition, by effectively hydrolyzing the larger homologous substrate propionyl thiocholine, by having a very high sensitivity to a bulkier inhibitor such as chlopyrifosoxon, by having insensitivity to the peripheral anionic site (PAS) inhibitor fasciculin, and by being reactivated by pyridine-2-aldoxime methyl iodide but not by 1-(4-aminocarbonylpyridinium-1'-(2'-pyridiniumaldoxime)dimethyl dibromide. Those differences were discussed as being associated with probable changes of amino acid composition within the enzyme acyl pocket and the PAS. Based on the above comparison, the insect enzyme may be regarded as an intermediate between AChE and butyrylcholinesterase. Among the organophosphorus (OP) compounds, chlopyrifos-oxon and 7-(methylethoxyphosphinyloxy)-1-methyl quinolinium were the most powerful inhibitors, while paraoxon was two orders of magnitude less effective. Among the carbamates, carbaryl was similar to paraoxon in its inhibitory effects followed by aldicarb and pirimicarb. The alkaloid huperzine A is an extremely potent inhibitor of the diaspidid AChE (with a K-i value in the subnanomolar range). The quaternary ammonium ligands propidium, edrophonium, and d-tubocurarine displayed high levels of inhibition. Toxogonin was the most powerful reactivator of OP-inhibited enzyme, while its nonoxime analog 1,1-bis(4-tertbutylpyridinium)dimethylether dichloride was without effect. Possible reasons for the enhanced inhibition of AChE in the presence of carbaryl and Toxogonin were discussed.
Zada, A., Dunkelblum, E., Assael, F., Harel, M., Cojocaru, M. & Mendel, Z. 2002 (2001). Identification of a
second sex pheromone component of the Vine Mealybug. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano)
33(3): 275-281. [ZadaDuAs2002]
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at The University of Padua, Italy, Sept. 2-8, 2001.] The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of vineyards in the Mediterranean region, California (USA), and South Africa. In an attempt to develop a monitoring system for the mealybug, research teams in California and Israel have studied, independently, its pheromone system. The Californian team (Hinkens, D. H., Mcelfresh, J. S., and Millar, J. G., 2001, Tetrahedron Letters, 42: 1619) identified (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) as the female sex pheromone of the mealybug. Lately, we identified (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) as an additional active component. The attraction of the vine mealybug males to both compounds was demonstrated by bioassays in petri dish arena and flight assays in the mealybug rearing room. Indoor, both compounds displayed a similar level of attractiveness to the mass-reared males. However, trials in a vineyard indicated that males were attracted only to compound I.
Zandigiacomo, P. 2002. [Entomological diagnosis and advice in the service of agriculture: 6th year.] Diagnosi e
consulenze entomologiche al servizio dell'agricoltura: 6̊ anno. (In Italian). Notiziario ERSA 15(1-2): 21-22.
Notes: Between August 2000 and July 2001 in Friuli Venezia-Giulia, Italy, the science department at Udine university made 48 diagnoses of symptoms on plants, identifying insects and thrips, as well as some of their natural enemies. Of particular interest to farmers were Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Chrysolina americana, Pyrrhalta viburnana, Dasineura gleditchiae, Plioreocoptes poeciloptera and Cydia molesta [Grapholita molesta]. Three on-the-spot investigations were conducted into a Planococcus ficus infestation in vines, extensive defoliation of oaks [Quercus] and defoliation of several broad-leaved weed species.
Zettler, J.L., Follett, P.A. & Gill, R.F. 2002. Susceptibility of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera:
Pseudococcidae) to methyl bromide. Journal of Economic Entomology 95(6): 1169-1173. [ZettleFoGi2002]
Notes: Eggs, crawlers, early nymphs, late nymphs, and adults of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were tested for their susceptibility to methyl bromide in 2-h laboratory fumigations at ambient conditions (25degreeC, 95% RH). Dose-response tests indicated that the egg was the most susceptible life stage with an LC99 of 20.2 mg/liter. Based on probit analysis of dose-response data, no significant differences were observed among susceptibilities of the crawler, early stage or late stage nymphs, or adults at either the LC50 or LC99 level, but late stage nymphs were more tolerant than early stage nymphs in a separate paired comparison test. Confirmatory tests showed that a dose of 48 mg/liter methyl bromide, the USDA-Animal Plant Health Inspection Service treatment dose schedule for mealybugs at 21-26degreeC, produced 100% mortality of all life stages. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the methyl bromide treatment schedule for mealybugs will provide quarantine security for M. hirsutus infesting commodities for export or import.
