Editor: Dug Miller

Systematic Entomol. Lab.

Building 005, Room 137

10300 Baltimore Avenue

Plant Sciences Institute

Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr.

Beltsville, MD 20705 USA




Volume XXX                                                              December 30, 2006



Manuela Branco, Instituto Superior Agronomia, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (ISA-INIA), Portugal: The XI ISSIS meeting will take place in Oeiras, Portugal, on September 24-27th, 2007. It will be jointly organized and sponsored by ISA-UTL and EAN-INIA. Located near the Atlantic Ocean, about 20 km from Lisbon, Oeiras offers mild and pleasant weather throughout the year. In September you can count on temperatures about 25ºC. During the meeting a field trip is planned to Sintra, a UNESCO World Heritage Centre and there the possibility of a post-meeting excursion (September 28-30th) to Portuguese historical villages and natural parks. At present we have about 40 pre-registrations from many different countries covering a large spectrum of topics, such as genetics, zoogeography, population dynamics, biological control and host-insect interactions. There is still time to submit proposals for contributing presentations. Updated information is available on the web site http://www.isa.utl.pt/dppf/issis. Further information on accommodations, registration fees, instructions for the preparations of abstracts and excursions will be sent in the second circular and updated on the webpage in January 2007."



Because the future of “The Scale” is not clear at this time, I thought it might be of interest to give a brief description of its development over the years.  The first issue came out in February 1973 and was called the “Coccidologist’s Newsletter.”  The front page contained images of the cover of a male soft scale, an adult male soft scale, a lac scale female in cross section, 7 covers or pairs of covers of a diverse array of armored scales including crawler covers, a crawler of an armored scale, a mystery crawler, an adult female of Plotococcus eugeniae, a male mealybug cocoon, a Eucalymnatus soft scale, and an ortheziid (probably Insignorthezia insignis).  I suspect the cover was made by John Davidson.  1973 was the only year that there were 2 issues with number 2 issued in November of 1973; I guess I realized that each edition would take more effort, and there was limited time for such activities.  The sequence of volumes and dates went as follows:  Volume I, February 1973 and November 1973; Volume II December 1974; Volume III ? 1975 (don’t have a copy of this to confirm this date); Volume IV March 1976; Volume V September 1979; Volume VI February 1980; Volume VII June 1981; Volume VIII May 1982; Volume IX ? 1983 (don’t have a copy of this to confirm this date); Volume X December 1984; Volume XI December 1985; Volume XII December 1986; Volume XIII December 1987; Volume XIV June 1989; Volume XV July 1990; Volume XVI September 1991; Volume XVII October 1992; Volume XVIII December 1993; Volume XIX December 1994; Volume XX February 1996; Volume XXI March 1997; Volume XXII March 1998; Volume XXIII March 1999; Volume XXIV March 2000; Volume XXV March 2001; Volume XXVI April 2002; Volume XXVII April 2003; Volume XXVIII December 2004; Volume XXIX December 2005; Volume XXX December 2006.  The years 1977, 1978, 1988, and 1993 were missed.  In 1983 there was an edict from the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service Information Office that no “newsletters” were to be issued without their approval.  When I realized that Information Office approval was unlikely I found a loop hole by changing the title to “The Scale.”  It no longer qualified as a newsletter and was continued in a new form.  John Davidson designed the new cover, this time with a balance scale weighing an armored scale on one side and a soft scale on the other.  Interestingly the weight of the two seems equal.  The 1987 volume was mislabeled as XII; it should have been XIII.  The first few volumes were produced with a typewriter; I am not sure when the computer took over.  The first online edition was produced in 1996.  We still mail out hard copies for those who want them, but for those who are able, we ask that they download a copy from the SEL Coccoidea Web Page at  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/Coccoidea/scaleframe.html.



Evelyna Danzig, Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. I am now retired, but continue to work as before. I have finished a revision of the genus Heliococcus Sulc of the former USSR. The manuscript contains a key and review of 27 species that is a majority of species of the genus. Helioccocus shows a wide diversity of morphological characters, but the presence of special crateriform ducts and the consistency of other morphological characters suggest that it is a natural group. Description of separate genera for certain species does not seem correct. This revision is a continuation of the monographic work on “Mealybugs of Russia and neighbouring territories”. For the last several years Ilya Gavrilov helped me with this work including the revision of some difficult groups. In 2006 the English translation of the second part of the Phenacoccus revision was published; as usual it was in Entomol. Rev. This year the paper “A new species of Greenisca from Russia” was also published. This summer I lived in the forest near St. Petersburg. I was very surprised by the enormous proliferation of two species of the genus Eriopeltis: E. stammeri Schm. and E. lichtensteinii Sign. For many years I have visited these forests but for the first time I see millions of females. Perhaps it is connected with the unusually warm and dry summer.


Ilya Gavrilov, Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. I have finished the catalogue of chromosome numbers and genetic system of scale insects of the world. It will be published soon in Israel Journal of Entomology. Also, I have published some taxonomic and faunistic papers, mainly on mealybugs. In particular, I have described a new genus Nudicauda Gavrilov, 2006 with type species Ehrhornia nigra Matesova, 1957. The new genus differs from other mealybugs by a combination of characters but primarily in the presence of oral rim tubular ducts with a broad flat ring and in an unusual ovisac that opens over the posterior tergites of the female body. Also, I have finished a review of genus Mirococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948 and I shall send it to press soon.  These and some other revisions will be parts of the monograph “Mealybugs of Russia and neighbouring territories” that Evelyna Danzig and I are preparing.  Beginning this year Evelyna Danzig and I will supervise a postgraduate student Irina Trapeznikova, who will prepare a PhD thesis: “Karyosystematics and reproductive biology of mealybugs.” Irina has already mastered methods of morphological preparation of scale insects and preparation of chromosomes.


Michelle Leddel, retired Century High School, Alhambra, California, USA mleddel@earthlink.net.  After 35 years of teaching at the secondary and adult levels, I have left my classroom, however,   my interest in the study of Dactylopius spp.  (cochineal scale insects) continues at a more global level.  The III International Congress on Cochineal and Other Natural Colorants (Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico: November, 2006), provided two new opportunities.  First, I gave a slide presentation on our cochineal scale classroom lessons and community outreach.  Secondly, I met with and sat in on workshops and presentations by growers, artists, weavers and dyers, promoters, scientists, and researchers that are working with the cochineal scale insects.   In this case, their work centered on the 'fine' Dactylopius coccus Costa, where as in southern California and parts of Arizona, I found only the 'wild' species. Earlier in the year I also gave slide presentations to educators at the State Conference of the California Continuation Education Association in Los Angeles, and the Teacher Recognition Day at the California 48th District Agricultural Association in Pomona, California.  Needless to say, teachers see the unique entomological opportunities available in the study of this colorful scale insect.  Participants at three California teachers' agriculture conference/seminars also received our 8-page cochineal mini-book, complete with student lessons and drawings of the insects.  Brief discussions at three cactus and succulent societies meetings/conference in Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, further helped to educate cacti hobbyists about the cochineal host plant, Opuntia spp. Interpreters at Colonial Williamsburg in Williamsburg, Virginia, continue to discuss and display the many uses of this scale insect colorant during the 1700 and 1800's. On display at this 'living museum' are examples of cochineal as it was used as a natural pink coloring in liquid medicines; pink powder for wigs; food coloring in multi-colored gelatin recipes and sugar coated almond deserts; and as a colorant for pink book covers, yarns, and fabrics.  The John D. Rockefeller. Jr. Library also has historical resources, used not only by the interpreters, but the general public. Finally, as "The Scale" goes to press, the Internet indicates another book about the Dactylopius, however, I have not found it in the U.S.  Look for "Cochineal Red: Travels Through Ancient Peru," by Hugh Thomas  (published July, 2006) in United Kingdom.


Yair Ben-Dov, Department of Entomology, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel: On November 2006, we (Yair Ben-Dov and Douglass R. Miller) completed the First Edition of ScaleNet. As of December all 27 families of the Coccoidea, namely Aclerdidae, Asterolecaniidae, Beesoniidae, Carayonemidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Conchaspididae, Dactylopiidae, Diaspididae, Electrococcidae, Eriococcidae, Grimaldiellidae, Halimococcidae, Inkaidae, Jersicoccidae, Kermesidae, Kerriidae, Kukaspididae, Labiococcidae, Lecanodiaspididae, Margarodidae, Micrococcidae, Ortheziidae, Phenacoleachiidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae and Stictococcidae, are on-line in ScaleNet.  This is the appropriate time to thank colleagues for their comments, notes and corrections. We very much appreciate your feedback, as it contributes to the upgrade of ScaleNet, for the benefit of all.The Catalogue of eight scale insect families ( Ben-Dov, Y.  2006.  A systematic catalogue of eight Scale Insect Families (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the world Aclerdidae, Asterolecaniidae, Beesoniidae, Carayonemidae, Conchaspididae, Dactylopiidae, Kerriidae and Lecanodiaspididae. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 368 pp.) was published in August 2006. The Catalogue is available for purchase from the Publisher; Elsevier Ltd.  Additional information is available at Elsevier’s site:

In 2004 I initiated and placed on the Internet the website Directory of Scale Insect Systematists Directory of Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) Systematists URL: http://www.agri.gov.il/Publications/systematists. Feedback from colleagues and users will be highly appreciated. If you discover that a particular scale insect systematist is not included in the Directory, or you have new information and corrections, please contact me by email    During 2006 I started to re-construct and re-activate the web-site Scale Insect Forum. Hopefully it will be placed on the Internet at a new site in 2007. The new web-site will also include, among various items, a Directory of Coccidologists, i.e. a list of persons who are studying or are interested in any aspect of scale insects studies, such as taxonomy, phylogeny, economic importance, fauna, molecular biology, cytogenetics, life history, biological control, zoogeography, chemical ecology, useful scale insects, and interrelationship with ants. The entry of each person will provide his/her affiliation address, email address, phone and fax numbers and areas of research or interest. I believe that such a list will be very useful and helpful for scale insects students all over the world.  If you are interested in having your name included in the Directory please contact me at .   Please forward information about Scale Insect Forum to any of colleagues, who are involved in Scale Insect Studies.


Chris Hodgson, The National Museum of Wales, Wales, UK:  This has been another busy year and most of the projects which were underway at the time of writing last year have now either been completed or are very close to completion: the revision of some Porphyrophora species from the Middle East etc. with Hassan Vahedi should come out in Biological Systematics and Diversity fairly early in the New Year; the “Review of the Margarodidae sensu Morrison (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and some related taxa based on the morphology of the adult males”, co-authored with Imre Foldi, was published in Zootaxa in July; the morphology of all stages of Marchalina hellenica was published in Zootaxa earlier in the year, co-authored with Sophia Gounari; the check list of alian insects on the Galapagos Islands and implications for conservation was published in Conservation Biology and Biodiversity (by C.A. Causton, S.B. Peck, B.J. Sinclair, L. Roque-Abelo, CJH  and B. Landry) in January; and lastly, the paper on the systematic and biology of the eriococcid Calycicoccus merwie (by P.J. Gullan, JH Giliomee, CJH and L.G. Cook) came out in African Entomology. If readers want copies of these papers, please email me at hodgsoncj@cardiff.ac.uk.  The revision of the margarodoid genus Stigmacoccus has been completed (co-authored by Heather Gamper, Amauri Bogo and Gillian Watson) and will hopefully be published in the coming year.  Also completed is a revision of the rhizoecine mealybugs based on adult male morphology – which (I believe) suggests that this could be considered to be a separate family from the Pseudococcidae – but this is not supported by cladistic studies currently being undertaken in Davis (!!) and so I await the outcome of their analysis, based mainly on DNA (but including my data on adult males).  The study of the margarodoid genus Palaeococcus has come to a halt as type specimens of the type species (P. fuscipennis) cannot currently be located.  P. fuscipennis was apparently originally described from deciduous trees, whereas all the material currently available from the Mediterranean is off Pinus species.  If any reader has seen material off a deciduous tree (or can suggest where I might locate specimens) I would be most grateful.  The main emphasis in the New Year will be a redescription of the type species of South American Eriococcidae genera (senior author Dug Miller); completion of my part of the soft scales of Australia (with Penny Gullan); and, hopefully, a start will be made on the immature stages of New Zealand Coccidae (senior author Rosa Henderson).  I also hope to complete a review of the non-margarodoid families based on the morphology of the adult males, which is fairly well advanced; and perhaps to produce a more definitive phylogeny of the Coccoidea based mainly on adult male characters.  A number of other small projects are also underway and some may come to fruition in the coming year.  As before, this comes with my very grateful thanks to The National Museum of Wales for on-going support and facilities.  And I look forward to meeting you all in Portugal next autumn.


University of California, Davis, USA

Penny Gullan: The Gullan scale lab had a very productive year in 2006. Demian Kondo (postdoc), Cory Unruh and Nate Hardy (PhD students) have written their own news, which you can be read below. Penny returned from her South African sabbatical in February via short visits to Tasmania and then New Zealand. In Tasmania, she collected a few scales, especially Nothofagus- and eucalypt-feeding ones, and in New Zealand she visited Rosa Henderson at the NZAC. Much of the rest of 2006 was spent teaching, but Penny had a very enjoyable research month in the summer when Lyn Cook from Australia visited for work on several collaborative projects, including on coccids with Demian.  Penny, Lyn and Nate are working on Nothofagus eriococcids, and Penny and Lyn have several other scale projects in various stages of completion.  Doug Williams and Penny published a small paper on Icerya imperatae, which is a new pest of grasses in Palau. Doug has been working hard to complete the drawings and descriptions of all known Protortonia species and Penny has been helping a little. Demian and Penny have been looking at Paratachardina lac insects in order to identify a species that has become a pest in Florida and elsewhere. As usual, this paper has grown and Demian has been kept busy measuring specimens and sequencing lac DNA, in addition to his coccid DNA. Penny's former Masters student, Janie Booth, has completed her dissertation on the phylogeny of Matsucoccus (one small paper is published so far) and will become a mother early in 2007. Bora Kaydan, our good colleague from Turkey, has been here since early August working with Penny on the systematics of Ferrisia mealybugs and learning molecular techniques from Demian, Nate and Cory. There are several new Ferrisia species, and Bora has become an expert at discerning small differences among species and illustrating the adult females. He returns home before Christmas, but we'll see him at ISSIS in 2007. Xie Yingping is planning a short visit to our lab in mid December (currently he is working with Paris Lambdin for a 6-month sabbatical).

Demian Kondo: Although it is a well-deserved retirement, it is sad news to hear that Dug Miller will leave the US Department of Agriculture/Smithsonian. He has been so helpful to my research, and to many others who engage in taxonomic studies of scale insects. Without his help, my studies in the past 10 years would have been impossible to achieve. I take this opportunity to thank him for his great achievements in the field of coccidology and for all his patience and help. Thank you Dug. His retirement will be a great loss in our field of scale insect studies, but I hope he will find time to continue working on scale insects from time to time, perhaps as a hobby or a pastime and continue to guide the next generation of coccidologists. As for myself, I have had and still am having the best days of my life here at UC Davis. Soon after graduating (actually a month before graduating) on April 2003 from Auburn University under the supervision of Mike Williams, I came to the Penny Gullan and Peter Cranston’s lab. Since then I have been able to dedicate full time on the research of my favorite insects and have been able to publish on various scales including part of my dissertation. I have learned a lot from Penny and Peter, not only about taxonomy, but also about dedication and hard work. I thank them for encouraging me to work on a molecular level phylogenetic study of the family Coccidae, my favorite family of scale insects. I thank Mike Williams for introducing me to the soft scale insects. With Lyn Cook we have been working on coccid phylogeny for almost 3 years, and we are starting to produce some results which we hope to publish before my post-doctoral contract expires in September 2007. I have been working on several side projects including revisions of a few genera of coccids and lac insects, and other small projects which have become a hobby to me. This year has been a slow one for me in respect to published papers. Dug keeps telling me to stop writing TPs (pronounced “tee-pees” and meaning short papers; an abbreviation for “toilet paper”), so I have decided to write longer papers this year. I have also been working on a taxonomic revision of the lac insect genus Paratachardina, this has proven to be a real challenge, but one which I’ve been enjoying. My 2 trips to Chile in 2003 and 2006 have resulted in the description of two new interesting genera and species of eriococcids, and I was also able to write a paper on a new coccid genus from Africa which resulted from a trip to Ghana in 2005.

Nate Hardy: I became a doctoral candidate and a published author this year (in a Zootaxa paper with Demian, Lyn, and Penny), describing and illustrating a new felt scale genus and species from Chile. I also had two additional papers accepted, one to the Australian Journal of Entomology, describing a new genus and four new species of felt scale on Eucalyptus, and a second to Systematic Entomology discussing the phylogenetic utility of two new nuclear protein-coding loci for scale insect phylogenetics. I also submitted a short paper describing a new species of Phacelococcus to The Australian Entomologist. As mentioned above I have been working with Penny, Lyn and Rosa Henderson on the Nothofagus felt scale fauna, redefining the genus Madarococcus, using a combination of morphological and molecular data, and describing a number of new Australian species. Chris Hodgson, Nate and Penny are working together on a subfamily level classification of the Pseudococcidae.

Cory Unruh: I have been working hard this year to finish my PhD research on the systematics of iceryine scale insects and expect to graduate in spring 2007.  Penny and I produced a revision of the ground pearl genus Heteromargarodes which should be published in The Entomological Society of Washington in January, 2007. As for my dissertation research, I completed molecular labwork at the beginning of the year and worked with Lyn Cook this summer sorting out the the intricaces of iceryine molecular data. (Many, many thanks, again, to everyone who provided fresh material for this study.) I am currently preparing the results of my phylogenetic study for publication and a new classification of the tribe.  I am also revising the iceryine species of the southwestern U.S. and am working with the USDA to make available an interactive Lucid tool to the species of the Iceryini. Demian Kondo and I are describing a new species of iceryine from Colombia. We were very lucky to secure a loan (with Penny and  Demian's hard work and help from Peter Cranston and Dug Miller) of type material for several Icerya species from the Museu Zoologio de Sao Paolo, Brazil. This material was extremely useful to us in identifying a new pest (Icerya genistae Hempel) from Florida and the Caribbean.


Imre Foldi, Museum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.  I am mainly working on the archaeococcoid genera to provide an illustrated generic revision and an assessment of generic relationships based on a phylogenetic analysis of the morphology of the adult females and immature instars.  In 2006, three works were published, i.e., two new species of the archaeococcid genera Protortonia from Ecuador, described females and males of the unusual genus Stigmacoccus from Brazil, including the female, cyst, and first instar-nymph, and a joint work consisting of 250 pages with Chris Hodgson on the morphology of the adult males of Margarodidae sensu Morrison and related taxa. We published (Foldi & Kozàr) two new mealybug species, Cataenococcus from Brazil and Puto from Venezuela, with data on other species of mealybugs collected on one of my collecting trips in South America.   Several projects are in preparation or at an advanced stage that probably will be published in 2007 or 2008.  The generic revision of the Monophlebidae (44 genera) is progressing well and currently includes four new species belonging to the genera Crypticerya and Icerya.  A taxonomic review of the Afrotropical genus Aspidoproctus has been initiated; the type species of the genus, A. pertinax, and some other adult females, males and first instar-nymphs will be described and illustrated.  This is a fascinating group that includes very large specimens, not only long but very wide and high.  I have already received material from Berlin (except the Lindinger’s species which could not be found in the museum fur naturkunde Humboldt-Universitat), from Pretoria, from London and we have in Paris Vayssière’s material including six of the 20 known species.  Many of the original descriptions are brief and poorly illustrated, therefore, Aspidoproctus species identifications may be confused. In some cases, old, sclerotized females were utilized to describe species with only external macroscopic morphological features, and never included teneral females in slide mounted-specimens. In spite of these difficulties, it appears that one or two new species will be described and a key may well be provided.  A revision of two small archaeococcoid families, the Coelostomidiidae and the Steingeliidae, with descriptions of new species, is also in progress.  In groups other than the archaeococcoids, we are working on the Eriococcidae with Ferenc Kozár, a project on our material from South America.


University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA

Benjamin Normark: The central project in our laboratory continues to be molecular systematics of armored scale insects.  We are always keen to receive specimens of any armored scale insects (ideally in 100% ethanol) and to discuss collaborative projects.  Currently four graduate students in my laboratory are working on scale insect projects.  Matthew Gruwell is completing his dissertation research on endosymbiotic bacteria associated with armored scale insects.  Rodger Gwiazdowski is the first author of a 2006 paper on phylogenetics and phylogeography of beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga) and his dissertation will be about the molecular phylogenetics of sexual and parthenogenetic lineages in the Chionaspis pinifoliae complex.  Two first-year graduate students, Jin Wu and Jeremy Andersen, are working on an expanded study of armored scale phylogeny.   I am about to embark on an 8-month sabbatical at the University of Queensland in Brisbane.  I plan to collect lots of Australian armored scales for our phylogenetic studies and to work with Scott O'Neill (who studies bacterial endosymbionts of insects) and with

Lyn Cook.

Matthew Gruwell, University of Massachusetts, graduate student in Entomology

and Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.  I am completing my dissertation research on the endosymbionts of armored scale insects. In the scope of this research we have found the primary endosymbionts of armored scales to be in the Phylum Bacteriodetes and class Flavobacteria.  We have evidence that these endosymbionts have co-speciated with their host insects and follow strict verical transmission from mother to offspring.  We have also found a scattered distribution of Cardinium secondary endosymbionts in the armored scale insects and are working to understand this distribution using phylogenetics.  I plan to finish my Ph.D. program in June of 2006 and am currently looking for post-doctoral work that will allow me to continue investigateing scale insects and endosymbionts.


Lyn Cook, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia:  The second half of 2006 has been a fun, interesting and a busy time for me. During June and July I visited Penny Gullan's lab at UCDavis to work on some collaborative projects with Penny, Nate Hardy and Demian Kondo. An added bonus to visiting Penny at that time of year was watching the world cup soccer at a decent time of day and escaping the cold Canberra winter - swapping it for a nice hot Californian summer. In August, I moved from the ANU (Canberra) to the University of Queensland in Brisbane to take up the insect molecular systematics position. My new contact details are: School of Integrative Biology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia.  email: l.cook@uq.edu.au For all of September and half of October, I went on a collecting trip through tropical eastern Australia with Mike Crisp and David Morris from ANU. The trip was fantastic - visiting very interesting places in rainforest and the monsoon tropics through to the arid zone, and also finding new species (genera?) of gall-inducing eriococcids (sensu lato).

Soo-jung Suh, National Plant Quarantine Service(NPQS), South Korea: I've started the new project, "taxonomic revision of the Korean armored scale insects" and found two new species records. I wish I could add more species to the list of Korean armored scale insects. Greg Hodges and I have written a paper on a new record (Kuwanaspis hikosani (Kuwana)) from South Korea that will be out soon. This species was previously reported in Korea by Paik (1978), according to ScaleNet. This is incorrect because he only provided a key to 4 species of Kuwanaspis, including K. hikosani, but didn’t report it from Korea. I’ve had the opportunity to examine lots of foreign specimens of scale insects taken in quarantine at ports of entry. I'm trying to identify undetermined specimens of mealybugs and armored scales taken in quarantine from New Zealand (on Echeveria), Netherlands (on Crassula), Taiwan (on Cycas) etc.  I am extremely grateful to Drs. Greg Hodges and Sadao Takagi for their help.

Douglas Williams, The Natural History Museum, London, UK: In the past year I have been completing some short papers that I have had in mind for many years, working mainly at home. At present, I am trying to finish a work on Linnaeus including the scale insects he described and listing all the scale insect literature in bibliographical form that Linnaeus cited. I am still unable to make sense of two of his references. I have a few other papers in press including Lichtenstein with Daniele, Pulvinaria urbicola and its synonyms, a paper with Yair on Coccus limonii Murray,  Sternorrhyncha of Ascension Island, a new Conchaspis with Daniele, Asterolecaniidae and Eriococcidae of New Caledonia, two forgotten species of  Coccus described by Westwood with Yair, and papers on Stringaspidiotus and Furcaspis with Dug Miller. I am working on papers on a revision of Protortonia and the Icerya of Australia with Penny.  Unfortunately during the last month or so my eyes have deteriorated to such an extent that I fear I may never be able to illustrate another scale insect. 


Michael Kosztarab, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA: Although the curator of  the VaTech dry insect collections, Mr. Eric Day, provided me with the key to the building housing the collection, unfortunately there are no Coccoidea kept, except for displays and teaching. Also, there are no scales in the liquid collection, curated by Dr. J. Reese Voshell. As reported in The Scale earlier, after my retirement, the Coccoidea collections from VaTech were donated to the USDA-ARS-SEL, with my library, also the photographs, and slides on scale workers. - Our VaTech collections benefited from two short visits by the USDA scientist Dr. Oliver Flint last summer.- In May, I attended the meetings of the Hungarian Entomological Society in the building where I taught horticultural entomology in Budapest and met a number of old-time colleagues and friends. - While visiting in S. Slovakia in June, also in Belgium and Hollland in August, I have collected some pest scale insect samples. - I am looking forward to meeting many former students and colleagues at the ESA National Meetings in Indianapolis in December and ISSIS in Portugal next year. Some good family news: both grandsons are biology majors at the University of Virginia.