Zhang, J.Y., Kong, D.S. & Liu, H.J. 2001. [The occurrence of Korean globose scale in the River's (Western
Corridor region of Gansu province and its control.)] (In Chinese). China Fruits No. 2: 8-10. [ZhangKoLi2001]
Notes: Observations on the Korean globose scale (Didesmococcus koreanus) showed that it infests apple, pear, peach, plum and apricot trees; has one generation a year; and overwinters as larvae. Spraying with different concentrations of lime sulfur [calcium polysulfide], Optunal [1-methylethyl 2-[(aminomethoxyphosphinothioyl)oxy]benzoate], omethoate and Decis [deltamethrin] during different periods in a field experiment conducted during 1996-98 showed that control of the plant pest can be achieved by spraying lime sulfur before bud break.
Zhang, Y.Z. & Huang, D.W. 2001a. Two new encyrtid parasites (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from China.
Oriental Insects. New Delhi 35: 311-319. [ZhangHu2001a]
Notes: Grandiclavula gen. nov., G. spatulata sp. nov. and Oriencyrtus liaoi sp. nov. are described with scanning electron micrographs. Grandiclavula gen. nov. is separated from the related genera by its strongly compressed flagellum, weakly concave facial transverse margin and fine striated-reticulate sculpture on dorsum. G. spatulata and O. liaoi are parasitoids of Eriococcus lagerstroemiae [Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae] and Eulecanium giganteum, respectively. All type specimens (except one paratype in NHM) are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Zhang, Z.H. & Wu, D. 2002. The integrated management for control of citrus pests in Australia. (In Chinese).
China Fruits 31(3): 19-21. [ZhangWu2002]
Notes: The main pest for citrus fruits in Australia is Aonidiella aurantii, followed by Tegolophus australis, Bactrocera trioni, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, Unaspis citri, Biprorulus bibax and citrus leaf miners. The main control measures include the introduction of natural enemies and spraying machine oil.
Zhao, B.A., Zhang, M. & Xu, S.M. 2002. [Forest conservation for pest control.] (In Chinese; Summary In English).
Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College 22(1): 51-52,60. [ZhaoZhXu2002]
Notes: Results are presented of a forest conservation activity, in a pine [Pinus] stand attacked by Dendrolimus punctatus and Matsucoccus, conducted to improve stand and tree growth and increase in natural enemies for pest control.
Zhao, W.D. 2002. [The damage of Korean hardy scale and its control.] (In Chinese). China Fruits No.4: 55.
Notes: Korean hardy [globose] scale (Didesmococcus koreanus) is an important pest for peach and apricot trees. It has only one generation/year, with nymphs hibernating on branches and starting to attack branches in mid-March. Control is possible by spraying lime sulfur [calcium polysulfide] before bud bursting.
Zhao, X.P., Liu, K.W., Jia, J. & Yu, D. 2001.[Partial biochemical components analysis of Ericerus pela
(Chavannes).] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Entomological Knowledge 38(3): 216-218. [ZhaoLiJi2001]
Notes: Ericerus pela, which belongs to the family Coccidae, is an insect species of high economic value in China. This coccid is used for wax production. A partial biochemical analysis of this insect was conducted. Female adults had 6.334% nitrogen, 39.59% protein and 6.2556% fat. The ethanol extract of the insect contained 0.260% nitrogen, 0.656% protein, 3.300% reducing sugar and 7.000% saccharides. Seventeen different amino acids were identified. Of these, histidine, glutamic acid and alanine showed the highest contents (464.3740, 201.6187 and 90.3352 μg/g, respectively). The contents of Ca, Fe, Mg, Al, Ba, Co, Mn, P, Sr and Zn were also determined.
Zhao, X.P., Shu, C., Yang, F., Liu, K.W. & Yu, D. 2002. [Effects of metal ions and urea on alkaline phosphatase
from Ericerus pela (Chavannes).] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Acta Entomologica Sinica 45(3): 318-322.