Jon Martin, The Natural History Museum, London, UK:  Curates the Sternorrhyncha collections at London's Natural History Museum, and is appealing for scale insect field workers in the Neotropical Region to look out for whitefly nymphs that resemble soft scale insects.  Jon is investigating a group of neotropical whiteflies which have unusually large nymphal stages. The taxonomy is traditionally based upon the last (4th) nymphal stage, termed a "puparium" because a fully winged adult emerges from it. A few adults are present in collections that exceed 8 mm in length, with one even exceeding 1 cm - but all of these are lacking any associated puparia and their taxonomic position is highly uncertain. From field observations (a paper is in press about this matter), Jon thinks that such large adults will have puparia that resemble those shown in the accompanying three photographs. These are atypical for their subfamily, developing individually (rather than in distinct colonies) and having much reduced waxy secretions (others in the group have dense tangles of white filaments, as in the Spiralling and Giant whiteflies). When an adult is close to emergence, a telltale pair of reddish eyespots are usually visible at the anterior end. The ideal is for any such large puparia to be kept in a small container to see if an adult emerges, and to then preserve both adult and associated empty case in alcohol. If, instead, a parasitoid or group of hyperparasites emerge(s) that is also of interest. If puparia are found with no signs of adult emergence, those puparia are still of interest and they can be kept dry on the leaves. Jon expects that the puparia of the really large species will exceed 5mm in length, but that they will be widely scattered. Mating aggregations of large adult whiteflies are also of interest - collected into alcohol. Jon will provide feedback on any material that is discovered, and sends thanks in advance.


Rosa Henderson, Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand: The two papers on gall-inducing scale insects of New Zealand finally got into print in June of this year (New Zealand Entomologist 29). Since then I have been delving into the Eriococcidae of New Zealand including some species established here from Australia. Penny Gullan visited my lab one hot day in February to discuss species that feed on Nothofagus and to give me advice on the labia of Eriococcidae. A paper describing a tiny species with quite unusual morphology, that was collected from epiphyte mats 30 m high up native trees, is accepted for publication in the next issue of New Zealand Entomologist. A manuscript describing some interesting genera and species adapted to alpine wet grasslands is ready for submitting. I am ever hopeful that the revision of New Zealand Diaspididae might get underway very soon, especially now that I have figured out how to draw the figures electronically. At the moment (November 2006) our summer weather is slow to arrive and keeps yo-yoing back to cold spells, probably because of the effect of some enormous icebergs floating off our southern coast. These apparently broke off the other side of Antarctica in 2000 and have circled round to catch a current towards us. This must be global warming, but it sure is cool!  


Dug Miller and Alessandra Rung, Beltsville, Maryland, USA:  The big news is that the first “edition” of ScaleNet is now available on line.  It has been nearly 12 years since Yair and I received our first grant from the Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (BARD) in 1995. BARD was an important financial force in making the project happen.  Major players include the Israel team headed by Yair Ben-Dov, the US team headed by Dug Miller, the data base system developed by Gary Gibson and Jennifer Read, the reference system maintained and enhanced by Karen Veilleux, and the query system developed by Jane Laroussi of Carson & Associates.  It has been a lot of hard work and headaches, but from the comments that we hear, it was worth the effort.  In Beltsville there are 2 major thrusts to our research program. Alessandra is working on the development of a molecular diagnostic tool to differentiate Planococcus minor from P. citri.  The COI sequence differences that she has discovered have already been useful to the US quarantine service (APHIS) in sorting out a quarantine problem in California.  We plan to publish our results in the next few months.  Other major projects include finishing Lucid keys for the identification of scale insects intercepted at U. S. ports-of-entry.  To date a family key, mealybug key, and soft scale key are available on line, with a beta version of the “other scales” key currently in draft form (see http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/ScaleKeys/ScaleInsectsHome/ScaleInsectsOthers.html).  APHIS/CPHST plans to issue a CD with all 4 keys. With my impending retirement (January 3, 2007) I am spending considerable time cleaning out the backlog of materials that have accumulated for the past 37 years.  My plan is to continue to work on scale-insect systematics about half time, so the Miller Hotel will still be functional and available for visits to the collection.  I am hopeful that the USDA administration will fill my position in 2007.  Research that currently is in press or near completion includes 2 armored scale papers with Doug Williams, a paper on South American eriococcids with Chris Hodgson, and a ScaleNet-based catalog on the Diaspidinae, Leucaspidinae, and Ulucoccinae. The Miller Hotel had a few visitors this year including Jan and Warnia Giliomee, Benjamin Normark, Rodger Gwiazdowski, Matt Gruwell, Peter Cranston, and Bora Kaydan.



Compiled by Karen Veilleux

Each year I have had the opportunity to write a short message in this part of  “The Scale” about Karen’s major contribution to keeping us aware of the vast reference information that has been published over the past year.  Each time I have felt that I haven’t given sufficient accolades for all of the energy, effort, and devotion that she has given to this project.  Karen is a special person, who quietly manages one of the most difficult areas in the ScaleNet system, i.e., the reference file.  Through her librarian, computer, and language skills she has added enourmously to the success of ScaleNet for all of our benefit.  Without her I am not sure how it would have been done, but certainly not with the accuracy that we have all come to expect. Unfortunately, Karen has decided to end her valuable input to the ScaleNet system. I guess with my retirement it seemed like a good time to take on new challenges.  I am sure that I speak for the entire coccidology community in wishing her well and giving our hearty thanks for a job well done!!


Abd-Rabou, S. 2005. The effect of augmentative releases of indigenous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on populations of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 38(2): 129-132. Notes: The encyrtid parasitoid Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was mass reared and released at monthly intervals in grape orchards infested with Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) at two locations in Egypt. Approximately 300,000 adult individuals were augmentatively released from August 2001 to August 2002. Increases of the rate of parasitism were from 35 to 76 and from 28 to 68 in Beni-Suef and El-Minya, respectively. These results indicate that A. kamali is an effective parasitoid in controlling M. hirsutus on grapes in Egypt. It is concluded that the releases of parasitoid for control of M. hirsutus were suitable for control. However, it is essential for a successful control programme that this parasitoid should be continually reared and consecutively periodically released so as to attain the maximum benefit of biological control of this pest.


Abd-Rabou, S. 2005a. Importation, colonization and establishment of Coccophagus cowperi Gir. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on Saissetia coffeae (Walk.) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Egypt. Journal of Pest Science 78(2): 77-81. Notes: The hemispherical soft scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Homoptera: Coccidae), is one of the most important pests attacking olive trees in Egypt. During the period 2001-2003, a total of about 300,000 individuals of the parasitoid Coccophagus cowperi Girault (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), obtained from India, was released at 35 sites for the biological control of S. coffeae on olive trees in Egypt. The maximum parasitism rates reached 53 and 62%, while average parasitism rates were 17.2 and 30.8% in the Marsy Mattrouh and El-Arish locations, respectively. These results indicate establishment of this parasitoid on this important economic plant in Egypt.


Abd-Rabou, S. 2005b. The holotype deposition of Aphytis sinaii Abd-Rabou (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), an external parasitoid of the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell). Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 15(1/2): 159. Notes: Aphytis sinaii, a newly recorded species from Aonidiella aurantii (infesting Ficus nitida [F. benjamina] in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt), is described for the first time. The depository for the holotype of A. sinaii was designated in the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.


Abd-Rabou, S. & Abd-El-Samea, S.A. 2005. New record and host of Encarsia bifasciafacies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on sugarcane soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Homoptera: Coccidae), on sugarcane in Egypt. (In English with summary in Arabic.) Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83(3): 1213-1215. Notes: In September 2004, sugarcane leaves heavily infested by the sugarcane soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Homoptera: Coccidae), were collected from Qena (Nag-Hammadi), and then transferred to the laboratory for parasitoid emergence and identification. Encarsia bifasciafacies emerged from soft scale samples. This parasitoid is recorded for the first time attacking its new host, P. tenuivalvata, in Egypt.


Abd-Rabou, S. & Hendawy, A.S. 2005. Updating nomination of the parasitoids of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83(3): 1135-1139. Notes: This study was carried out to update the checklist of parasitoids of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, in Egypt. Eight primary parasitoids and five hyperparasitoids associated with the pest were collected. Four parasitoids and three hyperparasitoids were collected and re-identified. The new list includes primary parasitoids (Allotropa sp., Anagyrus kamali, Clausenia josefi, Gyranusoida indica, Leptomastidea abnormis, Leptomastix algirica, Leptomastix nigrocoxalis, Rhopus nigiriclavus) and hyperparasitoids (Chartocerus subaeneus, Marietta leopardina, Pachyneuron sp., Prochiloneurus aegyptiacus, Prochiloneurus annulatus).


Abdel-Moniem, A.S.H., Farag, N.A. & Abbass, M.H. 2005. Vertical distribution of some piercing sucking insects on some roselle varieties in Egypt and the role of amino acids concentration in infestation. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 38(4): 245-255. Notes: The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover was found to be the only aphid species infesting the tested roselle varieties (Sudani, Masri and White), Hibiscus sabdariffa L. which were cultivated in El-Kanater El-khayria (about 30 km north Cairo) as ex situ old land. The vertical distribution of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.); the leafhopper, Empoasca spp. and the pink hibiscus mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green, as insect pests attacking this crop had been studied. Moreover, certain morphological characters and amino acids concentrations in the three varieties of roselle, were obtained. The obtained results indicated that the experimental insect pests severely attacked leaves of the stem nodes from the 8th to the 11th (counting from the top of the plant), whereas whitefly were more abundant on these nodes. All tested insect species were less abundant on the 4th stem node. This may be due to the extensive existence of gland hairs that excrete some compound, especially phenols, that might prevent the insects from reproducing on the leaves. The opposite was, however, true for M. hirsutus as it did not attack Sudani and Masri varieties but the infestation occurred at the highest level on the White variety.


Abdullah, M., Biswas, M.M. & Siddiquee, M.N.A. 2006. Response of some promising sugarcane clones to major insect pests of sugarcane. Indian Sugar 56(3): 23-28. Notes: A field experiment was conducted during 2003-04, in Pabna and Thakurgaon, Bangladesh, to evaluate the response of 6 promising sugarcane clones (I245-99, I262-99, I429-99, I433-99, I446-99 and I486-99) and 2 standard cultivars (Isd 20 and Isd 32) to some major insect pests. Results revealed that early shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus) and black beetle (Alissonotum impressicolle) infestation ranged from 0.51 to 3.32% and 0.22 to 15.48%, respectively, among the test clones/cultivars. Top shoot borer (Scirpophaga excerptalis) and stem borer (Chilo tumidicostalis) infestation ranged from 4.55 to 53.58% and 5.25 to 55.21%, respectively, with the highest level of infestation being observed in clone I429-99. Rootstock borer (Emmalocera depressella [Polyocha depressella]) infestation ranged from 6.40% (in Isd 20) to 40.55% (in I245-99). The lowest scale insect (Melanaspis glomerata) and mealy bug (Saccharicoccus sacchari) infestation was observed in the clones I429-99 and I446-99, respectively. White grub (Scarabaeidae) populati on ranged from 0.00 to 3.67 among the test clones/cultivars.


Abdullah, M., Rahman, M.A. & Biswas, M.M. 2006. Reaction of some promising sugarcane clones to major insect pests under field condition. Indian Sugar 55(10): 37-42. Notes: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate promising sugarcane clones I 5-98, I 82-98, I 89-98, I 98-98, I 101-98, I 110-98, I 117-98, I 120-98, I 124-98, I 139-98, I 142-98 and the standard cultivar Isd 29 against some major insect pests at Ishurdia and Thakurgaon, Bangladesh, during 2002/03. In Pabna, early shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus), black beetle (Alissonotum impressicole [A. impressicolle]), top shoot borer (Scirpophaga excerptalis), stem borer (Chilo tumidicostalis) in stalk, stem borer in internode, rootstock borer (Emmalocera depressella [Polyocha depressella]), scale insect (Melanaspis glomerata), mealy bug (Saccharicoccus sacchari) and white grub incidence was lowest in I 5-98, I 120-98, I 124-98, I 139-98, I 142-98, Isd 29, I 98-98, I 101-98 and Isd 29, respectively. Comparative data on the infestation levels of some major insect pests to promising clones in Thakurgaon during 2002/03 are also tabulated.


Aguilera, P.A., Ellena, D.M., Seguel, B.I., Montenegro, B.A., San Martin, A.J. & Torralbo, B.L. 2005. [First records of insects and other phytophagous invertebrates associates with Murta berry ugni Molinae Turcz. (Myrtaceae), in south of Chile.]. (In Spanish.) Idesia 23(1): 7-11. Notes: [Original title: Primeras determinaciones de insectos y otros invertebrados fitofagos asociados a murta Ugni molinae Turcz. (Myrtaceae), en el sur de Chile.] This study provides information about phytophagous invertebrate species that were found feeding on murta, Ugni molinae, a wild plant berry from southern Chile. As far as a two-Year survey maly indicate, 18 insect species, one spider mite, and three terrestial arthropods were recorded. An armored scale Dactylaspis sp., and the murta green-moth, Palaephatus albicerus Davis, are registered for the first time feeding on a host-plant species in Chile.


Akkuzu, E., Arslangundogdu, Z. & Selmi, E. 2006. Contribution to the knowledge of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of coniferous trees from Turkey. Journal of Biological Sciences 6(3): 591-595. Notes: To date, a total of 31 species of scale insects have been recorded on coniferous trees in Turkey. The scale insect families Margarodidae, Pseudococcidae, Coccidae, Eriococcidae and Diaspididae consist of 3, 3, 6, 1 and 18 species, respectively. Thirteen out of 31 species were found in the European part of Turkey. From the zoogeographical standpoint, 3 are native, 11 are cosmopolitan and 17 are palearctic species.


Aleman, J., Martinez, M.A., Milan, O., Masso, E. & Rijo, E. 2005. [Monitoring the quality of growth of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.] Monitoreo de calidad en la cría de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. (In Spanish.) Fitosanidad 9(1): 71-72. Notes: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri has been introduced to Cuba for the control of Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Studies on the quality of this predator were carried out on several populations. The evidence indicated favourable adaptation to artificial culture conditions during the first generations.


Amar, Z., Gottlieb, H., Varshavsky, L. & Iluz, D. 2005. The scarlet dye of the holy land. Bioscience 55(12): 1080-1083. Notes: We present evidence based on chemical analysis that identifies the scarlet dye produced by the scale insect Kermes echinatus as the shani ("red" in Hebrew) used toward the end of the second Holy Temple (AD 70). We know that this dye is produced by a coccoid species of scale. However, it is not yet known which of the coccoid species was used in the Holy Land in ancient times. Our results confirm the presence of the red pigment kermesic acid in K. echinatus extracts. The fact that K. echinatus is found in Israel suggests that the origin of the shani color mentioned in the Bible could have been local and that this dye was not an import from abroad, as most scholars have assumed. Our hypothesis, backed by our long-term observations, is supported by the color quality of kermesic acid, by the relative concentration of the pigment, and by the prevalence of K. echinatus in Israel.


Aonidiella citrina. 2005. Bulletin OEPP 35(2): 327-330. Notes: Field identification and important characters are provided.


Apenite, I. & Cinitis, R. 2006. Major pests in cranberry plantations in Latvia. (In English with summary in Polish.) Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research 14 (Suppl. 3): 133-136. Notes: [International workshop on pest and weed control in sustainable fruit production, Skierniewice, Poland, 1-3 September 2005.] Major pests in cranberry (cv. Stevens) plantations in Latvia were studied during 2002-05. In the eastern part of Latvia, the cranberry tipworm (Dasineura vaccinii [D. oxycoccana]) was the main cause of yield loss (6.2, 4.4 and 1.75 t/ha in 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively). In the western part of Latvia, Orgyia antiqua was the major pest, and its population reached 9-20 larvae/m SUP 2. In a plantation in Talsu, this pest reduced the yield by 8.0 t/ha in 2003 and by 4.0 t/ha in 2004. Other pests observed were Rhopobota naevana, Sparganothis sulfureana, Chionaspis salicis, Lochmaea caprea and Mamestra pisi [Lacanobia pisi].


Aversenq, S., Gratraud, C. & Pinatel, C. 2005. [Olive tree pests and beneficials: a summary of three years of monitoring in S.E. France.] Ravageurs et auxiliaires des oliviers: synthese de trois ans d'observations dans le Sud-Est de la France. (In French with summary in English.) Phytoma 586: 32-36. Notes: A study of the entomofauna of French olive groves was conducted for 3 years to enhance integrated pest management after providing details of the main olive pests present in France, i.e. olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), olive moth (Prays oleae), olive scale (Saissetia oleae) and olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivine), and their natural enemies found around the world. The olive scale, psyllid and moth appeared to be well regulated, the former by mass release of the hymenopterous insect Metaphycus lounsburyi in association with its natural enemies, the second by its natural enemies and the third by general predators. The olive fly is more of a problem due to pest infestations and no natural enemies, whether in conventional olive groves with integrated pest management or in organic groves.


Bacandritsos, N., Sabatini, A.G., Papanastasiou, I. & Saitanis, C. 2006. Physico-chemical characteristics of Greek FIR honeydew honey from Marchalina hellenica (GEN.) in comparison to other Mediterranean honeydew honeys. (In Italian with summaries in English and Italian.) Italian Journal of Food Science 18(1): 21-31. Notes: The first samples of recently produced fir honeydew honey, obtained from Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius) (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Margarodidae), originating from Mount Helmos in Greece were analysed and examined on the basis of physical and chemical parameters including humidity, acidity, sugar profile, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and diastase activity. These data were compared with five other Mediterranean honeydew honeys of different origin obtained from the literature. Analytical data of the Greek fir honey from M. hellenica honeydew complied with the E.U. legal limits. The sensorial analysis indicated that the organoleptic characteristics of this type of honeydew honey were very similar to the Greek fir honey derived from other coccids with respect to colour, taste and smell. The statistical analysis of the physico-chemical parameters of the six honey types revealed two major groups. One group consisted of three Greek honeys and the other included one Spanish and two Italian honeys. It also showed a marked similarity between the two Greek honeys that came from M. hellenica honeydew on either fir or pine trees.


Balakina, G.G., Vasiliev, V.G., Karpova, E.V. & Mamatyuk, V.I. 2006. HPLC and molecular spectroscopic investigations of the red dye obtained from an ancient Pazyryk textile. Dyes and Pigments 71(1): 54-60. Notes: The cloth specimens of Pazyryk culture from frozen burials of Altai Mountains (500-200 B.C.) were investigated by molecular spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array and mass selective detection. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of ancient red dyes were conducted. Natural dyes of plant origin - alizarin and purpurin and of insect origin - carminic acid and kermesic acid were determined.


Ballal, C.R., Sunil, J., Prashanth, M., Jalali, S.K., Rao, N. S., Ramani, S. & Rabindra, R.J. 2006. Biological suppression of insect pests of sugarcane, rice and pulses in the northeastern region. Technical Bulletin No. 34; v + 43 pp. Notes: This book covers the biological control of insect pests of sugarcane (Chilo tumidicostalis, Chilo infuscatellus, Scirpophaga excerptalis, Melanaspis glomerata, Ceratovacuna lanigera, Odontotermes obesus and Saccharicoccus sacchari), rice (Scirpophaga incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and pulses (Helicoverpa armigera, Lampides boeticus, Maruca vitrata, Aphis craccivora, Omiodes indicata, Apion amplum and Monolepta signata) in the northeastern region of India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura), and mass production protocols for potential biological control agents (Corcyra cephalonica, Trichogramma spp., Helicoverpa armigera nuclear polyhedrosis virus and entomopathogenic fungi). Future strategies for the intensive biological control of pests in the region are discussed. Information on the life cycle and biology of some of the pests is provided.


Barbosa, F.R., Goncalves, M.E. De C., Moreira, W.A., de Alencar, J.A., de Souza, E.A., da Silva, C.S.B., Souza, A. de M. & Miranda, I. Da G. 2005. [Arthropods-pest and predators associated with mango trees at the Vale do São Francisco, northeastern Brazil.] Artropodes-praga e predadores (Arthropoda) associados a cultura da mangueira no Vale do São Francisco, nordeste do Brasil. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Neotropical Entomology 34(3): 471-474. Notes: In order to identify and evaluate the occurrence of arthropods-pest and predators on mangoes at "Vale do Sao Francisco", northestern Brazil, studies were carried out in eight commercial plantations of the cv. Tommy Atkins, from February 2000 to January 2002. In each area, fruit flies were collected using McPhail and Jackson traps; other pests and predators were evaluated on samples of branches, panicles and fruits. The arthropods-pest occurrence in decreasing order were: Aceria mangiferae (Sayed) (Acari: Eriophyidae) - 87.0 %; Pseudaonidia tribitiformis (Green) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) - 70.1 %; Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) - 66.1 %; Erosomyia mangiferae Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) 64.6 %; Pleuroprucha asthenaria Walker (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - 42.9 %; Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) - 39.3 %; Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) - 33.0 %; Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) - 26.4 %; Oligonychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae) - 16.6 %; Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) - 13, 1 %; unidentified mirid - 9.1 %, and aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch; Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe), A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)) - 7.2 %. The predators were: Euseius concordis (Chant) and E. citrifolius (Denmark & Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) - 32.7 %; Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Cheyletidae) - 32.3 %; Rubroseirus sp. (Acari: Cunaxidae) - 17.7 %; unidentified arachnids - 16.6 %, and Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) and Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) - 3.7 %.


Barratt, B.I.P., Ferguson, C.M., Logan, R.A.S., Barton, D., Bell, N.L., Sarathchandra, S.U. & Townsend, R.J. 2005. Biodiversity of indigenous tussock grassland sites in Otago, Canterbury and the central North Island of New Zealand. I. The macro-invertebrate fauna. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 35(3): 287-301. Notes: This contribution introduces a short series of papers on biodiversity of indigenous tussock grassland at four sites in New Zealand. A survey of invertebrates of tussock grassland sites was carried out in the summer of three successive years, 2001-03. The sites included two in Otago in snow tussock grassland at Deep Stream and Mt Benger, a site at Cass in inland Canterbury, and one at Tukino in the central North Island. Sampling was carried out by taking turf samples from each site, and extracting the invertebrates with heat extractors. The invertebrates were divided into 30 major groups. This quantitative sampling method allowed the densities of invertebrate groups to be calculated. Total macro-invertebrate density for all sites ranged between c. 1600 and 5600 m SUP -2 . Total invertebrate abundance was highest at the central North Island site, but this was very much dominated by Formicidae. Across all sites, Formicidae, Coleoptera, and Pseudococcidae were consistently the most abundant groups represented.


Baskaran, R.K. Murali & Suresh, K. 2006. Comparative biology and predatory potential of black beetle, Chilocorus nigrita (Fab.) on three scale insects. Journal of Entomological Research 30(2): 159-164. Notes: Studies on biology of Chilocorus nigrita (Fab.) revealed that total developmental period of C. nigrita was shortest (26.13 days) on Melanaspis glomerata (Green) when compared with Aspidiotus destructor (Sign.) and Hemiberiesia lataniae (Signoret). The fecundity and longevity of C. nigrita were found to be comparatively high with maximum suitability index (2.638) when reared on M. glomerata. Adults of C. nigrita was voracious than grub stage and each adult required 1195.65 +/- 23.01, 1183.33 +/- 52.04, 1095 +/- 67.27 number of M. glomerata, A. destructor and H. lataniae while a total of 244.41 +/- 4.89, 228.73 +/- 6.52 and 219.73 +/- 3.26 number of scale insects were consumed by grub in its all four stages, respectively. Old grubs consumed more scales than the young grubs.


Battisti, A. 2005. Overview of entomological research concerning the forest ecosystems of the northern rim of the Mediterranean Sea. Pages 15-22 in Lieutier, F. & Ghaioule, D. (Eds.), Entomological Research in Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems. Versailles, France: INRA Editions.  Notes: An overview of data concerning forest areas in the 16 countries (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon and Israel) along the northern rim of the Mediterranean Sea is given and indicators of insect damage are provided, whenever available. A database has been prepared by retrieving references from the CAB database for the period 1972-2001, for each main host plant and insect pest. Pines (Pinus) are the most intensively studied trees, particularly because they are vulnerable to two very important pests, the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) and the pine bast scale (Matsucoccus feytaudi). Among the insects that attack broadleaved trees, Lymantria dispar is by far the most often studied. Information taken from general sources and handbooks concerning forest insects in each country is presented and compared. The activities of international research groups and networks focused on Mediterranean forest entomology are summed up. Present research trends in this field are discussed and the objectives of ongoing projects at the European as well as the national level are presented. Finally, suggestions about future work in this field are given.


Bavaresco, A., Botton, M., Garcia, M.S. & Nondillo, A. 2005. [Damage and insects on persimmon fruits in orchards of Serra Gaucha.] Danos e insetos em frutos de caquizeiro em pomares da Serra Gaucha. (In Portuguese.) Agropecuaria Catarinense 18(3): 56-59. Notes: Damage by larvae of the noctuid Hypocala andremona and the tortricid Argyrotaenia sphaleropa was observed in 85% of persimmon orchards sampled in Serra Gaucha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during 2001-02. Damage by Thysanoptera, Pseudococcidae and Diaspididae was also observed.


Beggs, J.R., Karl, B.J., Wardle, D.A. & Bonner, K.I. 2005. Soluble carbon production by honeydew scale insects in a New Zealand beech forest. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 29(1): 105-115. Notes: We estimated the annual production of honeydew per unit land area of beech (Nothofagus spp.) forest by measuring the amount of honeydew produced in 24 h by scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp.) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) every month for 2 years. We used exclosures to prevent animals (notably Vespula wasps) removing honeydew, and we compared the standing crop of honeydew inside permanently closed exclosures with that outside exclosures. Honeydew production and the number of honeydew droplets was highly variable between individual trees, tree type, position on tree, and, exclosure type, and within and between years. The amount of honeydew available outside exclosures was significantly reduced in year two, predominantly by Vespula wasps, even though wasp density was relatively low. Sugar composition also varied between tree type and between years. Up to 5% of the sugar was glucose, with varying proportions of fructose, sucrose and oligosaccharides. The surface area of trees infested with scale insects was estimated using allometric regression relationships between tree diameter and total surface area of tree trunk and branch material. These estimates were combined with measurements of tree diameter in 10-m radius circular plots to give a production estimate of between 3500 and 4500 kg dry weight honeydew ha SUP -1 year SUP -1. Using this data, combined with previously published estimates of carbon uptake, it was estimated that between 6 and 8% of net primary productivity was released as honeydew. Honeydew scale insects provide large amounts of biologically available carbon in the form of soluble sugar. It is a crucial resource for the above-ground system, and probably also for the below-ground system. We conclude that scale insects have the potential to function as keystone species in these forests.


Ben-Dov, Y. 2006. Taxonomy of Aonidiella yehudithae sp. nov. Lindingaspis misrae (Laing) comb. nov. with a key to species of Aonidiella Berlese & Leonardi (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Zootaxa 1190: 51-57. Notes: Aonidiella yehudithae sp. nov. is described from ivy, Hedera helix collected on the island of Crete, Greece. Aonidiella misrae Laing, 1929 is transferred to Lindingaspis, a lectotype is designated, and the species is shown to be the senior synonym of Lindingaspis fusca McKenzie, 1943. A key is given for the separation of the 32 species currently included in the genus Aonidiella, based on the adult female.


Ben-Dov, Y. 2006a. On some records of scale insects from the Kingdom of Jordan (Hem., Coccoidea). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 111(2): 147. Notes: Species recorded from Jordan in 2006 include Aonidiella aurantii, Aspidiotus nerii, Ceroplastes floridensis, C. rusci, Coccus hesperidum, Contigaspis zillae, Epidiaspis gennadii, Eulecanium sp., Lineaspis striata, Nilotaspis halli, Parlatoria blanchardi, P. oleae, P. pergandii, Planococcus citri, P. ficus and Pseudococcus longispinus.


Ben-Dov, Y. 2006b. A Systematic Catalogue of Eight Scale Insect Families (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the World. Amsterdam et al.: Elsevier. i-xix, 1-368. Notes: A subtitle lists families covered: Aclerdidae, Asterolecaniidae, Beesoniidae, Carayonemidae, Conchaspididae, Dactylopiidae, Kerriidae and Lecanodiaspididae.


Ben-Dov, Y. & Carvalho, J.P. 2006. New records of scale insects from Guinea-Bissau (Hem., Coccoidea). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 11(3): 325-326. Notes: Newly recorded insects for Guinea-Bissau are Ceroplastes uapacae, C. vinsoinoides, Lepidosaphes gloveri, Pulvinaria jacksoni, Udinia catori and U. pattersoni. Other species identified are Aspidiotus destructor, Coccus hesperidum, Ferrisia virgata, Pinnaspis strachani and Pseudococcus occiduus.


Ben-Dov, Y., Gounari, S., Kaydan, M.B. & Hadina, F. 2006. Phenacoccus yerushalmi Ben-Dov newly recorded from Greece and Turkey (Hem., Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 111(1): 42. Notes: This brief note reports the wide distribution of the Jerusalem pine-mealybug in the Mediterranean basin. While most of the records were taken from the Aleppo pine, Pinus halepensis, the new records from Greece and Turkey also represent a new host plant record, namely, Pinus brutia.


Ben-Dov, Y. & Williams, D.J. 2006. Mealybug species of the genus Paraputo Laing, with nomenclatural changes in some species hitherto assigned to the genus Cataenococcs Ferris (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). (In English with summary in French.) Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 111(2): 251-256. Notes: 81 mealybug species which have been described in or assigned to Cataenococcus or Paraputo are listed and placed in Paraputo. 14 of these species previously assigned to Cataenococcus are transferred to Paraputo.


Bhattacharya, A., Jaiswal, A.K, Kumar, S. & Kumar, M. 2005. Evaluation of cartap hydrochloride for management of Eublemma amabilis (Moore) - A serious lepidopteran predator of lac insect. Journal of Applied Zoological Research 16(1): 93-94. Notes: Cartap hydrohloride (CHC) an insecticide having systemic and contact action has been evaluated for use in lac ecosystem as a substitute for the currently used conventional insecticide endosulfan. Doses CHC viz. 0.05% 0.075% and 0.1%, tested on 2(nd) instar lac larvae reared on Butea monosperma (palas) during rainy season crop in order to evaluate its efficacy against Eublemma amabilis and toxicity to Lac insects. All the tested doses proved safe to Lac insects & enabled effective control of E. amabilis, an insect predator of lac insects.  CHC 0.05% provided results at par with the conventionally used insecticide endosulfan (0.05%) in respect of reduction in population of E. amabilis and consequent increase in Lac crop yield. The insecticide also exhibited safety to lac insect at all the three doses tested.


Bhattacharya, A., Jaiswal, A.K. & Kumar, S. 2005a. Effect of treatment of broodlac with a few insecticides on the harboured inimical insects. Journal of Entomological Research. New Delhi 29(3): 223-225. Notes: The effect of different concentrations of ethofenprox, endosulfan, and profenfos on the lac insect predator, Eublemma amabilis Moore and two important parasitoids Aprostocetus purpureus (Cam.) and Tachardiaephagus tachardiae (How.) was evaluated by dipping mode. Profenfos was found to be toxic to lac insect. Population of E. amabilis was suppressed by endosulfan while none of the insecticides were able to suppress the population of the parasitoids A. purpureus and T. tachardiae.


Bhattacharya, A., Jaiswal, A.K., Kumar, S. & Kumar, K.K. 2006. Management of lepidopteran insect predators of lac insect through habitat manipulation. Entomon 31(1): 53-56. Notes: Planting of Cassia occidentalis, a medicinal plant, on the periphery of a plot having Flemingia macrophylla bushes harbouring lac insects resulted in significant reduction in the population of the two lepidopteran lac insect predators Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea and resulted in significant increase in brood lac yield. The suppression of lac predators may be attributed to higher incidence of Trichogramma chilonis, an egg parasitoid of lepidopteran insects. T. chilonis parasitizes the eggs of white butterfly Catopsilia pyranthe laid on the leaves of C. occidentalis also which favours the build-up of the parasitoid population.


Bolu, H., Gencer, L. & Ozgen, I. 2006. Infestation rates and natural enemies of Mercetaspis halli (Green) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) with new records from Turkey. Gazi Entomological Research Society 8(2): 1-5. Notes: The diaspidid Mercetaspis halli is considered as an important pest and is in the domestic quarantine list of Turkey. Field surveys in Turkey during 2002-04 showed that the infestation level by the pest was low in almond orchards. One parasitoid and 16 predators were recorded as natural enemies of M. halli. The parasitoid Thysanus ater is recorded infesting M. halli for the first time in Turkey. Among the predators, Scymnus araraticus (34.26% of the adult), Oenopia conglabata (25.56% of adults) and Adalia fasciatopunctata revelierei (12.62% of adults) were the most common predators of M. halli.


Bonnett, G.D. & Hewitt, M.L. 2005. Numbers of pink sugarcane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), differ within seasons and among regions and stages of the sugarcane crop cycle. Australian Journal of Entomology 44(3): 304-309. Notes: The pink sugarcane mealy bug (PSMB; Saccharicoccus sacchari) is widespread on sugarcane globally. PSMB infest above-ground storage tissue as it develops, feeding on phloem and producing exudate. It is not known, however, whether the level of infestations is the same in different sugar growing regions, or how population size varies year to year within a region. Field surveys of the number of nodes infested were conducted over five seasons in three mill-regions in northern Australia (Macknade, Kalamia and Marian) on plant and ratoon crops. The pattern of infestation was very similar across seasons (only in one year of very low rainfall was the increase in population delayed). In all three regions the proportion of nodes infested was similar but reached the maximum one month later in the Marian region compared with the Kalamia and Macknade regions. The Kalamia region was distinguished by the rapid decline in the number of nodes infested down to a very low level by March. In the Macknade region mealy bugs persisted at higher levels than the other two regions. The PSMB infestation started earlier and was much greater in ratoon crops than plant crops throughout the sampling period. The differences were more pronounced in the Macknade and Marian districts. These observations provide a firm basis from which future strategies to control PSMB can be developed.


Booth, J.M. & Gullan, P.J. 2006. Synonymy of three pestiferous Matsucoccus scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Matsucoccidae) based on morphological and molecular evidence. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 108(4): 749-760. Notes: The scale insect genus Matsucoccus Cockerell (Coccoidea: Matsucoccidae) contains several economically important species that cause damage to pine trees, Pinus species, in the United States and elsewhere in the Holarctic Region. Efforts to reconstruct the phylogeny of the group have provided information on synonymized based on newly acquired molecular data and reassessment of morphological data. Matsucoccus resinosae Ben and Godwin, described from the eastern United States, and Matsucoccus thumbergianae Miller and Park, from South Korea, are considered to be new synonyms of Xylococcus (now Matsucoccus) matsumurae Kuwana. The taxonomic confusion surrounding these names is discussed. In addition, we suggest that several other species of Matsucoccus, including M. pini Green, should be investigated as possible synonyms of M. matsumurae.


Borer, E.T. 2006. Does adding biological detail increase coexistence in an intraguild predation model?. Ecological Modelling 196(3-4): 447-461. Notes: Understanding coexistence is a central concern for community ecologists. The limited combination of parameter values over which coexistence can occur in most models of competing species suggests that coexistence may not be a general phenomenon, yet observations of communities demonstrate that coexistence of competitors is common. In this paper, I use a well-studied host-parasitoid system, California red scale and its parasitoids, to explore whether intraguild predation (IGP) is a likely coexistence mechanism for these species and to motivate an exploration of how the level of biological detail in theoretical models influences conclusions about the likelihood of coexistence via IGP. Although prior work has shown that parasitoid and host densities in the field follow the patterns predicted by simple IGP theory, in this detailed model parameterized with empirically derived values, coexistence is not predicted. Thus, in spite of the concordance between field observations and simple model predictions, the current model demonstrates that IGP is unlikely to be the sole coexistence mechanism for the parasitoids of California red scale. Furthermore, IGP is an equalizing coexistence mechanism, and these results demonstrate that adding biological detail to this type of mechanism does not substantially increase the predicted coexistence region. This important result adds to the growing literature showing that simple models often can capture the fundamental processes operating in more complex models and may be sufficient to capture underlying ecological patterns. Because models lacking system-specific details are better able to produce general conclusions, the current result suggests that general theory maybe used to gain insights into a diversity of ecological systems.


Borges, P.A.V., Cunha, R., Gabriel, R., Frias Martins, A., Silva, L. & Vieira, V. (Eds.) 2005. A list of terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores.  Notes: Distribution in the Azores Island of species of Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Margarodidae, Ortheziidae, Pseudococcidae.


Borges, I., Soares, A.O. & Hemptinne, J.L. 2006. Abundance and spatial distribution of aphids and scales select for different life histories in their ladybird beetle predators. Journal of Applied Entomology 130(6/7): 356-359. Notes: Life history parameters tend to differ between aphidophagous and coccidophagous ladybird beetles. It seems that the nature of prey, in particular the abundance, number and size of the colonies and their spatial distribution, may have been selected for the evolution of the life histories in these two groups of coccinellids, leading the aphidophagous ladybird beetles to develop at a fast pace and the coccidophagous beetles at a slower pace. To study the abundance, number and size of the colonies and the spatial distribution of aphid and coccid species, 100 sampling plots regularly spaced along four parallel transects were surveyed in the summer of 2004. At each sampling plot, species abundance, and the number and size of colonies of aphid and coccid species were recorded. Iwao's patchiness regression was used to assess the spatial distribution of aphids and coccids. From this study, it was found that coccids are much rarer than aphids but formed more colonies. Whereas aphids display a stronger tendency to crowding, aphid colonies are randomly distributed in space while coccid groups are aggregated. So, it seems that the abundance and spatial distribution of prey distribution may be factors selecting for the evolution of different life histories among aphidophagous and coccidophagous ladybird beetles.


Bortoli, S.A. de, Murata, A.T., Narciso, R.S. & Brito, C.H. de 2005. [Nutritional aspects of Ceraeochrysa cincta Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae), and different preys.] Aspectos nutricionais de Ceraeochrysa cincta Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) em diferentes presas. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Revista de Agricultura Piracicaba 80(1): 1-11. Notes: The insects of the Chrysopidae family have been considered promising agents of biological control. This work was conducted to determine some nutritional aspects of Ceraeochrysa cincta, using as food larvae and eggs of butterflies: Diatraea saccharalis, Sitotroga cerealella and Anagasta kuehniella [Ephestia kuehniella]. The parameters analysed were: consumption, growth tax and predation tests with scale: Selenaspidus sp., Coccus sp. and Orthezia sp. Based on the results, it can be concluded that: (1) the differentiated larval feed does not show significant differences in the periods of preoviposition, oviposition, postoviposition and fertility; (2) the measures of cephalic capsule indicate that the differentiated feed does not show interference in the growth tax by larvae; (3) all the diets are efficient for Ceraeochrysa cincta larval development; and (4) C. cincta has potential as a controlling agent of Selenaspidus sp. and Coccus sp. but is inefficient against Orthezia sp.


Bounfour, M., Jebbour, F. & Wadjinny, J. 2005. Biological traits of invasive insect species harmful to Moroccan agriculture. Pages 95-100 in Alford, D.V. & Backhaus, G.F. (Eds.), Plant Protection and Plant Health in Europe: Introduction and Spread of Invasive Species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 9-11 June 200 Alton, UK: British Crop Protection Council.  Notes: [Symposium Proceedings NO. 81.] For all important crops in Morocco, key pests are always introduced species, i.e. Aonidiella aurantii, Aleurothrixus floccosus, Bemisia tabaci, Frankliniella occidentalis, Liriomyza bryoniae, L. trifolii, Panonychus citri, Parlatoria blanchardii, Phyllocnistis citrella and Pterochloroides persicae among others. The biological traits (dispersal, mode of reproduction, immature stages and generation time, and temperature and development) of such pests were observed to study principles underlying the success of their entry, establishment and spread. It appears that immature development for all species of interest occurs over a wide range of temperatures. Such species also have short generation times, which result in overlapping generations. Although such pests are reported as polyphagous, they show some specialization in a Moroccan context. Natural enemies and temperature are the most important factors in the regulation of population densities and in the limitation of the spread of introduced species.


Boyero, J.R., Ruiz-Lopez, R., Rodriguez, N., Vela, J.M., Moreno, R. & Pascual, F. 2006. Varietal influence of citrus orange on armored scale fecundity (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 249. Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] Results are presented of a study that investigated the fecundity of diaspidid species, i.e. Cornuaspis beckii [Lepidosaphes beckii] and Parlatoria pergandii, in two orange orchards in Spain planted with two different cultivars, i.e. one of Navel Lanelate and another of Valencia Late. Three models for predicting egg numbers are described: one is based on the estimation of the Weibull density function, the other two are based in regression and autoregressive models.


Branco, M., Franco, J.C., Dunkelblum, E., Assael, F., Protasov, A. & Ofer, D. & Mendel, Z. 2006. A common mode of attraction of larvae and adults of insect predators to the sex pheromone of their prey (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 96(2): 179-185. Notes: The attraction of several adult predators, genera Elatophilus, Hemerobius and Sympherobius, to the sex pheromones of pine bast scales, Matsucoccus Cockerell, has already been demonstrated. Here, the hypothesis that the larvae of these predators are similarly attracted to the host prey sex pheromone is tested. The response of predators was tested in field trials using pine tree arenas baited with the sex pheromones of M. josephi Bodenheimer et al.; Harpaz, M. feytaudi Ducasse and M. matsumurae Kuwana. Experiments were conducted in Israel in stands of Pinus halepensis infested by M. josephi and in Portugal in stands of P. pinaster infested by M. feytaudi, respectively. The selectivity of larvae for the three sex pheromones was tested in Petri dish arenas in the laboratory. In the field, the larval stages exhibited similar modes of attraction to those of the conspecific adults: Elatophilus hebraicus Pericart in Aleppo pine forest, E. crassicornis Reuter and Hemerobius stigma Stephens in the maritime pine forests. Laboratory choice tests confirmed the kairomonal selectivity of larvae. Both forest and laboratory tests demonstrated the response of a coccinellid of the genus Rhyzobius to the sex pheromones of M. feytaudi and M. matsumurae. A unique chemical communication system among several taxa of predators of Matsucoccus spp. was highlighted that may be attributed to their coevolution on a geological time scale.


Branco, M., Lettere, M., Franco, J.C., Binazzi, A. & Jactel, H. 2006. Kairomonal response of predators to three pine bast scale sex pheromones. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32(7): 1577-1586. Notes: The kairomonal activity of the sex pheromones of three pine bast scales, Matsucoccus feytaudi, M. josephi, and M. matsumurae, as well as a new analogue of the M. feytaudi sex pheromone, were investigated in pine forests of France, Portugal, and Italy. The response of the maritime pine bast scale predators, Elatophilus spp. and Hemerobius stigma, was used to test the influence of trapping methods, kairomone composition, and dose. Both predators showed significant attraction to all compounds except to the sex pheromone of M. josephi. Significant increase in captures was observed as a function of dose, and within the studied dose range, up to 2200 microg, no threshold saturation limits were observed for any of the attractive compounds. Trap design and size did not significantly influence predator captures, except for high population levels of Elatophilus crassicornis, when plate traps were more efficient than delta traps. Geographic variations were found in the kairomonal responses patterns of both predators, with the M. matsumurae sex pheromone being more attractive to the oriental populations from Corsica and Italy, whereas the western populations in Aquitaine and Portugal were more attracted to the M. feytaudi sex pheromone.


Brozek, J. 2006. Internal structures of the mouthparts of Coccinea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 75(2): 255-265. Notes: Internal structures of the mouthparts of Coccinea were examined on the basis of cross-section across the third segment of rostrum. The research was conducted on representatives of 7 families: Orthezia urticae (Ortheziidae), Icerya purchasi (Monophlebidae), Kermes quercus (Kermesidae), Greenisca brachypodii (Eriococcidae), Pollinia pollini (Cerococcidae), Trionymus newsteadi (Pseudococcidae) and Saissetia hemisphaerica [S. coffeae] (Coccidae). The general model of the internal structures of the mouthparts is closely similar in various Coccinea families. In the studied groups of scale insect, there is one model of the inner structure of the mouthparts. Three locks connect the maxillae: dorsal, middle and ventral. The locks consist of various processes. Small differences in the shape of the processes in the middle lock have been observed. The mandibles are not mirror images of each other. In phylogenetic studies, the character of interlocking apparatus and other internal and external structures of the mouthparts in scale insects can be utilized in the identification of higher categories for all the Hemiptera.


Buhl, P.N. 2005. A new species of Allotropa, a parasitoid of Pseudococcidae (Hemiptera) in banana on the Canary Islands (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae). Entomologiske Meddelelser 73(1): 67-69. Notes: A species new to science, Allotropa musae sp. non. emerged from Dysmicoccus grasii (Leonardo) in banana, is described and figured (male as well as female). The most important character for separating it from related species is the unusual long hairs of the male antennae.


Cassino, P.C.R. & Rodrigues, W.C. 2005. [Distribution of phytophagous insects (Hemiptera: Stemorrhyncha) in citrus orchards located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.] Distribuiçao de insetos fitofagos (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) em plantas citricas no estado do Rio de Janeiro. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Neotropical Entomology 34(6): 1017-1021. Notes: The phytosanitary problems leading to lower citrus production in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) are due to the insufficient knowledge on insect species affecting citrus orchards. The objective of this research was to study the geographical distribution of phytophagous insect species associated with citrus production, in 17 municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, from January 2000 to June 2001. The municipalities were located in 4 regions: Baixada Fluminense (the lowland region), Regiao Serrana (the mountain region), Regiao das Baixadas Litoradneas (the citrus-producing marshland region) and Regiao Noroeste (the Northern region). Samples were collected from one orchard in each municipality by means of the presence or absence methodology. Eleven species were found in 3 municipalities and 6 species were found in 3 others. The species Aleurothrixus floccosus and Selenaspidus articulatus were found in 16 municipalities. Lepidosaphes beckii and Toxoptera citricida were found in only 7 and 10 municipalities, respectively.


Castellar, M.R, Obon J.M. & Fernandez-Lopez, J.A. 2006. The isolation and properties of a concentrated red-purple betacyanin food colourant from Opuntia stricta fruits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86(1): 122-128. Notes: A red-purple food colourant from Opuntia stricta fruits was obtained and studied. Four steps were involved in its isolation: washing, extraction, centrifugation and concentration. Ethanol:water 60:40 (v/v) was selected as the optimum extraction solvent to reduce the viscosity caused by the presence of mucilage and pectins. The resulting 40-fold concentrated extract had a high colour strength (3.9, OD 535nm, 1% v/v sol), a high betanin concentration (4.7 g L SUP - SUP 1) and low viscosity (59.0 cP). It also showed high stability (t SUB 1 SUB / SUB 2 = 236.6d, 4 Degree C) mainly due to its low pH (3.4) and low water content (571 g kg SUP - SUP 1). These characteristics were in the same range as shown by three commercially available liquid concentrated colourants studied (red beet, red carrot and red grape skin). The colour parameters of this concentrated extract of Opuntia stricta were compared with those of commercial red colourants (red beet, red carrot, red grape skin, cochineal, elderberry, hibiscus and red cabbage). CIELAB values of Opuntia stricta (1.5 mL L SUP - SUP 1 ) were L* = 69.8, a* = 59.7 and b* = -23.5. Opuntia stricta presented a vivid red-purple colour which was distinguishable from the colours shown by the other natural red food colourants.


Causton, C.E., Peck, S.B., Sinclair, B.J., Roque-Albelo, L., Hodgson, C.J. & Landry, B. 2006. Alien insects: threats and implications for conservation of Galápagos Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99(1): 121-143. Notes: Alien species are the principal threat to the conservation of the Galápagos Islands, but little is known about the status of nonindigenous Galápagos insects and their effects on the biota. Currently, 463 alien insect species have probably been introduced to the Galápagos, an increase of 186 unintentional species introductions since an inventory in 1998. Alien insects now constitute 23% of the total insect fauna. Six species are known to be invasive and a threat to the biota: two species of fire ant and two wasps, a scale insect, and an ectoparasitic dipteran. The ecological impacts of the remaining species are unknown, making the prioritization of action for conservation management difficult. Thus, a newly developed and simple scoring system is presented to predict their potential invasiveness based on trophic functional role, distribution in Galápagos, and history of invasiveness elsewhere. An additional 52 species are predicted to be highly invasive. The endemic flora is most at risk because the largest proportion (42%) of the introduced species is herbivores. Plant populations are threatened principally by vectors of plant disease and by phloem and leaf feeders. Introduced predators and parasitoids (17%) may either be affecting, or have the potential to affect, the status of terrestrial invertebrate populations. At least 10% of the species are considered to be negligible thre01.ats to Galápagos ecosystems.


Cebeci, H. & Arslangundogdu, Z. 2006(2004). The Pseudococcidae species of Turkey. Yayin Komisyonuna Sunuldugu Tarih 29(12): 135-150. Notes: A great number of specific data [Bodenheimer(1953), Düzgünes (1982), Kaydan et al. (2001 - 2004)] were given about Pseudococcidae species. There are many Pseudococcidae species distributed in Turkey and many of them cause damage on herbaceous plants. The scientific names, synonyms, distributions and host plants of 50 Pseudococcidae species which are recorded in Turkey up to date are brought together the first time by this study.

Henderson, R.C. 2006. Four new species and a new monotypic genus Hoheriococcus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) associated with plant galls in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 29: 37-57. Notes: Four new species and a new genus of felt scale insects (Eriococcidae) are described for New Zealand: Hoheriococcus fionae gen. et sp. nov. on Hoheriaspp.; Eriococcus aconeae sp. nov. on Pittosporum eugenioides; Eriococcus parsonsiae sp. nov. on Parsonsia spp.; Stegococcus flagellatus sp. nov. on Olearia bullata and O. divaricata. Eriococcus elytranthae Hoy is redescribed. Hoheriococcus fionae has the first recorded sexually dimorphic galls in New Zealand.


Chen, Y.G., Chen, X.M., Li, K., Shi, L. & Chen, Z.Y. 2005. [A study on population dynamics of lac insect and it's lac secreting.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Northeast Forestry University 20(1): 170-174.


Chen, S.W., Chen, R.M. & Yin, T.W. 2006. [Influence of gradient constant temperatures on the experimental population of Crisicoccus pini.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Zhongguo Senlin Bingchong 25(3): 13-16.