Notes: The effects of metal ions and urea on the alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity from Ericerus pela (Chavannes) were surveyed. The enzyme was purified from the adult female. After each metal ion and urea had been mixed with the enzyme, the enzyme activity was determined. K super(+), Na super(+) and Li super(+) had not any effect on the enzyme activity. Ca super(2+), Ba super(2+), Mg super(2+), Mn super(2+), Co super(2+), Ni super(2+) activated the enzyme. Zn super(2+), Cu super(2+), Cd super(2+) and Pb super(2+) inhibited the enzyme. The Ca super(2+) was a more efficacious activator and the effect was classified as noncompetitive type. The inhibition of Cu super(2+) on the enzyme was found to be of noncompetitive type. The AKP was inactivated by urea; the inactivation could be divided into two kinds according to the concentration of the urea: lower than 3 mol/L and higher than 3 mol/L. At lower concentration, the effect of urea on the enzyme displayed a mixed type of inhibition.
Zhao, X.P., Zhang, J.Y., Yang, S.Z., Liu, K.W. & Yu, D. 2001. [Functional groups of alkaline phosphatase from
Ericerus pela.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Acta Entomologica Sinica 44(3) 257-262. [ZhaoZhYa2001]
Notes: Alkaline phosphatase was purified from female E. pela adults through homogenization, n-butanol extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex G-150 column gel filtration. The purification attained 16.83-fold of the enzyme with specific activity at 136.65 U/mg. The optimum pH value and temperature for the enzyme were 8.5 and 37̊C, respectively. The Km was 2.08 mmol/litre, with disodium phenyl phosphate as its substrate. The enzyme was selectively modified by phenylmethylsulfonyl-fluoride (PMSF), N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), dithiothreitol (DTT), trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), PCMB, SUAN, bromoacetic acid and iodoacetic acid. The reactions of alkaline phosphatase to PMSF, NBS, TNBS, SUAN and DDT resulted in the reduction of enzyme activity, showing the dose-response curves within certain dosages of the modifiers. Bromoacetic acid, iodoacetic acid and p-chloromercuribenzoate had little inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase activity. It is suggested that Ser, Lys and Trp residues should be considered as indespensible functional groups of alkaline phosphatase and the partial disulfide bonds as essential for the function of the enzymes.
Zhou, C.H., Li, Z.H., Zhang, J.Y., Gu, Y., Yang, S.Y. & Zong, X.X. 2001. Traditional and alternative uses of
pigeonpea in China. International Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsletter No.8: 55-57. [ZhouLiZh2001]
Notes: The traditional and potential uses of pigeon pea in China are reviewed. The use of pigeon pea in mass rearing of lac insect, fuel production, soil conservation, fodder and feed production, folk medicine, and as a food source is discussed.
Zhou, X., Tang, F.D. & Xie, Y.P. 2001. [Influence of air pollution on Comstocki mealybug's population in the
Ginkgo and Fraxinus.] (In Chinese; Summary In English). Scientia Silvae Sinicae 37(4): 65-70. [ZhouTaXi2001]
Notes: Results are presented of a study conducted in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China to determine the effect of urban air pollutants (SO2 and Pb) on the population density of Pseudococcus comstocki on Ginkgo biloba and Fraxinus chinensis.
Zhou, Y.S., Ye, T.M. & Huang, Q.W. 2001. [The integrated control of citrus diseases and pests.] (In Chinese).
South China Fruits 30(5): 19-20. [ZhouYeHu2001]
Notes: The main diseases and pests of citrus fruit trees are considered including scale insects [Coccoidea], fruit piercing moth [Noctuidae] and root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne]. For control of scales, painting Supracide [methidathion] on girdled trunks and limbs was very effective.
Zografou, A., Gounari, S., Hatjina, F. & Thrasyvoulou, A. 2002. [New data on the morphology and the biology
of the honeydew-producing insect on pines, Marchalina hellenica.] (In Greek). Melissokomiki Epitheorisi [Bee-keeping Journal] 15(2): 65-71. [ZografGoHa2002]
Notes: Description and colour photographs of external appearance of Marchalina hellenica. Notes on life history in Greece.