Chong, J.H., Oetting, R.D. 2006a. Specificity of Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope and Leptomastix dactylopii for six mealybug species. BioControl DOI 10.1007/s10526-006-9025-5. Notes: In order to understand better non-target effect and potential uses, the host specificity of two parasitoid species (Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes and Leptomastix dactylopii Howard) (both Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for six mealybug species [Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Phenacoccus solani Ferris, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret)] (all Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was studied through behavioral observations and laboratory rearing. The selected mealybug species represent major subfamilies and tribes of Pseudococcidae. Except for F. virgata, all mealybug species induced examinations by Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope and L. dactylopii. Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope was specific to P. madeirensis, which was the only mealybug species selected for oviposition and suitable for complete development of the parasitoid. No encapsulation of Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope in P. madeirensis was observed. Leptomastix dactylopii accepted multiple species for oviposition, with the ranking of species preference as P. citri > P. viburni > P. longispinus > P. solani > P. madeirensis. Only P. citri, P. longispinus and P. viburni supported the development of L. dactylopii. Parasitoids developing in P. longispinus and P. viburni suffered from high encapsulation rates, while no encapsulation was observed when developing in P. citri. The results of this study suggest that Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope is highly host specific. Leptomastix dactylopii, on the other hand, has a wider host range. The use of Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope in a mealybug biological control program is limited to P. madeirensis and L. dactylopii to P. citri. The results presented in this study also lead us to question the accuracy of the reported host range of L. dactylopii, which include all six mealybug species tested.


Chong, J.H. & Oetting, R.D. 2006. Host stage selection of the mealybug parasitoid Anagyrus spec. nov near sinope. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 121: 39-50. Notes: The mealybug parasitoid Anagyrus sp. nov. near Sinope (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an undescribed parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). We investigated the preference of Anagyrus sp. nov. near sinope for six developmental stadia (first- and second-instar nymphs, third-instar immature females, third or fourth instar immature males, pre-reproductive adult females, and ovipositing adult females) of P. madeirensis and the fitness consequences of the host stage selection behavior. In the no-choice test, Anagyrus sp. nov near sinope parasitized and completed development in all host stadia except third-instar immature males. When all host stadia were offered simultaneously, the parasitoids preferred third-instar immature and pre-reproductive adult females. Dissection of the stung mealybugs revealed that the clutch size (number of eggs per host) was approximately four and three in the third-instar and pre-reproductive females, respectively, and one egg per first-instar nymph. Parasitoids emerged from P. madeirensis parasitized at third-instar or pre-reproductive adult female completed development in the shortest duration, achieved a higher progeny survival rate, larger brood and body size, and the lowest proportion of males. We showed that the continued development of mealybugs had significant influence on the fitness of the parasitoids. Although deposited as eggs in first- or second-instar nymphs, parasitoids emerged from mummies that had attained third-instar or adult development achieved similar progeny survival rate, brood size, body size, and sex ratio as those parasitoids deposited and developed in third-instar or adult mealybugs. By delaying larval development in young mealybugs, Anagyrus sp. nov near sinope achieved higher fitness by allowing the parasitized mealybugs to grow and accumulate body size and resources. We suggest that the fitness consequence of host stage selection of a koinobiont parasitoid should be evaluated on both the time of parasitism and the time of mummification.


Claps, L.E., Zamudio, P. & Briz, L.D. 2006. Dactylopiidae and Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) of the Kenneth Hayward Collection, Tucuman, Argentina. (In English with summary in Spanish.) Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 50(1): 33-38. Notes: The Dactylopiidae and Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) of the Kenneth Hayward Collection, Tucuman, Argentina. The Kenneth Hayward collection housed at the Instituto Miguel Lillo (IMLA) and at Estación Experimental Agroindustrial "Obispo Colombres" (EEAOC) both in Tucuman, Argentina, was studied. Four Dactylopiidae and 32 Diaspididae species with their host plants are listed. Duplaspidiotus koehleri Lizer y Trelles and Pallulaspis lantanae Green & Laing, are redescribed and illustrated; the two species were originally described from Argentina. The genus Rugaspidiotus Mc Gillivary is recorded for the first time from Argentina.


Classen, A.T., Hart, S.C., Whitman, T.G., Cobb N.S. & Koch, G.W. 2005. Insect infestations linked to shifts in microclimate: Important climate change implications. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69(6): 2049-2057. Notes: Changes in vegetation due to drought-influenced herbivory may influence microclimate in ecosystems. In combination with studies of insect resistant and susceptible trees, we used long-term herbivore removal experiments with two herbivores of pinon (Pinus edulis Endelm.) to test the general hypothesis that herbivore alteration of plant architecture affects soil microclimate, a major driver of ecosystem-level processes. The pinon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus, Herbert) attacks needles of juvenile trees causing them to develop an open crown. In contrast, the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella Hulst.) kills the terminal shoots of mature trees, causing the crown to develop a dense form. Our studies focused on how the microclimate effects of these architectural changes are likely to accumulate over time. Three patterns emerged: (i) scale herbivory reduced leaf area index (LAI) of susceptible trees by 39%, whereas moths had no effect on LAI; (ii) scale herbivory increased soil moisture and temperature beneath susceptible trees by 35 and 26%, respectively, whereas moths had no effect; and (iii) scale and moth herbivory decreased crown interception of precipitation by 51 and 29%, respectively. From these results, we conclude: (1) the magnitude of scale effects on soil moisture and temperature is large, similar to global change scenarios, and sufficient to drive changes in ecosystem processes. (2) The larger sizes of moth-susceptible trees apparently buffered them from most microclimate effects of herbivory, despite marked changes in crown architecture. (3) The phenotypic expression of susceptibility or resistance to scale insects extends beyond plant-herbivore interactions to the physical environment.


Cooper, D.D. & Cranshaw, W.S. 2005. Life history of the pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), in northeastern Colorado. Southwestern Entomologist 30(1): 55-60.


Costa, M.G., Barbosa, J.C. & Yamamoto, P.T. 2006. [Probability distribution of Orthezia praelonga Douglas (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Ortheziidae) in citrus.] Distribuiçao de probabilidade de ocorrencia de Orthezia Praelonga Douglas (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Ortheziidae) na cultura de citros. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Neotropical Entomology 35(3): 395-401. Notes: The probability distribution of the orthezia scale, O. praelonga, was studied in plots of commercial orange orchards (Citrus sinensis cv. "Pera Rio"), with 5, 9 and 15 years of age, during one year 2004-05 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The survey of presence or absence of the pest in the plants was carried through twenty samplings in the total area of each plot and visually inspecting each plant. The dispersion indices used were: variance/mean relationship (I), index of Morisita (I SUB delta), coefficient of Green (Cx) and k exponent of negative binomial distribution for each sampling. The negative binomial distribution was more representative of the frequency distribution data of this scale in citrus, since the variance was superior to the average in all samplings. The analysis of the aggregation index showed that the majority of the samplings presented aggregate distribution for the scales.


Costa Marilia, G., Barbosa, J.C. & Yamamoto, P.T. 2006. [Probability distribution of Orthezia praelonga Douglas (Hemiptera: Stemorrhyncha: Orthezildae) in citrus.] Distribuicao de probabilidade de ocorrencia de Orthezia Praelonga Douglas (Hemiptera: Stemorrhyncha: Ortheziidae) na cultura de citros. (In Portuguese.) Neotropical Entomology 35(3): 395-401. Notes: The probability distribution of the orthezia scale, Orthezia praelonga Douglas. was studied in plots of commercial orange orchards (Citrus sinensis L., var. "Pera Rio"), with 5. 9 and 15 years of age, during one year. The survey of presence or absence of the pest in the plants was carried through twenty samplings in the total area of each plot visually inspecting each plant. The dispersion indexes used were: variance/mean relationship (1), index of Morisita (I-delta), coefficient of Green (Cx) and k exponent of negative binomial distribution for each sampling. The negative binomial distribution was more representative of the frequency distribution data of this scale in citrus, since the variance was superior to the average in all samplings. The analysis of the aggregation index showed that the majority of the samplings presented aggregate distribution for the scales.


Culik, M.P., Martins, D. dos S. & Gullan, P.J. 2006. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee. (In English with summary in Portuguese.) Journal of Insect Science 6(23): 1-6. Notes: Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espíritu Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia malvastra was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae and Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs.


da Luz, P.B., Bonani, J.P. & Santa-Cecilia, L.V.C. 2005. First occurrence of Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in palms of species Rhapis excelsa (Thunberg) Henry ex. Rehder in Brazil. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Arquivos do Instituto Biológico. Sao Paulo 72(3): 391-393. Notes: [Original title: Primeira ocorrencia de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) na Palmeira Rhapis excelsa (Thunberg) Henry ex. Rehder no Brasil.] Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) of roots the palm Rhapis excelsa (Thunberg) Henry ex. Rehder collected in Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, were identified as Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893), this being the first report of the occurrence of this pest on this plant in Brazil.


Dai, P.C., Sun, D.S. & Shao, D.K. 2006. [Bionomics and control of Matsucoccus sinensis Chen.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Zhongguo Senlin Bingchong 25(3): 33-35.


da Luz, P.B., Bonani, J.P. & Santa-Cecilia, L.V.C. 2005. First occurrence of Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in palms of species Rhapis excelsa (Thunberg) Henry ex. Rehder in Brazil. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Arquivos do Instituto Biológico. Sao Paulo 72(3): 391-393. Notes: [Original title: Primeira ocorrencia de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) na Palmeira Rhapis excelsa (Thunberg) Henry ex. Rehder no Brasil.] Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) of roots the palm Rhapis excelsa (Thunberg) Henry ex. Rehder collected in Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, were identified as Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893), this being the first report of the occurrence of this pest on this plant in Brazil.


Danzig, E.M. 2005. About the authorship of Arctorthezia cataphracta (Homoptera, Coccinea: Ortheziidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 14(1): 44. Notes: It is shown that the specific name in Arctorthezia cataphracta must be credited to Shaw, 1794, not to Olafsen, 1772.


Danzig, E.M. 2005a. A new species of Greenisca from Russia (Homoptera, Coccinea, Eriococcidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 14(2): 203-205. Notes: The type species of the genus Greenisca is designated. Greenisca matesovae sp. n. is described and illustrated.


Danzig, E.M. 2006. [Mealybugs of the genus Phenacoccus Ckll. (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) of the fauna of Russia and adjacent countries. II.]. (In Russian.) Entomologicheskoe Obozrenye 85(1): 122-161. Notes: The second part of the publication contains a key to 49 species from the former USSR and a review of the 25 species not covered by the first part of the revision (Danzig, 2003); these are mostly species with an incomplete set of the ceraria. Species of the Ph. Piceae (Loew) group are not included in this paper because they are dealt with in a special publication (Danzig, 2004). New data are reported on Ph. Hordei (Lind.), Ph. Pumilus Kir., Ph. Strigosus Borchs., and Ph. Perilustris Borchs. which are reviewed in the first part of the series. The descriptions and figures of all species discussed in this paper are given. Lectotypes are designated for 6 nominal species. The following new synonymies are ascertained: Phenacoccus setiger Borsch. (=Ph. Gobicus Danzig, =kaplini Danzig); Ph. Abditus Borchs. (=Ph. Bicerarius Borchs.); Ph. Incertus Kir. (=Euripersia caulicola Terezn.); Ph. Phenacoccoides Kir. (=Ph. Cynodontis Borchs., =eugeniae Baz., =bazarovi Ben-Dov); Ph. pumilus Kir. (=Ph. Pseudopumilus Hadz.), syn. nn. Two new species are described: Phenacoccus kochiae sp. n. and Ph. Kazakhstanicus sp. n. Phenacoccus stipae Nurm. is not included in the review because it had been transferred to the genus Euripersia Borchs. The distinctions between the genera Euripersia and Phenacoccus are conventional and will be discussed in the subsequent publication.


Danzig, E.M. 2006a. Mealybugs of the genus Phenacoccus Ckll. (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) in the fauna of Russia and adjacent countries. II. Entomological Review 86(2): 197-227. Notes: The second part of the publication contains a key to 49 species from the former USSR and a review of the 25 species not covered by the first part of the revision (Danzig, 2003); these are mostly species with an incomplete set of the ceraria. Species of the Ph. Piceae (Loew) group are not included in this paper because they are dealt with in a special publication (Danzig, 2004). New data are reported on Ph. Hordei (Lind.), Ph. Pumilus Kir., Ph. Strigosus Borchs., and Ph. Perilustris Borchs. which are reviewed in the first part of the series. The descriptions and figures of all species discussed in this paper are given. Lectotypes are designated for 6 nominal species. The following new synonymies are ascertained: Phenacoccus setiger Borsch. (=Ph. Gobicus Danzig, =kaplini Danzig); Ph. Abditus Borchs. (=Ph. Bicerarius Borchs.); Ph. Incertus Kir. (=Euripersia caulicola Terezn.); Ph. Phenacoccoides Kir. (=Ph. Cynodontis Borchs., =eugeniae Baz., =bazarovi Ben-Dov); Ph. pumilus Kir. (=Ph. Pseudopumilus Hadz.), syn. nn. Two new species are described: Phenacoccus kochiae sp. n. and Ph. Kazakhstanicus sp. n. Phenacoccus stipae Nurm. is not included in the review because it had been transferred to the genus Euripersia Borchs. The distinctions between the genera Euripersia and Phenacoccus are conventional and will be discussed in the subsequent publication.


Danzig, E.M. & Gavrilov, I.A. 2005. [On the systematics and cytogenetics of some species of scale insects (Homoptera, Coccinea) from Voronezh.]. (In Russian with summary in English.) Entomologicheskoe Obozrenye 84(3): 527- 530. Notes: Phenacoccus phenacoccoides (Kiritshenko, 1932) and Greensisca glyceriae (Green, 1921) are reported for the first time for the middle zone of European Russia. Fonscolombia butorinae sp. n. is similar to F. tshadaevae (Danzig, 1980) but differs from it in the absence of quinquelocular disc pores and ventral tubular ducts on thorax, and in the presence of dorsal tubular ducts. The karyotypes of Fonscolombia butorinae sp. no. (2n=10), F. tomlinii (2n=10, and Ph. phenacoccoides (2n=10+1-2B) are discussed and illustrated for the first time.


Danzig, E.M. & Gavrilov, I.A. 2005a. On the systematics and cytogenetics of some species of scale insects (Homoptera, Coccinea) from Voronezh. Entomological Review 85(5): 476-479. Notes: Phenacoccus phenacoccoides (Kiritshenko, 1932) and Greensisca glyceriae (Green, 1921) are reported for the first time for the middle zone of European Russia. Fonscolombia butorinae sp. n. is similar to F. tshadaevae (Danzig, 1980) but differs from it in the absence of quinquelocular disc pores and ventral tubular ducts on thorax, and in the presence of dorsal tubular ducts. The karyotypes of Fonscolombia butorinae sp. no. (2n=10), F. tomlinii (2n=10, and Ph. phenacoccoides (2n=10+1-2B) are discussed and illustrated for the first time.


Dapson, R.W. 2005. A method for determining identity and relative purity of carmine, carminic acid and aminocarminic acid. Biotechnic & Histochemistry 80(5/6): 201-205. Notes: Carmine is one of the few dyes currently certified by the Biological Stain Commission that is not assayed for dye content. Existing assay methods are complex and do not differentiate the three cochineal derivatives carmine, carminic acid and aminocarminic acid. The latter dye is relatively new to the food trade as an acid-stable red colorant and may eventually enter the biological stains market. The assay proposed here is a two-step procedure using quantitative spectrophotometric analysis at high pH (12.5-12.6) followed by a qualitative scan of a low pH (1.90-2.10) solution. Carmine is distinct at high pH, and the remaining dyes are easily distinguished at low pH. Four instances of mislabeling are documented from 18 commercial products, but the mislabeled dyes were not certified dyes. Samples from nearly all lots of carmine certified by the Biological Stain Commission from 1920 to 2004 proved to be carmine, but they varied widely in dye content. Batches from 1920 through the 1940s were significantly richer in dye content. Variability has been extreme since 2000, and most of the poorest lots have been submitted since 1990.


Das, B.K. & Sahoo, A.K. 2005. Record of parasitoids of some scale and mealybug pests of mango from West Bengal, India. Journal of Biological Control 19(1): 71-72. Notes: A survey of parasitoids of scale and mealybug pests of mango was conducted in Malda district of West Bengal, India during 1999-2000. Chartocerus sp., Azotus sp. and Gyranusoidea tebygi Noyes was recorded on Rastrococcus invadens Williams. On Rastrococcus iceryoides Green, Chartocerus walkeri Hayat, Aprostocetus sp., Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault, Anagyrus pseudococci Girault and Anagyrus mirzai Agarwal and Alam were recorded. Two species of Aprostocetus, Encyrtus sp. and Austroterobia maldica Narendran and Das were recorded on Icerya minor Green. Coccophagus ceroplastae (Howard) and Promuscidea unfasciativentris were recorded from Pulvinaria polygonata (CockII.).


de Leon, J.H., Fournier, V., Hagler, J.R. & Daane, K.M. 2006. Development of molecular diagnostic markers for sharpshooters [Homalodisca coagulata and Homalodisca liturata for use in predator gut content examinations. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 119(2): 109-119. Notes: To aid in identifying key predators of Proconiini sharpshooter species present in California, we developed and tested molecular diagnostic markers for the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), and smoke-tree sharpshooter, Homalodisca liturata (Ball) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Two different types of markers were compared, those targeting single-copy sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) and mitochondrial markers targeting the multicopy cytochrome oxidase subunit genes I (COI) and II (COII). A total of six markers were developed, two SCAR and four mitochondrial COI or COII markers. Specificity assays demonstrated that SCAR marker HcF5/HcR7 was H. coagulata specific and HcF6/HcR9 was H. coagulata/H. liturata specific. COI (HcCOI-F/R) and COII (HcCOII-F4/R4) markers were H. coagulata specific, COII (G/S-COII-F/R) marker was H. coagulata/H. liturata specific, and lastly, COII marker (Hl-COII-F/R) was H. liturata specific. Sensitivity assays using genomic DNA showed the COI marker to be the most sensitive marker with a detection limit of 6 pg of DNA. This marker was 66-fold more sensitive than marker Hl-COII-F/R that showed a detection limit of 400 pg of DNA. In addition, the COI marker was 4.2-fold more sensitive than the COII marker. In predator gut assays, the COI and COII markers demonstrated significantly higher detection efficiency than the SCAR markers. Furthermore, the COI marker demonstrated slightly higher detection efficiency over the COII marker. Lastly, we describe the inclusion of an internal control (28S amplification) for predation studies performing predator gut analyses utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This control was critical in order to monitor reactions for PCR failures, PCR inhibitors, and for the presence of DNA. Coccus hesperidum is mentioned in this study.


Deng, Y.J., Huang, D.Z. & Shen, Z.R. 2006. Investigation and identification of scale insects in the outdoor ornamental trees in Hebei Province. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Zhongguo Senlin Bingchong 5(2): 14-19.


Ehler, L.E. 2005. Biological control of Melanaspis obscura on oaks in northern California. Biocontrol Dordecht 50(5): 739-749. Notes: In 1988, Encarsia aurantii (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was introduced into northern California to control an isolated infestation of obscure scale, Melanaspis obscura (Comstock) (Coccoidea: Diaspididae), on native and exotic oaks (Quercus spp.) in Sacramento's Capitol Park. By 2002, there was no longer any need for chemical control of the scale (i.e., complete biological control). Both parasite and host are univoltine; peak emergence of adult parasites coincides with the peak of newly settled, first-instar scales. Increase of the parasite and concomitant decline of the scale from 1992 to 2004 are documented for one native and one exotic oak tree. During spring of 2004, mean density of female scales (based on 100 twigs per tree) on 12 previously infested oak trees was generally low, ranging from <1 (eight trees) to 15 (single tree) scales/twig. Mean percentage parasitization (per twig) ranged from 30 to 85%, and was density independent (spatial context) for each of five trees. Two refuges for the scale population were noted: some scale crawlers settled and developed under the parental scale cover (spatial refuge) and some female scales continued to produce crawlers into late summer and early fall, when adult parasites were no longer available (temporal refuge). This case illustrates how an introduction strategy (i.e., single-species release of E. aurantii), which was derived from an analysis of the parasite guild of the pest, was executed in the field and ultimately led to successful biological control.


El-Serwy, S.A. & Guerrieri, E. 2005. Seasonal fluctuation of the parasite complex of Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on sugar cane in Giza, Egypt. (In English with summary in Arabic.) Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83(1): 47-62. Notes: The seasonal variation of the parasite complex of the red-striped soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata, in Egypt was studied. Sugarcane leaves infested by the soft scale were collected weekly from untreated fields in Egypt, from September 1999 to February 2000 and from September to December in 2001 and 2002. The highest rate of parasitism was recorded in 2001 (55.8%) while during 1999-2000 and 2002 those values were 43.5 and 37%, respectively. Eight species of primary parasitoids, i.e. Coccophagus semicircularis and Coccophagus obscurus (new record), Metaphycus flavus, Metaphycus citricola (new record), Microterys nietneri, Parechthrodryinus coccidiphagus (new record), Comperia alfieri (new record) and Diversinervus elegans and 6 hyperparasitoids, i.e. Pachyneuron muscarum, Marietta leopardina (new record) and Ablerus chionaspidis (= Ablerus greatheadi; new record), Mahencyrtus comara (new record), Cerapterocerus mirabilis (new record) and Cheiloneurus subsp. were identified. The ratios between primary and secondary parasitoids collected were 99:1 (1999-2000), 94:6 (2001-2002) and 96:4 (2002-2003). Metaphycus flavus and M. citricola seem to be the most promising parasitoids to be used as biological control agents against the red-striped soft scale on sugarcane in Egypt. The former species was more abundant between late-October and early-March in 1999-2000 and during mid- and late-September until mid-February in 2001-02 and 2002-03; in the same period, the most abundant hyperparasitoid was Pachyneuron muscarum. Competition between primary parasitoid species resulted in a decrease of Metaphycus flavus and Coccophagus semicircularis collected during 1999-2000 to 2002-03; probably their activity was replaced by that of Metaphycus citricola whose rate of parasitism increased from 12.5% to 31.9% in the same period. However, the general increase of hyperparasitism recorded during 1999-2000 to 2002-03 could have played a role in the decrease of Metaphycus flavus and Coccophagus semicircularis. In 2001-02 and 2002-03, Parechthrodryinus coccidiphagus represented 4% of the primary parasitoids emerged. The parasitic activity of Microterys nietneri peaked (9%) in 2001-02, opposed to 2% recorded in the 2 other seasons. Diversinervus elegans and Comperia alfieri as well as Coccophagus obscurus emerged only in a few numbers in different seasons. Competition between secondary parasitoids species resulted in a general decrease of Marietta leopardina (approximately 15%) and an increase of Pachyneuron muscarum (10%) during the second season. Their activity was somewhat replaced by that of Cheiloneurus subsp., who dominated in 2002-03.


El-Shazly, E.A., Ismail, I.A. & Abdel-Rahman, R.S. 2005. Host-plant preference of the red-striped soft scale insect, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead). (In English with summary in Arabic.) Bulletin of the National Research Centre (Cairo) 30(3): 317-324. Notes: The effect of five host plants, namely sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), sweet sorghum (Sorghum vulgare var. saccharatum) and maize (Zea mays), on different biological aspects of the red striped-soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata, was studied. The percentage of nymphs that succeeded to reach the adult stage differed on the different host plants. This percentage was maximum on sugarcane and sweet sorghum followed by cogon grass, while the minimum was on maize. The shortest preoviposition period of the insects was recorded on sugarcane and elephant grass plants, while the oviposition period was about twice greater on sugarcane than on sweet sorghum. No significant difference existed between the oviposition period on sweet sorghum and maize. The maximum number of eggs was found on sugarcane, but the minimum number was found on maize and sweet sorghum. Adult longevity on sugarcane was about twice greater than that on maize, while it was one-half that on elephant grass. Thus, sugarcane plant was more preferable to the insect than all other tested host plants.


Elwan, E.A.H. 2005. Population dynamics of Maskell scale, Insulaspis pallidula (Green) (Homoptera - Diaspididae), on mango trees in Egypt. (In English with summary in Arabic.) Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83(3): 1199-1212. Notes: Maskell scale, Insulaspis pallidula, is a common scale insect on mango trees, Mangifera indica, resulting in defoliation and branch drying. Population dynamics, number and duration of generations as well as the effect of two weather factors on the insect activity were studied at El-Qanater El-Khairia, Qalubia Governorate, Egypt in 2001/02 and 2002/03. Results revealed that pre-adult and adult populations peaked four times per year during May, July, September/October and November. The pest had four annual overlapping generations, with the highest generation occurring during autumn in both studied years. The daily mean temperature was entirely under the optimum range of pre-adult and adult activities in the two years, whereas the daily mean relative humidity was within the optimum range of the pre-adult and adult activities in 2001/02 and entirely under the optimum range of the pre-adult and adult activities in 2002/03. The combined effect of the two weather factors on the pre-adult and adult activities was highly significant in both years.


Elwan, E.A., Assem, S.M., Khewa, M.M. & Shalaby, M.S.I. 2005. Field evaluation of some pesticides for controlling Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Homoptera: Coccidae) on sugarcane in Kom Ombo District, Aswan governorate. (In English with summary in Arabic.) Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83(4): 1669-1679. Notes: An experiment was conducted in Kom Ombo district, Aswan governorate, Egypt, during 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the efficacy of Chalinger (chlorfenapyr), Admiral (pyriproxyfen), Mospilan (acetamiprid), Actara (thiamethoxam), Marshal (carbosulfan), Orion (alanycarb) and Sulfer (sulfer) to control sugarcane soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata, infesting sugarcane fields. The pesticides were highly effective against insect populations in both years. Chalinger was the highest most effective compound against the nymphal populations (94.8%). Admiral and Mospilan came in the 2nd order (93.6 and 93.4%) followed by Marshal in the 3rd order (88.9%). Sulfer and Actara came in the 4th order (88.1% & 88%) and Orion was the last (86.8%). The efficacy of the evaluated pesticides on the adult populations showed that Chalinger, Admiral and Mospilan were the highest effective compounds on the adult populations (93.5, 92.5 and 91.9%) followed by Marshal in the 2nd order (86.6%). Sulfer, Actara and Orion were less effective pesticides on the adult populations (85.6, 84.6 and 83.5%). The efficiency of the tested pesticides on the insect populations (nymphs and adults) indicates that, Chalinger was the highest effective compound (94.6%) on the insect populations followed by Admiral and Mospilan in the 2nd order (93.4 and 93.1%). Marshal and Sulfer came in the 3rd order (88.2 and 87.7%), Orion was the last (86.6%).


Elwan, E.A., Shalaby, M.S.I. & Khewa, M.M. 2005. Efficiency of some insecticides for control Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Homoptera: Coccidae) on sugarcane in Naga-Hammadi District, Qena governorate. (In English with summary in Arabic.) Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83(4): 1649-1661. Notes: An experiment was conducted in Naga-Hammadi district, Egypt, during 4 September 2002 and 15 September 2003 to evaluate the efficiency of Actellic 50% EC (pirimiphos-methyl), Sumithion 50% EC (fenitrothion), Malathion 57% EC (malathion), Malatox 50% WP (malathion), Dimethoate 40% EC (dimethoate) and Dursban 48% EC (chlorpyrifos) for the control of Pulvinaria tenuivalvata. The insecticides were highly effective against the insect populations in both 2002 and 2003. Actellic was the highest effective compound (99.1%) on the nymphal populations followed by Sumithion in the second order (98.4%). Dursban came in the third order (96.9%). Dimethoate, Malatox and Malathion came in the last order (96.1, 96 and 95.7%). Similar results were observed with the adult populations where the highest effective compound was Actellic (96.9%) followed by Sumithion and Dursban in the 2nd order (95.8 and 95.2%). Malatox, Dimethoate and Malathion came in the last order (93.3, 93.2 and 93%). On the other hand, the efficiency of the tested insecticides on insect populations (nymphs and adults) combined over the 2 years indicated that, Actellic was the highest effective compound (98.7%) followed by Sumithion in the 2nd order (98.2%) and Dursban in the 3rd order (96.4%). Dimethoate, Malatox and Malathion came in the last order (95.8, 95.4 and 95.3%).


Epsky, N.D., Amalin, D., Kendra, P.E., Puche, H. & Mannion, C.M. 2006. Temporal and spatial characterization of an infestation of Paratachardina lobata lobata (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), a new invasive pest in Florida. (In English with summary in Spanish.) Florida Entomologist 89(3): 367-374. Notes: The lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata lobata (Chamberlin) was first found in south Florida in 1999. Reported hosts are present in the germplasm collection located at the USDA/ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station in Miami, and the scale was first found there in the summer of 2002. A study was initiated to determine the spatio-temporal dynamics of a lobate lac scale infestation at SHRS from Jul 2003 to Jul 2005. Numbers and percentages of viable adults, and reproductive success as indicated by ratio of nymphs to viable adults (<2 cm diam and 30 cm long branch sample) were recorded. There were 55 plants evaluated over the 80 hectares study site. Infestation increased from 42% of sampled plants at the start of the study to 75% at the end, and most of the plants had low or moderate levels of infestation (between 0 and 100 adults per 30 cm branch) over the course of the study. Percentage of non-viable adults dropped from 27% at the start of the study to 7% by the end of the study, and ratio of nymphs to viable adults dropped from 9% to 2%. Spatial analysis showed that initial infestations were along the eastern edge of the sampled area, with populations declining over the first half of the study but then increasing during the second half. Over the course of the study, heavy infestations (>=100 scales per 30 cm branch) were found on only seven host plants. Among plants located in areas of high infestation probabilities, individual host susceptibility appeared to be the primary factor regulating infestation level.


Felippe, M.R., Garbim, L.F., Coelho, J.H.C., Ximenes, N. L., Sanchez, A.L. & Yamamoto, P.T. 2005. [Chemical control of orthezia in citrus.] Controle quimico da cochonilha ortezia em citros. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Laranja 26(2): 251-264. Notes: The Orthezia praelonga scale is considered an important citrus pest in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. It causes debility of the trees and drop of leaves and fruits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different types of insecticides (contact, systemic and insect growth regulator), including aldicarb, imidacloprid, deltamethrin, ethion, thiamethoxam, acephate, fenpropathrin, pyriproxifen and mineral oil, for the control of O. praelonga on 'Pera' sweet orange grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin. The evaluations were performed on four branches per plant, by quantifying the number of nymphs and adults. The number of insects present per tree, in five leaves randomly sampled, was also evaluated. All the insecticides were efficient against O. praelonga scale for 288 days.


Felix, A.P., Rocha, P., Brazao, C.I. & Franquinho Aguiar, A.M. 2005. Laboratory culturing and morphological aspects of Hyperaspis pantherina Fuersch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) a predator of the Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae). (In English with summary in Spanish.) Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas 31(4): 473-481. Notes: [Original title: Criacao laboratorial e aspectos morfologicos de Hyperaspis panterina Fuersch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) predador de Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae).] The ladybird Hyperaspis pantherina Fuersch, was imported from Kenya, through KEFRI (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), to Madeira Island in 2002 to be used as a predator in the biological control of Orthezia insignis Browne, an homopteran infesting Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don trees. A new rearing methodology to increase the production of this predator is presented based on the knowledge of its biology, predator-prey interaction and earlier rearing methodologies like that described in FOWLER (1993). Morphological aspects of the different development stages are described in detail.


Feng, Y., Chen, X.M., He, Z., Guo, B.H. & Ma, Y. 2006. Anti-mutation experiment of white wax scale (Ericerus pela) and analysis of main function factors. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Forest Research 19(3): 284-288. Notes: An experiment was conducted to investigate the anti-mutation of white wax scale (Ericerus pela) and to analyse its main functional factors. The micro-nucleoli rates in every experimental dose were lower compared with the contrast in 48 h. Significant difference was observed between high dose and contrast group. The restriction rate of micro-nucleoli in high dose group was 34.19%. Results showed that white wax scale could restrict mutation caused by CP [coat protein] and had clear anti-mutation function. White wax scale contained 2.14% chitin and 7.2% crude polysaccharide. The polysaccharide content was 4.54% after removing protein by enzyme. The sugar content of the polysaccharide was 22.1% as glucose, composed of glucose, galactose and fructose in molar ratio of 5:21:1. The polysaccharide isolated from white wax scale was polysaccharide-protein complex. This insect contained 1.3% flavonoid and several kinds of vitamins, chitin, polysaccharide. Vitamin and flavonoid were the main anti-mutation functional factors of white wax scale.


Feng, Y., Chen, X.M., Ma, Y. & He, Z. 2006. [Experimental study on immunomodulation of white wax scale (Ericerus pela Chavannes).]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Forest Research 19(2): 221-224. Notes: This paper dealed with the immunnodulation tests of white wax scale in specific and unspecific immunity. The result showed that the IgM in high dose group was clearly higher than that of the control in serolysin test. Lymphocyte transformation and propagation in mice were notable in high dose group. The results of carbon clearance test in mice and the weight of immune organ test (unspecific immune tests) were negative. The research results showed that white wax scale could increase the specific humoral and cell immunity ability. Therefore white wax scale has immunodulation function which could be developed and utilized as health food resource.


Feng, J.N. & Zhang, F.P. 2005. [A new species of the genus Parlatoria (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from China.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Entomotaxonomia 27(4): 269-271. Notes: One new species of the genus Parlatoria (P. menglunensis sp. nov.) is described from Yunnan, China. The new species is similar to P. pergandii but can be distinguished from the latter by (1) pygidium with 4 pairs of well-developed pygidial lobes; and (2) pygidium with 30 dorsal macroducts. P. pergandii has 3 pairs of well-developed pygidial lobes and pygidium with 10-20 dorsal macroducts. All the type specimens are deposited in the Entomological Museum of Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry.


Ferrer, A., Marco, F.M., Andreu, C. & Sempere, J.M. 2005. Occupational asthma to carmine in a butcher: Analysis of the literature on allergy to carmine. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 138(3): 243-250. Notes: Hypersensitivity to carmine (E120) has been identified as a cause of food intolerance and occupational asthma. We present a case of occupational asthma following exposure to carmine in a manufacturer of sausages and review the literature. Case Report: A 42-year-old non-atopic male presented with a 5-year history of rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma on occupational exposure to food additive dusts. Symptoms increased after work. The patient had been exposed for more than 20 years. Methods: Skin prick tests were performed with a battery of common inhalant allergens and spices. Cochineal, carmine lake and additive mixes used by the patient were extracted and subsequently used for skin prick test, bronchial provocation and in vitro measurements (specific IgE, Western blot and chromatographic fractionation). Results: Prick tests were positive to carmine and carmine-containing additives; carmine-specific IgE and bronchial challenge tests were also positive (PC SUB 2 SUB 0 = 0.0004 mg/ml and 1.6 kU/I). Western blot showed IgE binding to bands of about 30 kDa on cochineal extract and a diffuse pattern at 40-97 kDa on carmine. This result was confirmed by gel filtration chromatography and dot blot. Carmine completely inhibited IgE binding to cochineal extract. Discussion: Carmine is a potential sensitizer in an occupational setting: 18 cases of occupational asthma have been described to date. Carmine allergens are poorly defined; in general, proteins from cochineal not removed by the extraction process are considered as the main allergens in carmine. Our results are consistent with this, but show that these proteins may be subject to chemical modification.


Flores-Hernandez, A., Murillo-Amador, B., Rueda-Puente, E.O., Garcia-Hernandez,J.L. & Troyo-Dieguez, E. 2006. [Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylophis opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae).] Reproduccion de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae). (In Spanish.) Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 77(1): 97-102. Notes: Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north of Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. The results indicate that the wild species is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males; the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days). The complete biological cycle of the females was 77 days, and in the males 43 days. A period of preoviposition of 18.8 days for the females was found, laying eggs during 2 1 days with an average of 13 1 insects per female. The sex ratio female: male was 1:1. The reproduction generally was sexual although there were parthenogenetic females. This is the first report of Dactylopius opuntiae as a source of wild cochineal in the arid zone of North. Central and Northwest Mexico. specifically in the Bolson of Mapimi, Durango, Mexico.


Foldi, I. 2006. [Two new scale insects from Brazil and Ecuador (Hemiptera, Sternorhyncha, Coccoidea).] Deux nouvelles Cochenilles du Brésil et de l'Équateur (Hemiptera, Sternorhyncha, Coccoidea). (In French with summary in English.) Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 111: 101-113. Notes: Two new species of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), Protortonia ecuadorensis n. sp. (Monophlebidae) on Salix sp. (Salicaceae) in Ecuador and Stigmacoccus paranaensis n. sp. (Xylococcidae) on the trunk of Inga sp. (Leguminosae) in Brazil, were discovered. The adult female and male at P. ecuadorensis, n. sp. and the first and second instar nymphs and the adult female of S. paranaensis.


Foldi, I. & Kozar, F. 2006(2005). New species of Cataenococcus and Puto from Brazil and Venezuela, with data on others species (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). (In English with summary in French.) Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie 22(4): 305-312. Notes: The adult females of 2 new scale insect species, Cataenococcus asparodosensis sp. nov. on Phragmites communis [P. australis] from Brazil and Puto salinasi sp. nov. on Espeletia timotensis base leaves, from Venezuelan Andes are described and illustrated. Data are also given on 25 species of Pseudococcidae and 2 Putoidae collected in Brazil and Venezuela, of which 3 are new records for Brazil (Dysmicoccus sylvarum, Phenacoccus hurdi, Pseudococcus calceolariae and) and 3 for Venezuela (Amonostherium lichtensioides, Chorizococcus caribaeus and Ferrisia consobrina).


Follett, P.A. 2006. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for Aspidiotus destructor (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Journal of Economic Entomology 99(4): 1138-1142. Notes: Coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Homoptera: Diaspididae), is a quarantine pest of banana (Musa spp.) and many tropical crops. Irradiation was examined as a potential phytosanitary treatment to control coconut scale. Dose-response tests were conducted with second-stage nymphs, adult females without eggs, and adult females with eggs at a series of irradiation doses between 60 and 200 Gy to determine the most tolerant stage. The adult female with eggs was the most tolerant stage. In large-scale validation tests and dose-response tests, a total of 32,716 adult female scales with eggs irradiated with doses between 100 and 150 Gy produced no F SUB 1 adults with eggs. Irradiation treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 150 Gy should provide quarantine security for coconut scale on exported commodities.


Fondren, K.M. & McCullough, D.G. 2005. Phenology, natural enemies, and efficacy of horticultural oil for control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas tree plantations. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(5): 1603-1613. Notes: Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and C. heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD10 degrees C). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximate to 1230-1300 DD10 degrees C, and continued for approximate to 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD10 degrees C. Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD10 degrees C. Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.


Frantisek, K. & Jitka, S. 2005. Monitoring of San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst.) by pheromone traps and timing of control on crawlers. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 28(7): 183-187. Notes: [Use of pheromones and other semiochemicals in integrated control. Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS 6th International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production, Cross, J. & Ioriatti, C. (Eds.), Baselga di Pine, Italy, 26-30 September 2004.] Field experiments were conducted in apple orchards in North Bohemia, from 1996 to 1999 and South Moravia, Czech Republic, from 1996 to 2003, to test 3 pheromone components for monitoring males of the San Jose scale, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (SJS). The combination of 2 specific pheromone components were the most effective for trapping SJS males. The date on which the first generation crawlers start to migrate was determined according to the sum of effective temperatures from 350 to 400(deg)C above 7.3(deg)C, calculated as from the date on which the first males of the owerwintering generation have been found in the pheromone traps. This sum of effective temperatures indicated the optimum period for timing of insecticide application. In orchards where insecticides were applied against the crawlers, the population density of SJS decreased and the damage to fruits was eliminated.


Gantner, M. 2005. Susceptibility of large-fruited hazel cultivars grown in Poland to major pest and their crop productivity. Acta Horticulturae 686: 377-384. Notes: [Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Hazelnut, Tarragona-Reus, Spain, 14-18 June, 2004.] Studies were conducted during 1999-2003 in a 2.5-ha hazelnut orchard at Konskowola, central-eastern Poland to evaluate the susceptibility of large-fruited cultivars (Wonder from Bollwiller, Purple Filbert, Barram White Filbert, Hall's Giant, Luizen Zellernuss and Mogul-Nuss) to filbert bigmite (Phytoptus avellanae), filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli) and lecanium scale (Parthenolecanium corni) and their yield. Purple Filbert, White Filbert, Hall's Giant, Luizen Zellernuss and Mogul-Nuss showed partial resistance to two of the three examined pests. Wonder from Bollwiller and Barra turned out to be the most susceptible to all three pests. The highest nut yields were obtained from trees that were most susceptible to the occurrence of the studied pests. Luizen Zellernuss was characterized by its high resistance to filbert bigmite and lecanium scale with relatively high yield.


Gaona Garcia, G., Ruiz Cancino, E., Myartseva, S.N., Trjapitzin, V.A., Mora Olivo, A. & Coronado Blanco, J.M. 2006. [Hymenopteran parasitoids (Chalcidoidea) of Coccoidea (Homoptera) in Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico.] Himenopteros parasitoides (Chalcidoidea) de Coccoidea (Homoptera) en Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico. (In Spanish with summary in English.) Acta Zoologica Mexicana Nueva Serie 22(1): 9-16. Notes: Coccoidea collected on ornamentals plants, fruit trees and shadow trees in 25 localities of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico, from April 1998 to September 2001, obtaining 32 parasitoid species from the families Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae and Signiphoridae, emerged from 24 species of Coccoidea.


Gavrilov, I.A. & Smirnova, N.V. 2005. Scale insects of the Volga Area (Homoptera: Coccinea). II. Scale insects from Nizhniy Novgorod Province, Chuvashia and Mari-El. Zoosystematica Rossica 14(2): 207-209. Notes: Eight species collected in the upper Volga Area are listed. Six species, Orthezia urticae (Linnaeus), Trionymus perrisii (Signoret), Acanthococcus baldonensis Rasina, Greenisca brachypodii Borchsenius et al.; Danzig, Eriopeltis lichtensteinii Signoret, and Chionaspis salicis (Linnaeus) are recorded from the Volga Area for the first time. Variability of Trionymus perrisii (Signoret) is discussed and illustrated.


Gazinska, P. 2005. [Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, 1936 (Homoptera: Coccinea, Cryptococcidae) - a pest of the beech Fagus sylvatica L. in northern part of the Ilawa Lakeland Landscape Park.]. (In Polish with summary in English.) A KertPolskie Towarzystwo Lesne 149(6): 34-39. Notes: One of the reasons of declining beech (Fagus sylvatica stands in Poland is the presence of the scale insect Cryptococcus fagisuga which graze in bark fissures on tree trunk, branches and roots. This insect may cause mucus secretion from spots on the bark, bark necrosis and may open the way for the infection of the fungus Nectria. A study was conducted at the Ilawa Lakeland Landscape Park in 2004 to assess the intensity of infestation of C. fagisuga on beech by determining the percentage of beech trees infested with C. fagisuga. It was found that 91% of the 500 beech trees randomly selected were found to be infested with C. fagisuga. Trees were divided into 3 classes (low, moderate, and high) based on the degree of infection, where 84.2 12.5 and 3.3% of the total number of trees evaluated had low, moderate and high level of infestation, respectively. The insect colony structure for each class was either dispersed or cluster. Increased intensity of infestation was associated with the increased number of cluster colonies. Incidental distribution was noted for trees with the lowest degree of infestation, where insects were found in great dispersion. There were only 15 beech trees found which were greatly infested with the insects, their presence may nevertheless pose a threat to the viability of the remaining trees in the stand. Common beech is the dominant species in the tree stands in the park, and this may favour pest dispersal and further increase in their population. Thus, the monitoring of the stands and the removal of trees heavily infested with C. fagisuga should be initiated. Neighbouring trees resistant to infestation may become a valuable material for cloning and reintroduction in the future. The preservation of the seeds from these trees should also be considered.


Germain, J.-F. & Matile-Ferrero, D. 2006. [Comstockiella sabalis (Comstock), Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana), and Phenacoccus defectus Ferris, new scale insects for France (Hem., Diaspididae and Pseudococcidae).]. (In French.) Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 111(3): 395-401.


Germain, J.-F. & Matile-Ferrero, D. 2006a. [Comstockiella sabalis (Comstock), Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) and Phenacoccus defectus Ferris, scales new to France (Hem., Diaspididae and Pseudococcidae).]. (In French.) Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 111(3): 395-401.


Gill, G. 2005. Spray programme effective against Florida red scale. Biosecurity 61: 17. Notes: In early 2004, the citrus pest Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum, was detected at Auckland City Council's Domain Nursery (New Zealand) following a chance discovery by a Landcare Research scientist. Subsequent investigations also uncovered the scale in both the tropical and temperate houses in the Auckland Domain. The infestation was linked to recent importations of Dracaena marginata, a popular indoor plant. Biosecurity New Zealand instituted containment procedures to prevent further spread of this scale, and conducted further surveys in the areas surrounding the infected site. These measures included a spray programme using chemicals with different modes of action and targeting both the mobile crawler and the immobile stages of the scale. Subsequent examinations showed that these treatments were effective with no live scale being detected. The affected site was placed under a Restricted Place Notice, preventing the removal of risk material without appropriate measures being taken. In conjunction with the containment procedures, Biosecurity New Zealand prepared and distributed a fact sheet to members of the Nursery and Garden Industry Association. This initiative resulted in the detection of Florida red scale on several Dracaena plants in retail nurseries. These plants were treated with insecticide to kill any scale that were present and then destroyed. In light of the risk posed by Florida red scale on imported Dracaena, Biosecurity New Zealand amended the Nursery Stock Import Health Standard to prevent further incursions of this pest. The management of the scale infestation was then transferred to the Auckland City Council which has continued the application of systemic insecticides to target any scale that may be living in areas not readily accessible by conventional sprays. To date, Biosecurity New Zealand's on-going surveillance at the site has not detected any live scales.


Gomez, Y.Z. 2006. [Ecological management of the hibiscus pink mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) in the educational complex "El Hatillo" - UNEFM, Falcon.]. (In Spanish with summary in English.) Croizatia 4(1-2): 1 pp. Notes: [Original title: Manejo ecologico de la cochinilla rosada de la cayena Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) en el complejo docente "El Hatillo" -UNEMF, Falcon.] The study was carried out in the gardens of the Educational Complex "El Hatillo", UNEFM, period January-December of the 2002, to evaluate the effect of radical prunings to the cayena plants (10-20cm of height) affected by the hibiscus pink mealybug Maconellicocus hirsutus (Green), in combination with the use of the natural enemies present in the area, by means of the immediate deposit of the cut material inside drums, which have been applied an adherent layer of 20cm in the internal and external faces of its superior border, in order to impede the exit of the apterous phases of the hibiscus pink mealybug and the associate ants, and to allow the exit of the natural enemies (parasitoids and predators) presents. 5 infestation levels were set for the cayena plants: healthy, light, medium, strong and very strong; before applying the treatment, the state of the total 112 plants were: 10.8% medium, 44.6% strong and 44.6% very strong. After applying the treatment in two opportunities (February 2002 and September 2002) it was possible to increase in 63.2% the presence of healthy plants, it increased to 13.3% the plants with light attacks and in 1.4% the plants with level of medium attack; on the other hand the plants with strong and very strong attacks diminished in 36.4% and 41.5%, respectively. Anagyrus, Apoanagyrus, Encyrtus, and Timberlakia were the more abundant parasitoids found in this study, while Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant was found in smaller number.


Goncalves, S.J.M.R., Isaias, R.M.S., Vale, F.H.A. & Fernandes, G.W. 2005. Sexual dimorphism of Pseudotectococcus rolliniae Hodgson & Goncalves 2004 (Hemiptera Coccoidea Eriococcidae) influences gall morphology on Rollinia laurifolia Schltdl. (Annonaceae). Tropical Zoology 18(2): 161-169. Notes: The male and female of Pseudotectococcus rolliniae Hodgson & Goncalves 2004 induce leaf galls on Rollinia laurifolia Schltdl. The galls occur in similar proportions but are morphologically distinct. This study recorded the occurrence and characterized both morphologically and morphometrically the galls on R. laurifolia. In addition, we evaluated the impact of galls induced by P. rolliniae males and females on the differentiation of the host plant leaf tissues. Galls induced by females were spherical, with an average volume of 36.5 mm SUP 3 (+/-16.9), whereas galls induced by males were conical with an average volume of 3.5 mm SUP 3 (+/-2.6). Most of the sampled leaves were galled (93.8%). The presence of more than 5 galls per leaf caused the leaf area to be reduced on average by 57.3% compared with ungalled leaves. Leaves with the majority of galls induced by females had a greater area reduction than leaves with the majority of galls induced by males. The reduction of leaf area was directly related to the translocation of photoassimilates to gall sites and their utilization for gall growth. The longer life cycle of the P. rolliniae female and its sessile habit may determine the higher differentiation of leaf tissues involved in the larger growth of these galls.


Gonzalez, C., Caceres, S., Gomez, M., Fernandez, M., Hernandez & D. & Tapia, J.L.R. 2005. Lepidosaphes gloverii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae): biological and ecological studies on citrus from Cuba. [Lepidosaphes gloverii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), estudios biologicos y ecologicos en citricos de Cuba.]. (In Spanish with summary in English.) Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 64(1/2): 26-28. Notes: The spatial and temporal distribution of Lepidosaphes gloverii (Pack.) and its natural enemies were studied on Valencia orange in Cuba. Shoots were examined at each cardinal point in three strata of the trees. L. gloverii developmental stages were counted on both upper and lower leaf surfaces and the incidence of biological agents was registered. The biology of L. gloverii was studied on citrus nursery of Persian lime, Eureka lemon and Valencia orange. A complex of parasitoids, predators and pathogens was found, which differed among microhabitats. Populations were aggregated, and densities were higher at the northwest of the grove, at the north of the tree, in the middle part of a shoot and on the upper leaf surface.


Gonzalez-Hernandez, H., Pandey, R.R. & Johnson, M.W. 2005. Biological characteristics of adult Anagyrus ananatis Gahan (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Biological Control 35(2): 93-103. Notes: The encyrtid Anagyrus ananatis Gahan preferred to parasitize adult females of pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), compared to gray pineapple mealybug (GPM), Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley. When given a choice of PPM life stages, adult female PPM were preferred. Over its adult life, A. ananatis parasitized 27.7 (+/-2.5) mealybugs, with a range of 11-51 parasitized mealybugs. Development (eggs to adult) required 23.3 (+/-0.6) and 21.2 (+/-0.8) days for females and males, respectively, at 26(deg)C. Adult females had a mean longevity of 9.8 (+/-2.0) days, while males lived for a mean of 10.8 (+/-0.6) days at 26(deg)C when only provided a 50% honey-water solution. Adult longevity increased to greater than 26 days when pure honey and water were provided. Parasitoid adults allowed access to honey lived almost sixfold longer than those denied honey. Pure honey increased mean adult longevity almost 90 and 40% compared to water only or diluted honey concentrations, respectively. Starvation significantly reduced parasitoid survival and longevity with 52% of test individuals dying after being deprived honey and water for 48 h. A. ananatis only parasitized PPM during photophase. A. ananatis parasitized significantly more mealybug hosts as PPM densities increased from 1 to 10 individuals per experimental unit, but then plateaued at densities above 10 individuals.


Gounari, S. 2006. Studies on the phenology of Marchalina hellenica (gen.) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea, Margarodidae) in relation to honeydew flow. Journal of apicultural research 45(1): 8-12. Notes: Pine honey is produced widely in Greece and Turkey and represents almost 60-65% of the annual honey production in Greece. It is made from the honeydew eliminated by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica when feeding on Pinus halepensis (allepo pine) and P. brutia (calabrian pine). M. hellenica has one generation a year, with the adult females appearing on trees at the end of March or in April, depending on temperatures in February and March. Female M. hellenica have 3 nymphal instars, but the adult females have no mouthparts and do not feed. There are 3 periods of honeydew production which can exploited by bees: in early spring, coinciding with the spring feeding period of the third instar (which can last from 20 to 40 days depending on weather conditions); in August and September when the late 1st instar nymphs are feeding; and in October and November when the second instars are feeding and which can last from 15 to 30 days. Although honeydew appears in small quantities from the end of June, it does not become sufficient for exploitation until early autumn. The 3 periods of moult coincide with 3 periods of reduced honeydew production. In recent years the quantity of honeydew has become unreliable, causing concern to beekeepers. The reasons for this unreliability are unknown. The present paper presents almost 3 years of data on the phenology of M. hellenica, with observations on the production of honeydew at each stage of development.


Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. 2006. New developments in the San Joaquin Valley California citrus IPM program. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 5-14. Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] The majority of citrus, primarily Navels and Valencias for fresh market, is now grown in the central San Joaquin Valley of California, USA. In the late 1990s, a number of new insecticides (pyrethroids, insect growth regulators, neonicotinoids, and fermentation products) were registered for control of citrus pests. These insecticides have improved worker safety, reduced environmental effects, and improved the survival of some natural enemies by greatly reducing organophosphate and carbamate usage. There are, however, some problems with integrating these new insecticides into the California citrus pest management programme. Firstly, the two most commonly used insecticides, pyriproxyfen for California red scale (Aonidiella aurantii) control and spinosad for citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri) control, are highly selective for these two pests. Secondly, many of the new insecticides are toxic to the predatory vedalia beetle (Rodolia cardinalis). Thus, cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi) problems have increased. Finally, exotic pests continue to invade the region, for example, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), citrus peelminer (Marmara gulosa) and citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella). These pests require the development of management tactics that must be integrated into the existing IPM programme. The use of more selective insecticides, the toxicity of new insecticides to coccinellids, and the invasion of new pests has increased the complexity of the IPM programme for San Joaquin Valley citrus.


Grafton-Cardwell, E.E, Lee, J.E., Stewart, J.R. & Olsen, K.D. 2006. Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales. Journal of Economic Entomology 99(3): 733-744. Notes: Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status.


Grout, T.G. & Stephen, P.R. 2005. Use of an inexpensive technique to compare systemic insecticides applied through drip irrigation systems in citrus. African Entomology 13(2): 353-358. Notes: Throughout the world, farmers are increasingly adopting the use of drip irrigation. As the quality and automation of these irrigation systems improves, the feasibility of using them to apply plant protection products, growth regulators and nutrients also increases. An inexpensive means of evaluating such systemic products in a randomized block layout is described and its use demonstrated in evaluating drip applications of imidacloprid, methamidophos, monocrotophos, acephate and dimethoate in a 'Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) orchard in Swaziland. Efficacy was tested against Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), Scirtothrips aurantii Faure and various species of mealybug (Pseudococcidae). Imidacloprid and dimethoate proved the most promising systemic treatments, but usage of dimethoate on citrus trees with fruit destined for export to the European Union has now been restricted by the recent lowering of maximum residue limits for dimethoate. The sequential application of imidacloprid (2.1 g [AI] per tree) via drip followed by a petal-fall spray of spinosad (0.0072% [AI]) plus horticultural mineral oil (0.3%) was more effective against S. aurantii, but less efficacious against mealybugs, than dimethoate (36 g [AI] per tree) via drip followed by spinosad plus oil (dosages as above) applied at the same times.


Guerrieri, E. 2006. Description of Metaphycus stephaniae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Chlacidoidea, Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of Stotzia ephedrae (Newstead) (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae). Journal of Natural History 49(13-14: 863-865. Notes: A new species belonging to the genus Metaphycus is described. M. stephaniae sp. nov. has been reared from Stotzia ephedrae (Newstead) collected in Israel on Ephedra alte C. A. Mey and on Asparagus aphyllus L. The new species is compared with its closest relatives, M. hodzhevanishvilii and M. zebratus.


Gullan, P.J., Giliomee, J.H., Hodgson, C.J. & Cook, L.G. 2006. The systematics and biology of the South African gall-inducing scale insect, Calycicoccus merwei Brain (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae). African Entomology 14(1): 13-33. Notes: The scale insect genus Calycicoccus Brain has a single described species, C. merwei Brain, which is endemic to southeastern South Africa. Females of C. merwei induce small, mostly conical galls on the foliage of their host tree, Apodytes dimidiata E. Meyer ex Arn. (Icacinaceae), which has a wider, mostly coastal distribution, than that currently known for the scale insect. Calycicoccus has been placed in the family Eriococcidae and may be related to the South American genus Aculeococcus Lepage. No other native eriococcid species have been described so far in South Africa, although the family is diverse in other Gondwanan regions. This paper summarizes the biology of C. merwei, redescribes the adult female, describes the adult male, the second-instar female and the first-instar nymphs for the first time, and reconsiders the phylogenetic relationships of the genus. The adult female is shown to have unusual abdominal segmentation, in that segment I is present both dorsally and ventrally, but a segment is absent ventrally on the middle abdomen. First-instar nymphs are sexually dimorphic; males have a larger and relatively narrower body, larger mouthparts, longer antennae and legs, and more thoracic dorsal setae compared with females. Molecular data from nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA (18S) and elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) show C. merwei to have no close relatives among the Eriococcidae sampled to date. Instead, the Calycicoccus lineage is part of a polytomy near the base of the Eriococcidae. Molecular dating of the node suggests that the Calycicoccus lineage diverged from other eriococcids more than 100 Mya. These data support the placement of Calycicoccus as the only genus in the subfamily Calycicoccinae Brain.


Guo, J.H., Yan, F.J. & Fa, Y.L. 2005. [Life-cycle of Matsucoccus matsumurae in Rizhao area.]. (In Chinese.) Zhongguo Senlin Bingchong 24(5): 17-19.


Gupta, P.R. 2005. Biological control of San Jose scale in India - an overview. Acta Horticulturae 696: 427-432. Notes: [Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperate Zone Fruits in the Tropics and Subtropics, (Chauhan, J.S., Sharma, S.D., Sharma, R.C., Rehalia, A.S. & Kumar, K.) Nauni, Solan, India, 14-18 October, 2003.] An overview is presented on: the biological characteristics of the natural enemies of San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus]) exploited for biological control, i.e. the use of parasitoids and predators; parasitoids versus predators; and harmful effects of pesticides on biological control agents.


Gupta, K., Bhalla, S., Lata Kapur, M., Lal, B., Singh, C., Baloda, R.S., Meenakshi Kumar, N. & Singh, N. 2005. Insect pests intercepted during quarantine processing of exotic planting material in 2003. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 33(1): 51-54. Notes: Quarantine examination of 1, 42, 170 exotic samples of various crops during 2003 revealed that 621 samples were found infested with insect and mite pests including 134 with hidden infestation. Interceptions made during visual examination include: Araecerus sp. in Zea mays from USA; Rhizopertha dominica in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare from Australia and ICARDA (Syria); Sitophilus zeamais in Zea mays from USA; Sitotroga cerealella in Oryza sativa from Nepal; staphylinid beetle in Mentha sp. from Japan; scale insects in Mangifera spp. and Cornus mas cuttings and mites in vegetative material of Salix alba and Mentha sp. from Belgium and Japan, respectively. Pests detected by X-ray radiography techniques include: Acanthoscelides obtectus in Phaseolus vulgaris, from Colombia; Bruchidius sp. in Trifolium alexandrinum from Egypt, B. atrolineatus in Vigna unguiculata from Nigeria, Bruchus dentipes in Vicia faba from ICARDA (Syria); B. pisorum in Pisum sativum from Bulgaria and Eritrea, B. lentil in Lens culinaris from Syria, B. atrolineatus, Callosobruchus analis, C. chinensis and C. maculates in V. unguiculata from Nigeria and C. chinensis in V. faba from Eritrea. All the infested samples were salvaged mechanically or by using suitable treatments.


Gurkan, B. 2005. Studies on life cycle characteristics of Marchalina hellenica Genn. (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in areas with different altitudes. (In English with summary in TURK.) Mellifera 5(9): 2-6, 34-38.


Gwiazdowski, R.A., Van Driesche, R.G., Desnoyers, A., Lyon, S., Wu, S.A., Kamata, N. & Normark, B.B. 2006. Possible geographic origin of beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), an invasive pest in North America. Biological Control: Theory and Applications in Pest Management 39(1): 9-18. Notes: Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is invasive in North America. The immediate source of the introduction was Europe, but its native range may be different. Knowledge of the native range is useful when searching for coevolved natural enemies for classical biological control. We report results of a search for the native range of C. fagisuga, using historical records, field surveys, and molecular phylogenetics. Beech scale feeds exclusively on beech. We review historical accounts of movement of species of Fagus between Europe, Asia, and North America and report on extensive surveys for C. fagisuga on Fagus species in China and Japan. We undertook a phylogeographic study of C. fagisuga throughout its known range using sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). We also investigated the phylogenetic relationships of C. fagisuga to other species of Cryptococcus and related species in the Eriococcidae, using ribosomal DNA (18S). For COI sequences within C. fagisuga, we found one widespread, most-common haplotype in North America, Europe, Turkey, and Georgia; a diversity of slightly (0.1-0.5%) divergent haplotypes in Bulgaria; a diversity of moderately (2.2-2.8%) divergent haplotypes in Georgia and Turkey; and a highly (3.6-4.2%) divergent group of haplotypes in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S places C. fagisuga within a cosmopolitan clade of eriococcids feeding on other temperate trees (ash, maple, and southern beech). Based on the phylogeographic study, we suggest that the subspecies F. sylvatica orientalis is the native host of C. fagisuga and that natural enemies are best sought on oriental beech in northeastern Greece, the Black Sea drainage basin, the Caucasus Mountains, and northern Iran.


Hall, D.G., Konstantinov, A.S., Hodges, G.S., Sosa, O., Welbourn, C. & Westcott, R.L. 2005. Insects and mites new to Florida sugarcane. Journal (American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists) 25(143-156. Notes: The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida (USA) has increased in recent years. Five pest species were newly discovered during the 31-year period, 1964-95. These included one species indigenous to Florida having no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species new to the Everglades Agricultural Area where sugarcane is grown. Reported here are six species that were discovered for the first time infesting Florida sugarcane during the 8-year period, 1995-2003. They included: an armored scale, Duplachionaspis divergens (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and the pink sugarcane mealybug, Saccharicoccus sacchari (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Duplachionaspis divergens and O. grypus were found infesting sugarcane in greenhouses.


Hansen, J.D., Heidt, M.L., Neven, L.G., Mielke, E.A., Bai, J., Chen, P.M. & Spotts, R.A. 2006. Effect of high-pressure hot-water washing treatment on fruit quality, insects, and disease in apples and pears. Part III. Use of silicone-based materials and mechanical methods to eliminate surface pests. Postharvest Biology and Technology 40(3): 221-229. Notes: Surface arthropods on pome fruits can cause export problems and disrupt commercial markets. Eliminating insects and mites on the packing line would be the last opportunity to provide for pest-free produce. In this study, an experimental packing line was used to evaluate techniques using different surfactant baths, pressurized water sprays, and styles of rotating brushes to remove field-collected and laboratory-reared grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), the diapausing two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausman) (Homoptera: Aphididae). The organosilicone Silwet L-77 was no more effective than a silicone-based food grade defoamer in aiding removal. Mechanical methods, such as the style of rotating brushes and pressurized sprays, were significantly effective in removing surface arthropods. No improvement in removal occurred when pressure was increased beyond 420kPa. These techniques can be easily adapted to commercial facilities and will reduce the incidence of surface arthropods on marketed fresh fruits.


Harris, K.M. & van Harten, A. 2006. Records of predaceous Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) on mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Yemen. (In Arabic with summary in English.) Fauna of Arabia 21: 351-356.


Hatami, B., Mirlohi, A.F. & Sabzalian, M.R. 2006. The effect of endophytic fungi of tall and meadow fescues on biological control of mealybug (Phenococcus solani Ferris, Hom.: Pseudococcidae). (In Persian with summary in English.) Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 10(2): 269-277. Notes: Endophytic fungi, Neotyphodium spp., symbiotically infect host grasses, Fescue arundinacea [Festuca arundinacea] and F. pratensis [Festuca pratensis], and mealybug Phenococcus solani [Phenacoccus solani] attacks some forage plants. To evaluate the role of these fungi to control this pest, four genotypes of F. arundinacea and two genotypes of F. pratensis were used. Plant tillers were split into two sections, one section of which was freed from the endophyte using a fungicide mixture. The mixture contained 2 g of active ingredients of propiconazole and 1 ml of Folicur [tebuconazole]/l of water. New tillers from endophyte-infected and endophyte-free plants were transferred into the field. The number of mealybugs was measured after the first visible sign of infestation on roots. To count mealybugs, one plant hill of each plot was randomly selected. Hay yield of each plot was measured by clipping the plants 5 cm above ground level. Correlation of hay yield and other growth characteristics with the number of mealybugs on roots as an index for mealybug damage on infested plants was determined. The results indicated that the endophyte-free plants were highly infested with P. solani compared with the endophyte-infected plants that were completely free of P. solani. Correlation coefficients showed that there was a significant negative correlation between forage yield and mealybug numbers, indicating mealybug damage on infested plants. It seems that the endophytic fungi are effective biological control factors for some root-feeding pest such as P. solani.


Henderson, R.C. 2006. Four new species and a new monotypic genus Hoheriococcus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) associated with plant galls in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 29: 37-57. Notes: Four new species and a new genus of felt scale insects (Eriococcidae) are described for New Zealand: Hoheriococcus fionae gen. et sp. nov. on Hoheriaspp.; Eriococcus aconeae sp. nov. on Pittosporum eugenioides; Eriococcus parsonsiae sp. nov. on Parsonsia spp.; Stegococcus flagellatus sp. nov. on Olearia bullata and O. divaricata. Eriococcus elytranthae Hoy is redescribed. Hoheriococcus fionae has the first recorded sexually dimorphic galls in New Zealand.


Henderson, R.C. & Martin, N.A. 2006. Review of the gall-inducing scale insects of New Zealand (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), with a guide to field identification. New Zealand Entomologist 29: 59-75. Notes: Some species of scale insects induce distinctive galls on their host plants. This can make field identification relatively easy, avoiding laborious slide-mounting and specialist identification. Thirteen species of felt scales (Eriococcidae), four species of armoured scales (Diaspididae) and two soft scale species (Coccidae) inhabit galls in New Zealand. Photographs are provided for the galls of 12 species of eriococcids, three diaspidids and two coccids. A table is provided for field identification.


Henk, D.A. 2005. New species of Septobasidium from southern Costa Rica and the southeastern United States. Mycologia 97(4): 908-913. Notes: New species are described in Septobasidium, a genus of urediniomycete parasites on scale insects. One new species, S. gomezii, is described from Costa Rica, and another, S. meredithiae, is described from Louisiana. S. gomezii is most similar to S. septobasidioides, but macroscopic and microscopic differences support it being a distinct species. S. meredithiae is similar to S. alni and S. castaneum but differs from these species in several macroscopic and microscopic characters, especially when the species are observed on the same host tree and insect species. Another species collected only once in Costa Rica is listed with observations but it is not formally described here. This Septobasidium species shares some key characteristics with S. ramorum but combines a dense, compact, nearly black thallus and pigmented probasidia-like structures with spindle-shaped haustoria. Implications for taxonomy, morphological evolution and host specificity in Septobasidium are discussed.


Hernandez-Hernandez, F. de la Cruz, de Munoz, F.G., Duenas, I. del Rio & Mendoza, H.L. 2005. [The cochineal insect - Mexican colour for the world.]  La cochinilla fina del nopal, colorante mexicano para el mundo. (In Spanish.) Ciencia (Mexico City) 56(4): 78-86. Notes: Species of Dactylopius (Coccoidea) are discussed.


Hernandez Mansilla, A.A., Roson Alvarez, C., Daquinta Rico, C. & Trujillo Morgado, R. 2005. [In vitro evaluation of Aschersonia aleyrodids Webber pathogenicity on some pest insects with economic importance.] Evaluación in vitro de la patogenicidad de Aschersonia aleyrodids Webber sobre algunos insectos plaga de interés económico. (In Spanish with summary in English.) Fitosanidad 9(4): 29-34. Notes: A study was conducted in Cuba to investigate the pathogenicity of Aschersonia aleyrodids on Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, Toxoptera aurantii and Pseudococcus nipae. Test insects were collected from tomato, citrus and guava. These insects were inoculated with fungal suspensions of 1.4x10 SUP 9 spores/ml. M. persicae and Aphis gossypii showed the highest mortality (80 and 82-84%, respectively). The mortality of P. nipae and T. aurantii reached 40 and 7%, respectively.


Hickel, E.R. & Schuck, E. 2005. [Immersion time of cysts in methidathion solution to control ground-pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis.] Tempo de imersão de cistos em solucao de meridatiom para contrôle da perola-da-terra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Agropecuaria Catarinense 18(2): 93-95. Notes: The root immersion of grapevine seedlings in insecticide solution is a preplanting technique recommended to control some eventual infestation of groundpearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis. However, the minimum time in order to get 100% of insect mortality as well as the eventual insect protection against insecticide in clods must be determined. Clean and encrusted cysts of groundpearl were immersed for 0, 1, 10, 60 and 120 seconds in a 0.08% a.i. methidathion solution. Encrusted cysts in fungal coat were used to simulate the clod protection against insecticide. Each experimental unit, replicated three times, had 20 clean cysts or almost 10 encrusted cysts. The number of dead cysts was recorded in 15- or 20-day intervals. The percentage of insect mortality was proportional to the immersion time in insecticide solution and the time of 120 seconds resulted in 100% mortality, for both clean and encrusted cysts. Therefore, 120 seconds is the minimum time for grapevine root immersion in methidathion solution in order to control 100% of ground pearl infestation.


Hill, M.G., Mauchline, N.A., Cate, L.R. & Connolly, P.G. 2005. A technique for measuring growth rate and survival of armoured scale insects. New Zealand Plant Protection 58: 288-293. Notes: [Proceedings of a conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 9-11 August 2005.] A method for measuring the size and growth rate of armoured scale insects using digital image analysis is described. It was used in a preliminary experiment that demonstrated between-plant differences in the growth rate of armoured scale insects on kiwifruit leaves. It also allowed the timing and extent of mortality factors to be measured accurately. Heavy predation of armoured scale insects on kiwifruit leaves, probably caused by earwigs, was observed for the first time. The development of this technique as a tool for both ecological studies of scale insect, and in measuring the relative resistance of kiwifruit germplasm to armoured scale insects is discussed.


Hodges, A. & Hodges, G. 2006. Pink hibiscus mealybug identification. Plant Health Progress 1-7. Notes: This paper focuses on the key morphological characters that can be used for the proper identification of the pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus). Information about the insect's primary economic hosts, signs of damage, taxonomy and geographical distribution is provided. A key of slide-mounted specimens of common scales confused with pink hibiscus mealybug in Florida, USA is also given.


Hodgson, C. & Foldi, I. 2006. A review of the Margarodidae sensu Morrison (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and some related taxa based on the morphology of adult males. Zootaxa 1263: 1-250. Notes: This paper outlines the history of the family name Margarodidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and of the higher classification within Margarodidae sensu Morrison, and reviews the use of males in diagnosing the higher taxonomy witin this group. An overview of the general morphology of adult males is provided as an introduction to the terms and structures used in the descriptive section that follows. The adult males of 31 species of Coccoidea are described, covering all the families in Margarodidae sensu Morrison plus some additional taxa which have either been included in Margarodidae sensu lato in the past or which show close affinities to it. Based on the structure of the adult males described here and also on an earlier cladistic analyses, these 31 taxa are divided into three groups: Ortheziidae (containing just ortheziids), a group here referred to as "margarodoid taxa" (which includes all the taxa in Margarodidae sensu Morrison (1928) except Steingelia; this group includes the following nine families: Matsucoccidae, Margarodidae, Xylococcidae; Stigmacoccidae fam. nov.; Kuwaniidae; Callipappidae; Marchalinidae; Monophlebidae and Coelostomidiidae); and a third group referred to here as "non-margarodoid taxa", which includes the remaining taxa considered in this paper (Steingelia, Stomacoccus, Phenacoleachia, Puto and Pityococcus). The present higher taxonomic status of each taxon is summarised in a Table and a key to identify each family based on adult male morphology is included; this key also diagnoses the above three groups based on adult male characters. Keys are also provided under each family to identify the species described herein.


Hodgson, C. & Gounari, S. 2006. Morphology of Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Marchalinidae) from Greece, with a discussion on the identity of M. caucasica Hadzibeyli from the Caucasus. Zootaxa 1196: 1-32. Notes: The morphology of the adult female, 1st-, 2nd- and 3rd-instar female nymphs, plus the pupa (4th-instar male) and apterous adult male of M. hellenica (Gennadius), are described and illustrated, along with the prepupa (3rd-instar male) of M. caucasica Hadzibeyli. A key is provided to separate these stages. The adult female and 3rd-instar female of M. caucasica were also seen and considered to be identical with the same stages of M. hellenica. The morphology of the other stages of M. caucasica (as described by Hadzibeyli) are compared with those of M. hellenica described here and it is noted that there are some possibly significant differences in the 2nd- instar and apterous adult males. In addition, the known biology of these two species is also discussed and it is concluded that, despite the similarities of the adult females, these populations could still represent two separate species. A key is provided to separate the adult females of margarodoids on pines in the eastern Mediterranean.


Hodgson, C.J. & Martin, J.H. 2005. Fistulococcus, a new genus of soft scale insect (Sternorrhyncha, Coccidae) proposed for two new species from Hong Kong and Papua New Guinea. Zootaxa 1075: 1-40. Notes: A new genus, Fistulococcus Hodgson & Martin, is introduced to accommodate two new species of soft scale insects. All stages of the type species of F. pokfulamensis except the pupa are described from Gnetum luofuense (Gnetaceae) in Hong Kong. All female stages, and the second-instar male, are described for F. intsiae from Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) in Papua New Guinea. The structure of the dorsal chambered ducts is discussed in relation to the types of wax secreted. The relationship of Coccidae with plants in the Gymnospermae is discussed, as part of the account of F. pokfulamensis.


Hogendorp, B.K., Cloyd, R.A. & Swiader, J.M. 2006. Effect of nitrogen fertility on reproduction and development of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), feeding on two colors of Coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides L. Codd. Environmental Entomology 35(2): 201-211. Notes: The effects of nitrogen concentration on the reproduction and development of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, were studied on two colors of coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides. Green and red-variegated coleus plants were supplied with varying applied nitrogen concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm) for 32 d before being artificially inoculated with citrus mealybugs. Female citrus mealybug life history parameters including eggs contained within the egg mass and respective body cavity, body length (mm), and developmental time (d) were measured. A modified micro-Kjeldahl digestion procedure followed by colormetric assay was conducted twice throughout the study to assess leaf nitrogen concentration. The results of this study show that the citrus mealybug life history parameters were influenced by the applied nitrogen concentrations (ppm), leaf nitrogen concentration (%), and total moisture content (g). Citrus mealybugs feeding on both green and red-variegated coleus, receiving the high nitrogen fertilizer concentrations (200 and 400 ppm) had the greatest egg loads, were larger in size, and had the shortest developmental times. Leaf nitrogen concentration also affected the citrus mealybug life history parameters with those mealybugs feeding on plants containing the highest leaf nitrogen contents having the greatest egg loads, larger in size, and the shortest developmental times. In addition, total plant moisture content impacted the citrus mealybug life history parameters similar to leaf nitrogen concentration. However, this was based on plant architecture whereas percent plant moisture content for both green- and red-variegated coleus was comparatively similar for all nitrogen concentrations. The life history parameters measured were more pronounced on green coleus compared with red-variegated coleus, perhaps because of nitrogen allocation differences between the two coleus colors. Thus, higher nitrogen concentrations, in the form of supplemental fertilizers used in greenhouse production systems, leads to an increase in the performance of citrus mealybugs as defined by increased egg loads, larger mature females, and shorter developmental times on coleus plants. These results indicate that the implementation of proper fertilizer practices may lessen the likelihood of dealing with extensive insect outbreaks, thus potentially reducing insecticide use.


Hollingsworth, R.G. 2005. Limonene, a citrus extract, for control of mealybugs and scale insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(3): 772-779. Notes: In a series of bioassays with mealybugs, aqueous solutions of 1% limonene were tested that used from 0.50 to 1.50% all purpose spray adjuvant (APSA)-80 as an emulsifier/surfactant. The two ingredients were added to water or to 0.1% Silwet L-77, an agricultural surfactant. Using 1% limonene, 0.75% all purpose spray adjuvant (APSA)-80 and 0.1% Silwet L-77, a semitransparent mixture (primarily a microemulsion) was obtained that was safe for most plants and provided good control of mealybugs when sprayed or used in 1-min dips. Used at half strength, this mixture controlled approx. 99% of whiteflies, whereas the full-strength mixture controlled from 69 to 100% of mealybugs and scales, including approx. 93% control of root mealybugs. In side-by-side greenhouse tests, this mixture was superior to a 2% solution of insecticidal soap or a 2% solution of horticultural spray oil. Mortality of green scales on potted gardenia plants averaged 95, 89, and 88% on plants sprayed with liminene, insecticidal soap, or horticultural oil, respectively. In a related test, these same sprays killed 44.1, 22.7, or 12.5% of third and fourth instar clustering mealybugs, respectively. Limonene has promise as a safe, natural pesticide for insect pests on tolerant plants. Although 1% limonene solutions damaged certain species of ferns, gingers and delicate flowers, they caused no damage to ornamentals with thick, waxy leaves, such as palms, cycads and orchids. Among the species tested were Chrysomphalus aonidum, Coccus viridis, Nipaecoccus nipae, Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus longispinus, and Rhizoecus spp.


Howard, F.W., Hodges, G.S. & Gates, M.W. 2006. First report of Conchaspis cordiae (Hemiptera: Conchaspididae) in Florida and the United States. Florida Entomologist 89(1): 102-104. Notes: Conchaspis cordiae Mamet (Hemiptera: Conchaspididae) is reported for the first time in Florida and the Continental U.S. and found to be widely distributed in the urban areas of southeastern Florida. West Indies mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni) and a mahogany hybrid (S. macrophylla x S. mahagoni) apparently are preferred hosts. Honduras mahogany (S. macrophylla) and African mahogany (Khaya nyasica) were marginal hosts Marietta sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was identified as a parasitoid of this species.


Hu, Y.H., Huang, Z.Y., Cui, L.K., Chen, S.L. & Liu, X. 2006. [A study on control effect of field test on Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis 28(3): 364-367. Notes: Field experiments were conducted in Luoyang, China, to study the control effects of 6 compound pesticides on Hemiberlesia pitysophila in a forest environment. Results showed that all the tested pesticides were effective in controlling H. pitysophila. Applied singularly, chlorpyrifos mixed with methidathion at a ratio of 11:25 had a satisfactory control effect and a continuous effect at the concentration of 400-800 in a forest environment. Chlorpyrifos mixed with buprofezin at the ratio of 11:20, at the concentration of 400-800, and acetamiprid mixed with imidacloprid at the ratio of 1:1 at the concentration 1:3000 had relatively high control effect.


Huang, B.H. 2006. Biological characteristics of Didesmococcus koreanus. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 43(1): 108-111. Notes: Field observation and periodic sampling of Didesmococcus koreanus in a plum orchard in Anhui, China during 2003 revealed the occurrence of one generation per year. The second nymphal stage overwintered on brush and resumed its activity in March of the following year. Adults were observed from April to May. Eggs began to hatch between the first 10 days of June and mid-July. D. koreanus caused damages on trees mainly at the stages of sessile nymphs and adult females. Natural enemies were shown to have a high capability of controlling this pest.


Huang, Z.Y., Chen, S.L. & Lin, Q.Y. 2005. [The experiment of using compound insecticides for Hemiberlesia pitysophila control.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Fujian College of Forestry 25(1): 43-46. Notes: This study was conducted in China to investigate the use of 40% methidathion EC, 40% chlorpyrifos EC, 40% omethoate EC, 95% petroleum oil and 45% malathion EC in controlling Hemiberlesia pitysophila. Results showed that spraying with 40% methidathion EC (1:1000) + 40% chlorpyrifos EC (1:1000) + 40% omethoate EC (1:500) was the most effective treatment. Moreover, compared with using 40% methidathion EC, 40% chlorpyrifos EC and 40% omethoate EC alone, the compound was more effective and reached a control effect of over 90%.


Huang, B.H. & Wang, C.H. 2005. [The insecticide 30% Qiang-li-sha-jie for controlling Didesmococcus koreanus in plum orchards.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 42(5): 575-577. Notes: The micro-emulsion of 30% Qiang-li-sha-jie (Force kill jie) was used for the control of D. koreanus in plum orchards in China. The solution diluted by 800 or 1200 times showed a control efficacy of more than 94.5% at 7 days after the use of the insecticide, exhibiting a high knock-down rate. After 14 days, the control efficacy was still more than 99%. The control efficacy of solutions diluted by 600, 800 and 1200 times did not significantly vary. Compared with 25% Jie-si-jing EC and 40% supracide EC, 30% Qiang-li-sha-jie was a good choice for the control of D. koreanus because of its rapid killing effect, long-duration control efficacy, greater safety and lower cost.


Huang, J., Wang, Z.H. & Lin, Q.Y. 2005. [Notes on two species of hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of Hemiberlesia pitysophila (Homoptera: Diaspididae).]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University 34(2): 148-152. Notes: Marietta carnesi and Ablerus perspeciosus are hyperparasitoids of scale insects and Coccobius azumai. The morphology of these hyperparasitoids are redescribed, and the efficacy of both species for the biological control of H. pitysophila is briefly described. A. perspeciosus is reported for the first time as a hyperparasitoid of C. azumai in H. pitysophila.


Huang, L.C., Zhang, M.L., Song, X.M., Zhao, L. & Yang, Y. 2005. [The occurrence regulation of Pseudococcus comstocki in apple orchard.]. (In Chinese.) China Fruits 4: 32-34. Notes: Observations were conducted in an apple orchard with 15-year-old trees of Red Fuji cultivar, where all the fruit on the trees was bagged. The annual production usually was around 45 t/ha. In this orchard over 50% of the bagged fruit were usually infected with Pseudococcus comstocki. Observations revealed that its eggs were laid in trunk bark gaps (62% located near the root collar). The hibernated eggs incubated in late March till late April, then the nymphs attacked the tender tissue of the tree. The nymphs of the second generation started to enter the bags and attack the fruit. On rainy days, damage was exacerbated. Pseudococcus comstocki usually attacks the calyx part of the fruit and induces the formation of black spot, thus the fruit quality is severely damaged.


Huang, B.H., Zou, Y.D., Bi, S.D. & Gao, Z.L. 2005. [Artificial diet for adults of Chilocorus rubidus.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of China Agricultural University 10(3): 4-9. Notes: Chilocorus rubidus was artificially fed with five types of diets. The mixture of grass carp, pig liver and Noctuidae larvae powder met the basic nutrient requirement of C. rubidus adults, where adults fed with the mixture had a high survival rate while the females had relatively low egg production. The adults fed on No. 3 and 5 diets preyed strongly on Didesmococcus koreanus. However, from 25 to 290 days, their preying capacities (1-31 head) decreased with increase in duration. The food-seeking efficiency of C. rubidus (0.3802-0.0717) declined with an increase in D. koreanus density (2-10 head).


Hubbard, J.L. & Potter, D.A. 2005. Life history and natural enemy associations of calico scale (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Kentucky. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(4): 1202-1212. Notes: Seasonal phenology of calico scale, Eulecanium cerasorum (Cockerell), was monitored for 3 yr on various deciduous tree species in central Kentucky. Infestations were found on 16 host species in six plant families. Calico scale is a univoltine parthenogenic species that overwinters as second instars on bark. Nymphs molted to adult females around mid-April and began producing eggs in late April. Mean fecundity ranged from 3,728 to 4,654 eggs per female, depending on host plant species. Date of first crawler hatch in 2001-2003 ranged from 21 to 26 May, corresponding to a mean accumulation of 818 +- 2 Celsius degree-days (DDC), calculated from 1 January and a base of 4.4 Degree C. This value predicted, crawler hatch within 2 d in Lexington, KY, in 2004. Crawler dispersal lasted 2 to 3 wk. Upon hatching, crawlers move to leaves where they feed during summer. Crawlers primarily settled on the abaxial side of leaves and their within-leaf distribution varied between different tree species. Settled crawlers molted in mid-July and second instars remained on leaves until late September through mid-October, when they returned to bark to overwinter. On hackberry, Celtis occidentalis L., they were concentrated toward the basal end of shoots, primarily because leaf flush continued beyond the end of the crawler dispersal period. Crawler distribution did not differ between upper and lower canopy zones. Fourteen species of parasitoids and a coccinellid beetle were reared from individual scales. Monitoring with sticky traps in tree canopies confirmed that targeting crawlers with insecticides during late May or June would not coincide with peak flight activity of the scale's primary parasitoids.


Hubbard, J.L. & Potter, D.A. 2006. Managing calico scale (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infestations on landscape trees. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 32(4): 138-147. Notes: Calico scale, Eulecanium cerasorum (Cockerell), an invasive pest of shade trees, has reached outbreak levels in landscapes and on horse farms in Kentucky, U.S. We evaluated efficacy and timing of conventional and reduced-risk foliar insecticides as well as trunk-injected or soil-applied systemics for managing E. cerasorum. Acephate, bifenthrin, carbaryl, cyfluthrin, and pyriproxyfen killed young settled crawlers on individually sprayed shoots. Whole-canopy pyrethroid sprays, however, gave < 66% control, underscoring the difficulty of reaching settled crawlers within large shade trees. Horticultural oil and insecticidal soap were relatively ineffective even with full spray coverage. Preventive sprays with bifenthrin or pyriproxyfen in mid-May, at first egg hatch, intercepted crawlers before they settled on leaves. Dormant oil failed to control overwintered nymphs or reduce subsequent numbers of adults or crawlers. A plant antitranspirant applied in late March provided 33% suppression. Trunk-injected imidacloprid was ineffective, whereas dicrotophos (bidrin) gave at best < 50% control. Soil injection with imidacloprid in November, December, or March failed to reduce subsequent densities of adults on branches or crawlers on leaves. Reasons why it is difficult to eliminate calico scale in mature landscape trees are discussed in the context of the pest's feeding sites and behavior.


Jacas, J.-A., Urbaneja, A. & Vinuela, E. 2006. History and future of introduction of exotic arthropod biological control agents in Spain: a dilemma?. BioControl 5(1): 1-30. Notes: The first documented introduction of an exotic invertebrate biological control agent (IBCA) in Spain occurred in 1908. Sixty-four additional species have been introduced since then. Information, both previously recorded and original data, on the species introduced for pest control is summarized. Most of the introduced IBCAs focused on citrus pests and homopterans (including Diaspididae) clearly predominate among target phytophagous species. Success has been more frequent for IBCAs used in seasonal inoculative strategies (50.0% of cases) than in classical biological control programs (17.1% of cases). Concerns about potential non-target effects of such species are increasing, but post-release evaluation has often been insufficient to draw any conclusions about them. Most of the beneficial species introduced in Spain were parasitoids (n = 53), and the remaining species were predators (n = 12). Only four parasitoids are considered specialized monophagous natural enemies. The mean number of host species parasitized by parasitoids is 15.2, whereas the mean number of prey species attacked by predators is 21.2. Therefore, polyphagy appears to be quite common among the IBCAs that have been introduced in Spain. The rationale guiding many of these introductions in the past would not be acceptable nowadays. Since classical biological control is such a valuable strategy for pest control, straightforward protocols to evaluate exotic candidate species are urgently needed.


Jactel, H., Menassieu, P., Vetillard, F., Gaulier, A., Samalens, J.C. & Brockerhoff, E.G. 2006. Tree species diversity reduces the invasibility of maritime pine stands by the bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi (Homoptera: Margarodidae). (In English with summary in French.) Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36(2): 314-323. Notes: Species-rich plant communities may be more resistant to invasive herbivores because of reduced host-plant accessibility and increased natural enemy diversity and abundance. We tested these hypotheses in Corsica, a Mediterranean island recently invaded by the maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Duc., which causes widespread tree mortality in Pinus pinaster Ait. The endemic Matsucoccus pini Green infests Corsican pine, Pinus nigra laricio Poiret, where it is controlled by the native predatory bug, Elatophilus nigricornis Zetterstedt. As revealed by kairomone trapping, E. nigricornis was most abundant in pure Corsican pine in areas not yet colonized by M. feytaudi, and in pure maritime pine its density decreased with the distance from the nearest Corsican pine forest. The abundance of M. feytaudi was compared in five pairs of Pure maritime pine and mixed maritime and Corsican pine stands. It was consistently higher in pure than in mixed maritime pine stands, whereas E. nigricornis showed the opposite pattern, and relative differences were correlated with the proportion of Corsican pine in the Mixture. The predation by E. nigricornis was manipulated in pure maritime pine stands using synthetic attractants of the predator. Matsucoccus feytaudi density was significantly reduced in maritime pines baited with kairomone dispensers.


Jaiswal, A.K., Bhattacharya, A., Kumar, M. & Kumar, S. 2005. Evaluation of ethofenprox toxicity to male lac insect and its effect on broodlac yield. Shashpa 12(2): 114-116. Notes: A field experiment was conducted in Ranchi, Bihar, India, to evaluate the detrimental effect of ethofenprox [etofenprox] based on the time of application. The treatments comprised: 0.05; 004; 0.03; 0.02; 0.01; and 0.005% ethofenprox, applied on Schleichera oleosa trees inoculated with Kerria lacca. Ethofenprox was found to be a suitable insecticide for application in lac ecosystem as it manages all 3 major lac insect predators, i.e. Chrysopa sp., Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea, if applied at proper times. However, the application of this insecticide a day prior to the probable time of emergence of male lac insect causes toxicity, resulting in loss of brood value of the produce as most of the female insects remain unfertilized, thereby affecting the quality of the produce. There is a quantitative loss in the resin secreted by the unfertilized females which is approximately one-third of that secreted by fertilized female insects. The results suggest that ethofenprox should not be applied in lac culture either at the time of male emergence or near to that time.


Jaiswal, A.K. & Dwivedi, B.K. 2005. How to culture lac insect on tree of Butea monosperma (Palas/Dhak). New Agriculturist 16(1/2): 155-164. Notes: This paper describes each of the key steps in systematic lac cultivation using the scientific method: (1) pruning of host trees; (2) infestation (inoculation) of the host trees with lac insects; (3) removal of used up broodlac (lac insect seed; Kerria lacca) sticks; and (4) crop harvesting. The application of insecticides/fungicides for pest/disease control, grouping of trees, and other tips for proper maintenance of lac culture are also discussed. Tabulated data are presented on (1) the farmer's method and its disadvantages compared with the scientific method, and (2) the cost of cultivation and income generation from lac cultivation.


Japoshvili, G.O. & Noyes, J.S. 2005. Checklist and new data on Encyrtidae of Transcaucasia and Turkey (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Zoosystematica Rossica 14(1): 135-145. Notes: Distributional and host records are summarised for 307 species, belonging to 101 genera that are recorded from Transcaucasia and Turkey. Of these, 160 species are recorded from Georgia, 171 from Armenia, 145 from Azerbaijan and 111 from Turkey; 21 species are recorded for the first time from Georgia, 34 from Turkey and 3 from Azerbaijan; one species from Georgia (Discodes valentinae sp. n.) is described as new; Ericydnus aeneus Nikol'skaya is restored as a distinct species (not a synonym of E. robustior Mercet); four species are treated as junior synonyms (Callipteroma testacea Motschulsky = C. baglanensis Myartseva, Microterys bellae Trjapitzin = M. eulecanii Pilipjuk & Sugonjaev, Psyllaephagus elaeagni Trjapitzin = P. bachardenicus Myartseva = P. rubriscutellatus Myartseva); other possible synonyms are also discussed and 17 new host records are presented including Planchonia arabidis.


Jenser, G., Balazs, K., Marko, V. & Haltrich, A. 2006. Lessons of the changes in the arthropod population composition in the Hungarian apple orchard in the last six decades. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 41(1/2): 165-176. Notes: About 2500 arthropod species immigrate, or carried by wind, or introduced by man in the orchards, under Hungarian climatic conditions. However, the number of the apple pest species is approximately 30. Owing to the effect of the relationships among the plant-phytophagous-zoophagous species those could colonize the orchard for which the apple provides suitable food sources and whose populations are not regulated or are regulated by a weak efficiency by parasitoids and predators. These populations create the primary pest communities. When the individual number of the parasitoid and predator species is reduced by the broad-spectrum insecticides, the population density of those phytophagous species could increase whose populations was restricted up to that time. In this case the secondary pest communities could develop. The integrated pest management provides the possibilities to solve the problems caused by the regular use of broad-spectrum insecticides. The real requirement is to find and to harmonize those methods which regulate the population dynamics of the species of the primary pest communities.


Jolivet, P. 2006. [François Cohic, entomologist (1921-1992).] François Cohic, entomologiste (1921-1992). (In French.) Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie 23(1): 75-78. Notes: Biography of Francois Cohic (1921-1992).  


Junghwa Park, Gatewood, B.M. & Ramaswamy, G.N. 2005. Naturally occurring quinones and flavonoid dyes for wool: Insect feeding deterrents. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 98(1): 322-328. Notes: This study investigated the ability of natural dyes to impede the attack of black carpet beetles on wool. The dyes evaluated were naturally occurring quinines (cochineal, madder, and walnut) and flavonoids (chestnut, fustic, indigo, and logwood). All of the dyes, except indigo, were applied by using five mordanting agents (aluminum, chrome, copper, iron, and tin). Mordanting agents were used to bind natural dyes on wool. The insect resistance of the controls and dyed specimens was evaluated, following the fabric weight loss procedures in AATCC Test Method 24. All of the dyes, except indigo, increased the insect resistance of the wool fabric to attack by black carpet beetles. The wool specimens dyed with cochineal and madder, naturally occurring anthraquinone dyes, had the lowest fabric weight loss among eight natural dyes investigated. The flavonoid dyes were not effective in enhancing insect resistance. Alum, copper, and iron have no significant effect on enhancing or reducing insect resistance of any of the eight natural dyes used in this study. However, tin and chrome, when used as a mordant for cochineal, reduced the insect resistance dramatically. Surprisingly, tin improves the insect resistance of wool fabrics dyed with fustic dyes. The anthraquionones, including cochineal, madder, and walnut were found to be quite effective in protecting wool fabric against black carpet beetles. Thus, the naturally occurring mordant dyes provide an alternative to insecticides in protecting wool textiles from insect attack.


Kaneko, S. 2005. Abundances of five parasitoids attacking the scale insect Nipponaclerda biwakoensis on morphologically changed reed shoots due to damage by a stem-boring caterpillar. Ecological Research 20(5): 555-561. Notes: Abundances of the scale insect Nipponaclerda biwakoensis and its five parasitoids per shoot of the common reed, Phragmites australis, were compared between shoots damaged by a stem-boring caterpillar and undamaged shoots. Reed shoots that were damaged by the stem-borer in spring change morphologically during summer, inducing tillers from the nodes beneath the damaged part. The number of female scales per shoot did not differ significantly between damaged and undamaged shoots in the second scale generation (September), but was significantly lower on damaged shoots in the third generation (November). Three parasitoid species attacking the scale exhibited different responses to the shoot damage, with the response by each parasitoid being constant in the two scale generations: the parasitism rate by Aprostocetus sp. per shoot was higher on damaged shoots, whereas that by Astymachus japonicus was lower on damaged shoots, and no difference was detected for Boucekiella depressa. In the third scale generation the parasitism rate by Encyrtidae sp. 1 showed no difference, with respect to shoot damage, whereas that by Encyrtidae sp. 2 was lower on damaged shoots. In three dominant parasitoids, shoot damage had no effect on the number of emerging adults per host, and the sex ratio and body size of the adults. The number of emerging adults per shoot differed significantly between damaged and undamaged shoots for four parasitoids, except B. depressa. These results suggest that shoot damage by the stem-borer exerts a delayed negative impact on the scale numbers and affects the parasitism rate of the scales by three parasitoids and the emerging adult numbers of four parasitoids.


Kaneko, S. 2005a. Seasonal population changes of five parasitoids attacking the scale insect Nipponaclerda biwakoensis on the common reed, with special reference to predation by wintering birds. Entomological Science 8(4): 323-329. Notes: Seasonal changes in the abundance of five species of hymenopterous parasitoids (four species of Encyrtidae and one species of Eulophidae) attacking the scale insect Nipponaclerda biwakoensis on the common reed were investigated for 2 years in Lake Biwa, with special reference to predation by the reed bunting, Emberiza schoeniclus, during winter. The scales settled on reed shoot stems under sheath leaves, passing through three discrete generations per year. The abundance of adult female scales increased exponentially from July (first generation) to December (third generation). Adult female scales of the third generation overwintered on reed shoots. During winter, female scale abundance dramatically declined, whereas the number of predation marks made by reed buntings using their bills on reed sheath leaves increased. The generations of all five parasitoids were synchronized with the host scale generations, and the five parasitoids overwintered as larvae inside the scale bodies. The abundance of parasitized scales and parasitoid adults emerging from the scales also increased from July to December, but greatly decreased during winter. The overall parasitism rate of the female scales remained at relatively low levels (less than 40%) throughout the year, including before and after winter. A bird exclusion experiment revealed that the dramatic winter decrease of the abundance of the scale and its five parasitoids was due to intensive and non-selective predation by the buntings on unparasitized and parasitized scales. Additionally, the proportion of immature parasitoids removed by birds varied between the five parasitoid species. Thus, seasonal population changes of the five scale parasitoids are considerably affected by bird predation on overwintering immature parasitoids.


Karapanagiotis, I. & Chryssoulakis, Y. 2006. Investigation of red natural dyes used in historical objects by HPLC-DAD-MS. Annali di Chimica 96(1-2): 75-84. Notes: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis Diode Array Detection (DAD) and electrospray mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) method was utilized for the identification of coloring components of madder, Armenian and Mexican cochineal, lac dye, brazilwood, safflower and dragon blood - probably the most important red natural dyestuffs found in objects of the Cultural heritage. UV-Vis detection limits in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng for carminic acid, alizarin and purpurin were achieved using a gradient elution of H2O-0-01%TFA and CH3CN-0.01%TFA. ESI mass spectrometer was also used, as a supportive detection method to the standard DAD, for further analysis of the tested materials, with the ability to analyze dyestuffs as small as one milligram. The presence of madder was revealed in two historical (Hellenistic and Roman period) samples, found in the Mediterranean area, by identifying purpurin in both of them. Munjistin was also identified in one of the     samples (Hellenistic period) while alizarin was not detected, raising questions regarding the exact madder type, utilized in the historical samples.


Kaydan, M.B., Kilincer, N. & Kozar, F. 2005. Studies on Pseudococcidae (Hemiptera Coccoidea) fauna of urban ecosystem of Ankara Province, Turkey. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) 37(2): 85-95. Notes: Ornamental, greenhouse and wild plants were surveyed between 2001 and 2004 in a study of the pseudococcid fauna of the urban areas of the province of Ankara, Turkey. In this study 52 species belonging to 19 genera of the family Pseudococcidae were identified. Atrococcus ater Goux, A. parvulus (Borchsenius), Coccidohystrix artemisiae (Kiritchenko), Heliococcus sulci Goux, Heterococcopsis opertus Borchsenius, H. nudus (Green), H. tritici (Kiritchenko), Longicoccus affinis (Ter-Grigorian), Longicoccus clarus (Borchsenius), L. festucae (Koteja), L. longiventris (Borchsenius), L. psammophilus (Koteja), Mirococcopsis elongatus Borchsenius, M. stipae Borchsenius, Neotrionymus monstatus Borchsenius, Peliococcopsis priesneri (Laing), Peliococcus salviae Hadzibejli, P. tritubulatus (Kiritchenko), Phenacoccus ferulae Borchsenius, P. interruptus Green, P. loiki Danzig, P. phenacoccoides (Kiritchenko), P. transcaucasicus Hadzibejli, Puto palinuri Marotta & Tranfaglia, Rhizoecus periolanus (Goux) and Spilococcus mammillariae (Bouche) are new records for the Turkish pseudococcid fauna.


Kaydan, M.B., Kilincer, N. & Kozar, F. 2005a. New records of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from Turkey. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 40(3/4): 397-402. Notes: A survey of scale insects was carried out in Ankara, in Middle Anatolia, Turkey from 2001 to 2003. Twenty-three species belonging to five families were recorded. Some of these species are new records for Turkey, namely; Exaeretopus agropyri, E. formiceticola, E. tritici Williams, Chortinaspis subterraneus, Diaspidiotus elaeagni , Diaspidiotus sulci, Rhizaspidiotus canariensis, Acanthococcus devoneinsis, Acanthococcus tavignani, Acanthococcus variabilis, Neomargarodes festucae and Porphyrophora minuta.


Kaydan, M.B., Kilincer, N., Uygun, N., Japoshvilli, G. & Gaimari, S. 2006. Parasitoids and predators of Pseudococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in Ankara, Turkey. Phytoparasitica 34(4): 331-337. Notes: Natural enemies of mealybugs were surveyed in Ankara, Turkey, during the years 2001 to 2003. Twenty-three predatory species belonging to the insect orders Coleoptera (Coccinellidae, 17), Diptera (Chamaemyiidae, 3) and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae, 2; Hemerobiidae, 1); and 22 parasitoid species belonging to Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae, 2; Encyrtidae, 14; Platygasteridae, 1; Pteromalidae, 3; Signiphoridae, 2) were determined. The following ten species are newly recorded for the Turkish fauna: Sidis biguttatus Motchulsky, Nephus sinuatomaculatus Sahlberg (Coccinellidae), Leucopomyia alticeps Czerny, Parochthiphila (Euestelia) decipia Tanasijtshuk (Chamaemyiidae), Leptomastidea matritensis Mercet, Prochiloneurus bolivari Mercet, Rhopus sp. nr. acaetes (Walker), Stematosteres sp., Eunotus acutus Kurdjumov, and Chartocerus kurdjumovi (Nikol'skaya) (Chalcidoidea).


Khosla, S., Mendiratta, G. & Brahmachari, V. 2006. Genomic imprinting in the mealybugs. Cytogenetic and Genome Genetics 113(1/4): 41-52. Notes: The coccid insects (Hemiptera; Sternorrhyncha; Aphidiformes; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae) are well suited to study not only the mechanisms of genomic imprinting but also facultative heterochromatization, a phenomenon well exemplified by inactivation of the X chromosome in female mammals. Coccids show sex-specific heterochromatization of an entire set of chromosomes and transcriptional silencing of all the paternally contributed chromosomes in males. Thus, genomic imprinting and the resultant differential regulation operate on 50% of the genome in contrast to the single X chromosome in female mammals. A significant insight into the phenomenon of genomic imprinting has come from very elegant cytological analysis of the coccid system. Recently, efforts have been made to dissect out at the molecular level the phenomenon of genomic imprinting in these insects. The present review summarizes both of these aspects. In light of the accruing experimental evidence for chromatin-based differences in the maternal and paternal genomes, it appears that the mealybug system may provide evidence for stable maintenance of chromatin code not only through mitosis but also through meiosis.


Kim, D.S. 2005. Oviposition time of overwintered females and migration of crawlers of Pseudaulacaspis prunicola (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on cherry trees in Jeju Island. (In Korean with summary in English.) Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 44(3): 231-235. Notes: This study was conducted to obtain the optimal spray time for Pseudaulacaspis prunicola (Maskell) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in early season in Jeju. Oviposition time of overwintered females and activity of hatched nymphs of P. prunicola were monitored, and the Oenology data were compared with the outputs estimated by a degree-days model of P. pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti)). Overwintered females of P. prunicola began to lay eggs from mid to late April, and the eggs started to hatch from early May followed by the active migration of the hatched nymphs during mid May. The Oenological events of P. prunicola in early season were likely comparable with those of P. pentagona reported in southern Korea and in central Japan. A degree-day model, which predicts the proportion of >50% hatched egg batches of P. pentagona (y=1/ (exp(-(-a+bx))); y, proportion; x, degree-days based on 10.5[degree]C from 1 January; a=-18.80 and b=0.073), accurately described the migration time of P. prunicola hatched nymphs. Thus, it is considered that the degree-day model can be used for predicting the optimal spray time for P. prunicola in early season.


Kishimoto-Yamada, K., Itioka, T. & Kawai, S. 2005. Biological characterization of the obligate symbiosis between Acropyga sauteri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eumyrmococcus smithii Silvestri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Rhizoecinae) on Okinawa Island, southern Japan. Journal of Natural History 39(40): 3501-3524. Notes: The ant Acropyga sauteri Forel has an obligate, mutualistic symbiosis with a mealybug, Eumyrmococcus smithii Silvestri, on Okinawa Island, southern Japan. The mealybugs live inside ant nests nearly all their lives, and the ants depend on them for food. Alate foundress queens carry mealybugs during their nuptial flights, using them to establish new colonies at new sites. However, important aspects of the symbiosis have not yet been elucidated. The present study characterizes the basic biology of the symbiosis and describes for the first time the morphologies of all growth stages of E. smithii. Our study suggests that E. smithii has only one nymphal stage, followed by a female pupal stage or male prepupal stage. Intensive sampling of ant nests across seasons showed that A. sauteri prefers nest sites 5-20 cm underground. Acropyga sauteri produced reproductive stages mainly in mid-March or early April, and numbers of both ant workers and mealybugs increased from spring to summer. Experimental determination of colony identity with a method using nestmate recognition by ants suggested that each ant colony rarely has a perimeter greater than 30 cm, that the ants are monogynous, and that different ant colonies are densely aggregated along the root system of a plant, adjacent to each other but not interflowing. Both symbiotic partners were vulnerable to attacks by several common subaerial ant species following physical disturbance to their nests.


Klaewklad, A. & Suasa-ard, W. 2005. Biology of Anagyrus dactylopii (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), as the important parasite of the spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Pages 156-162 in Proceedings of 43rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Thailand, 1-4 February, 2005. Subject: Plants. Bangkok: Kasetsart University.  Notes: Anagyrus dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasite of the spherical mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting citrus. A study on the biology of A. dactylopii revealed that the incubation period was 1.20+/-0.42 days. The larval stage consists of three instars. A pre-pupal stage was also present. The mean durations of the three instar larvae, pre-pupa, pupa, adult male and adult female were 1.65+/-0.49, 1.85+/-0.37, 2.20+/-0.41, 1.85+/-0.37, 4.75+/-0.44, 14.12+/-3.87 and 22.72+/-5.10 days, respectively. Development from egg to adults was approximately 9-16 days. An investigation on the efficiency of A. dactylopii for the parasitization of various stages of N. viridis revealed that the percent parasitization increased when the nymph stage of the mealybug augmented. Further study on the population of the parasite and its host in the field revealed the occurrence of the population of A. dactylopii depending on the population of the spherical mealybug. The highest parasitization was 54.30% in April 2003 and the mean parasitization all over the year at Amphoe U-Thong, Thailand was 33.72%.


Koehler, G. & Eisenschmidt, J. 2006. [Scale insects (Insecta: Coccina) in Thuringia/Germany - faunistic introduction into a forgotten insect group.] Schildlaeuse (Insecta: Coccina) in Thueringen - faunistische Einfuehrung in eine vergessene Insektengruppe. (In German with summary in English.) Thueringer Faunistische Abhandlungen 10: 155-171. Notes: The faunistic knowledge about scale insects (Coccina) in Thuringia/Germany and their host-plants in the wild is summarized from 16 coccidological papers and about 160 samples. During the 20th century altogether 48 species in 8 families were found. The sampling localities concentrate around Jena and Eisenberg (Eastern Thuringia). Further data are available from the Kyffhaeuser and Southern Harz mountains and from the surroundings of Gotha. The rest of the country is not investigated. A simple graphic determination key to widely distributed and common species is given.


Köhler, G.J. & Eisenschmidt, J.C. 2005. [Scale insects (Insecta: Coccina) in Thuringia/Germany - faunistic introduction into a forgotten insect group.]. (In German with summary in English.) Thüringer Faunistische Aghandlungen 155-171. Notes: [Original title: Schildläuse (Insecta: Coccina) in Thüringen - faunistische Einführung in eine vergessene Insektengruppe.] The faunistic knowledge about scale insects (Coccina) in Thuringia/Germany and their host-plants in the wild is summarized from 16 coccidological papers and about 160 samples. During the 20th century altogether 48 species in 8 families were found. The sampling localities concentrate around Jena and Eisenberg (Eastern Thuringia). Further data are available from the Kyfthäuser and southern Harz mountains and from the surroundings of Gotha. The rest of the country is not investigated. A simple graphic determination key to widely distributed and common species is given. Parthenolecanium corni is among the species discussed.


Kondo, T. 2006. A new African soft scale genus, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), erected for two species, including the citrus pest P. andersoni (Newstead) comb. nov. Journal of Insect Science Vol. 6. Notes: [electronic resource: http://www.insectscience.org/6.01/]


Kondo, T., Hardy, N., Cook, L. & Gullan, P. 2006. Description of two new genera and species of Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from southern South America. (In English with summary in Spanish.) Zootaxa 1349: 19-36. Notes: Two new genera of Eriococcidae, Intecticoccus Kondo and Orafortis Hardy, each with a new species (I. viridis Kondo and O. luna Hardy), are described and illustrated based on the adult females. I. viridis was collected on Nothofagus antarctica (Nothofagaceae) in Argentina and Chile, and O. luna was collected in Chile on Amomyrtus luna (Myrtaceae). Based on a phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA (18S) sequence data, I. viridis and O. luna are placed within the Gondwanan group of eriococcids (Sensu Cook & Gullan 2004), which also includes other Nothofagus-feeding genera such as Chilechiton Hodgson & Miller, Chilecoccus Miller & Gonzalez and Madarococcus Hoy. Major genera within the Gondwanan goup that feed on other plant groups include Lachnodius Maskell, Opisthoscelis Schrader and some species currently assigned to Eriococcus Targioni Tozzetti. We consider that I. viridis and O. luna are each sufficiently distinct from other named taxa to warrant erection of two new genera. DNA data do not support a relationship of Chilechiton with the New Zealand genus Eriochiton Maskell. A revised taxonomic key to the adult female of Eriococcidae known from Chile is provided.


Kondo, T., Williams, M.L. & Gullan, P.J. 2005b. Redescription of Octolecanium perconvexum (Cockerell new genus and new combination, with description of a new species from Guatemala (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). (In English with summary in Spanish.) TIP Revista Especializada en Ciencias Quimico-Biologicas 8(1): 11-17. Notes: Neolecanium perconvexum (Cockerell) is transferred to the new genus Octolecanium Kondo. The adult female and first-instar nymph are redescribed and described respectively. A new species, O. guatemalensis Kondo is also described based on the adult female. A key to separate the two species is given.


Koteja, J. & Poinar, G.O. 2005. Scale insects (Coccinea) associated with mites (Acari) in the fossil record. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 74(3): 287-298. Notes: Thirteen scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccinea) were associated with mites (Acari) in some 1900 examined inclusions from Lebanese amber (Lower Cretaceous), New Jersey and Taymyrian amber (Tipper Cretaceous), Baltic and Bitterfeld amber (Tertiary, Eocene). The parasitized scale insects belonged to 6 families: Ortheziidae, ?Steingeliidae, Electrococcidae, Kuwaniidae, Pityococcidae and Inkaidae; all but the latter are archeococcids. The frequency of this association was particularly high in species of Pityococcidae; within 64 examined specimens, 8 were associated with mites. The parasites were associated with crawlers, larvae, adult females and males. From one to five mites were attached to a single coccid. In some cases, it was difficult to determine if the association represented phoresy or parasitism however in many associations the mouthparts of the mites were still attached to the host. It is suggested that mites played a major role in controlling scale insect populations during the Cretaceous.


Kozar, F. 2005. Ferenc, K. (Ed.), [Distribution maps of scale insect species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in Hungary.] Pajzstetu fajok lelohelyei magyarorszagon. Budapest: Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Novenyvedelmi Kutatointezete. 136 pp. Notes: The species list of scale insects collected from 1968 until 2003 in Hungary is presented. In the field, in indoor conditions, and on imported fruits, 190, 33 and 12 species were found, respectively. In total, 194 species are presented on 209 maps of distribution. From the field and greenhouses, 187 and 7 pest species are shown, respectively. Seven species appeared to be new records for the Hungarian fauna (Acanthococcus cantium, Acanthococcus thymi, Ortheziola britannica, Peliococcus chersonensis, Phenacoccus persimplex, Pseudococcus microadonidum and Rhizococcus cistacearum). In the case of four earlier published species (Carulaspis visci, Chionaspis austriaca, Phenacoccus mespili and Phyllostroma myrtilli), voucher specimens were not found, although their presence is questionable but probable.


Kozár, F. & Konczné Benedicty, Z. 2005. A new genus and species from Rhizoecinae (Homoptera Coccoidea Pseudococcidae), with a phylogeny and key for the genera. (In English with summary in Italian.) Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Milano) Ser. II, 37(3): 141-150. Notes: A new genus and species, Kissrhizoecus hungaricus gen. et sp. nova, is described from the subfamily Rhizoecinae. A review, phylogeny and a key for genera are given for the subfamily. With this new description the number of genera in the subfamily Rhizoecinae increased to 16, and to 13 in the tribe Rhizoecini. The subfamily Rhizoecinae now contains 210, in the tribe Rhizoecini. The subfamily Rhizoecinae now contains 210, and the tribe Rhizoecini 186 species. Two main lines known in the subfamily, the tribes of Rhizoecini and Xenococcini. In the tribe Rhizoecini based on morphological and zoogeographical data two phylogenetic lines presented. A new generic name Hambletonrhizoecus is proposed instead on Hambletonia Kozar & Foldi, 2004.


Kreiter, P., Delvare, G., Giuge, L.. Thaon, M. & Viaut, M. 2005. [First inventory of the natural enemies of Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae).] Inventaire preliminaire des ennemis naturels de Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae). (In French.) Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 110(2): 161-164. Notes: As part of a biological control program, a first inventory of the natural enemies of Pseudococcus viburni has been carried out in apple orchards and in a strawberry greenhouse. A parasitoid Pseudaphycus flavidulus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae), coming from Argentine and Chile has been collected in apple orchards.


Kreiter, P. & Germain, J.F. 2005. [Pseudococcus comstocki, new species for France and Aonidella citrina, new to Corsica (Hem., Pseudococcidae and Diaspidae).] Pseudococcus comstocki, espece nouvelle pour la France et Aonidiella citrina, nouvelle pour la Corse.]. (In French.) Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 110(2): 132.


Kreiter, P., Thaon, M., Dijoux, L. & Ciuge, L. 2006. [Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, peach trees and pheromonal scale trap.] La cochenille blanche du murier sur pecher: Fruits et legumes. (In French with summary in English.) Phytoma 590: 28-31. Notes: Experiments on chemical treatments against Pseudaulacaspis pentagona are discussed.


Kreiter, P., Tormin, P., Thaon, M. & Artis, I. 2006. [Biological control of pink hibiscus mealybug : What about ladybirds.] Lutte biologique contre la cochenille rose de l'hibiscus en Guadeloupe: Vegetaux du soleil. (In French with summary in English.) Phytoma 595: 16-19. Notes: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is discussed with its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.


Krull, S.M.E. & Basedow, T. 2005. Evaluation of the biological control of the pink wax scale Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hom., Coccidae) with the introduced parasitoid Anicetus beneficus Ishii & Yasumatsu (Hym., Encyrtidae) in the Central province of Papua New Guinea. Journal of Applied Entomology 129(6): 323-329. Notes: In order to evaluate the possibility of classical biological control of the pink wax scale Ceroplastes rubens (Hom., Coccidae) with the parasitoid Anicetus beneficus (Hym., Encyrtidae), endemic parasitoids were collected (2000/2001) in three provinces in Papua New Guinea and parasitization levels were determined. Eight hymenopteran parasitoid species were identified: Aprostocetus sp. (Eulophidae), Coccophagus sp. (Aphelenidae), five Encyrtidae: Cheiloneurus sp., Coccidocnotus sp., Diversinervus sp., Metaphycus sp., Microterys sp. and Moranila sp. (Pteromalidae). Levels of parasitization were low, varying between 1.4 and 2.8%. A. beneficus was imported from Australia and 1100 specimens were released in spring 2002 at two locations with mango infested by C. rubens (Laloki and Tahira) in the Central Province. A. beneficus did establish at both sites. Six months after release, parasitization levels of C. rubens had increased from 2.8 to 5.9% (P=0.05) at Laloki and from 1.8 to 22.2% (P=0.01) at Tahira, with A. beneficus being the most frequent parasitoid (69% of all parasitoids). Workers of the ant genus Tapinoma (Dolichoderinae) were frequently collected from infested trees at Laloki, but were not present at Tahira. It is assumed that their presence is at least partly responsible for the lower degree of parasitization and number of A. beneficus at this site. The necessity of further studies is stressed.


Kumar, C.M.S. & Regupathy, A. 2006. Stem application of neonicotinoids to suppress Coccus viridis (Green) population in coffee plantations. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences 14(1): 73-75. Notes: Two field trials were carried out during August 2002 and March 2003 at 2 locations in Yercaud, Tamil Nadu, India, to assess the efficacy of application of neonicotinoids on the auxillary branches (first experiment) and main stem (second experiment) of coffee (Coffea arabica) plants against Coccus viridis. The treatments comprised thiamethoxam 25 WG at 0.025 and 0.050 g/plant, imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 0.025 g/plant, imidacloprid 80 SL at 0.050 g/plant, dimethoate 30 EC at 0.300 g/plant, and an untreated control. In both trials, imidacloprid and dimethoate were included as the standard controls. The application of thiamethoxam at 0.05 g/plant on the auxillary branches was very effective in suppressing the population of Coccus viridis, causing 93.1% reduction. The application of insecticides on the main stem was less effective. Thiamethoxam at 0.025 g/plant was comparable with imidacloprid (0.050 g/plant) and dimethoate (0.300 g/plant).


Kuno, N. & Mizutani, T. 2005. Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A. 68(16): 1431-1444. Notes: Synthetic or natural food dyes are typical xenobiotics, as are drugs and pollutants. After ingestion, part of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. However, there is little information regarding the metabolism of these dyes. It was investigated whether these dyes are substrates for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). The in vitro inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by these dyes was also examined. The synthetic food dyes studied were amaranth (food red no. 2), erythrosine B (food red no. 3), allura red (food red no. 40), new coccine (food red no. 102), acid red (food red no. 106), tartrazine (food Yellow no. 4), sunset yellow FCF (food yellow no. 5), brilliant blue FCF (food blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (food blue no. 2). The natural additive dyes studied were extracts from cochineal and other substances.


Kwon, G.M., Han, M.J. & Choi, D.R. 2005. Scale insects (Sternorrhyncha) occurring on flowering plants in Korea. (In Korean with summary in English.) Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 44(1): 51-59. Notes: A total of 45 scale insects belonging to 29 genera of five families were recognized on 15 kind of flowering plants on the basis of specimens collected in 2003 and specimens deposited in the Insect Collection of NIAST in Korea. Three species were recognized on Korean forsythia, four on chrysanthemum, 15 on common camellia, seven on kobus magnolia, three on rose of sharon, one on Indian lilac, six on rose, seven on rhododendrons, two on bamboo palm, three on benjamin tree, 12 on evergreen euonymus, five on Japanese yew, two on corn plant, six on orchids and two on cacti. Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) and Pseudaonidia paeoniae (Cockerell) on common camellia and Pulvinaria citricalar Kuwana on rose of sharon are reported for the first time from the Korean Peninsula.


LaPolla, J.S. 2005. Ancient trophophoresy: a fossil Acropyga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Dominican amber. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 131(1-2): 21-28. Notes: The discovery of several pieces of Dominican amber with Acropyga inclusions provides evidence that the trophophoretic behavior of Acropyga queens is at least 15-20 million years old. A fossil species, A. glaesaria, is described and its relationship to extant Acropyga is discussed. Scale species include Electromyrmococcus abductus, E. inclusus and E. reginae.


Labanowski, G. 2006. [Paraffin oil for the control of pests of ornamental crops.] Olej parafinowy do zwalczania szkodnikow roslin ozdobnych. (In Polish.) Ochrona Roslin 51(2): 24-27. Notes: Paraffin oil acts as an insecticide or as an adjuvant in pesticide preparations. This article examines the properties of paraffin oil (and mineral oils in general) in terms of density, adhesion and mechanism of activity. Results are presented of tests carried out since 1998 at Skierniewice, Poland, on the effectiveness of paraffin oil-based insecticidal products for the control of pests on ornamental shrubs and trees, including conifers, under garden and commercial conditions. The products tested included Floril 019 AL, Promanal 012 AL, Promanal 60 EC, Treol 770 EC and Paroil 95 EC. This last was particularly effective against Panonychus ulmi, Oligonychus ununguis, Schizotetranychus schizopus, Adelges laricis, Carulaspis juniperi and over-wintering larvae of Physokermes piceae.


Lapola, D.M., Bruna, E.M., Granara de Willink, C. & Vasconcelos, H.L. 2005. Ant-tended Hemiptera in Amazonian myrmecophytes: Patterns of abundance and implications for mutualism function (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 46(2): 433-442. Notes: We assessed how the abundance of ant-tended Hemiptera associated with two Amazonian myrmecophytes, Tococa bullifera and Maieta guianensis, varied as a function of resident ant species. We collected five species or morpho-species of adult Hemiptera in the domatia of M. guianensis, with four of these species also found in Tococa bullifera. Maieta guianensis plants inhabited by Crematogaster laevis had over four-fold more Hemiptera in them than plants inhabited by Pheidole minutula. In contrast, the density of Hemiptera in Tococa bullifera domatia was independent of the species of ant resident. For each of the two ant species inhabiting Maieta guianensis, there was a positive and significant relationship between the abundance of Hemiptera and workers inhabiting a plant. This relationship was also significant and positive for the Tococa bullifera plants inhabited by C. laevis. However, there was no relationship between Azteca worker and hemipteran density, although there was a trend towards a positive relationship. Our results indicate that hemipteran abundance can vary significantly between different myrmecophyte species, but that the nature of this relationship is mediated by the identity of the ant associate. Because hemipterans are herbivores, the costs and benefits of different ant partners to the host plant may vary in ways that are often overlooked. Coccus hesperidum, C. viridis, Dysmicoccus sp. and Nipaecoccus sp. are the species discussed.


Lapolla, J.S., Schultz, T.R., Kjer, K.M. & Bischoff, J.F. 2006. Phylogenetic position of the ant genus Acropyga Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the evolution of trophophoresy. Insect Systematics & Evolution 37(2): 197-212. Notes: Trophophoresy is exhibited in two ant genera: Acropyga (Formicinae), in which all 37 species are thought to be trophophoretic, and Tetraponera (Pseudomyrmecinae), in which it has been observed in only one species, T. binghami. This study analyses a dataset comprised of both morphological and molecular (D2 region of 28S rRNA and EF1-alpha) data. Evidence is presented in favor of Acropyga being monophyletic, hence trophophoresy has evolved only once within the Formicinae and twice within the ants overall. The data further suggests that Acropyga belongs within a clade containing Anoplolepis, Aphomomyrmex, and Petalomyrmex. Aphomomyrmex and Petalomyrmex were found to be the sister group to Acropyga. The results indicate that the Lasimi and Plagiolepidini are not monophyletic and are in need of reexamination. Given the extant pantropical distribution of Acropyga it is speculated that Acropyga maybe of Gondwanan origin and that trophobiosis was the first form of agriculture to evolve in the ants. Pseudococcidae (Coccoidea) identified as hosts.


Lattin, J.D. 2006. Elatophilus oculatus (Drake and Harris) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) attracted to pheromone of Matsucoccus Cockerell (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Matsucoccidae) in Arizona. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 108(2): 476-477.


Leonidze, N. 2005. Japanese wax pseudoscales (Ceroplastes japonicus Green) on decorative plants in Ajara. (In English with summary in Georgian.) Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences 172(3): 550-551. Notes: Results are presented of the study of Ceroplastes japonicus Green recorded on decorative plants the bin Ajara. Ceroplastes japonicus Green is an adventive species first revealed in 1933 in Sukhumi. Nowadays Ceroplastes japonicus Green is widely distributed in the region of the Black Sea coast of Ajara. Different species of entomophages have also been found, such as Chilocorus bijugus sp., Infermalis muels, Chilocorus renipustulatus Scriba, Chilocorus bipustulatus, Scutellista cyanea Motsch. and Microteris clauseni Comp., which regulate populations of Ceroplastes japonicus Green on decorative plants in Ajara.


Lepidosaphes ussuriensis. 2005. Bulletin OEPP 35(3): 429-430. Notes: Information is given on the taxonomy, hosts, geographical distribution and biology of the quarantine pest, Lepidosaphes ussuriensis. Detection and identification of this pest are described on the basis of its symptoms on host plants as well as the morphology of its various developmental stages. Pathways for pest movement, pest significance (economic impact and phytosanitary risk) and strategies for pest control are also discussed.


Liang, A.P. 2005. [A proposal to stop using the insect order name "Homoptera".]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 42(3): 332-337. Notes: The advent of cladistics and its wide use has greatly improved our knowledge of many higher taxa in biota and many artificial (non-monophyletic) taxa. The insect order Homoptera is one of those non-monophyletic groups recognized in recent years. More and more morphological and molecular evidence has indicated that the traditional Homoptera is not a natural group but is a paraphyletic relative of Hemiptera. However, many Chinese entomologists are not aware of this development and the order name Homoptera, together with its concept is still widely used in many Chinese entomological literatures such as textbooks, faunal work, taxonomic monographs, dissertations and various scientific papers. The present author, then, makes this appeal to the Chinese entomologists, proposing to stop the use of the insect order name Homoptera and to use the monophyletic ordinal name Hemiptera to include the true bugs and what were previously known as the homopterans, including the psyllids (Psylloidea), whiteflies (Aleyrodoidea), aphids (Aphidoidea), scale insects (Coccoidea), cicadas (Cicadoidea), spittlebugs or froghoppers (Cercopoidea), leafhoppers (Membracoidea), treehoppers (Membracoidea) and planthoppers (Fulgoroidea).


Liang, Y.Q., Gao, B.Z., Zhen, Z.X., Wang, J.Z., Liu, Z.Q. & Niu, J.Z. 2006. [Insect community and its relationship with Ceroplastes japonicus occurrence in jujube orchards.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao 17(3): 472-476. Notes: Employing community character indices and canonical correlation analysis, this paper studied the insect community structure and its relationship with the occurrence degree of Ceroplastes japonicus in jujube orchards. The results showed that based on the community discrepancy coefficient of 0.20, the insect community in various sampling fields could be categorized into two groups, i.e., plain and hill. The occurrence of C. japonicus in the plains was more numerous, with lower insect community diversity, smaller species number, and a higher dominance of phytophagous insects, while that in the hills was less numerous, with more likely insect community diversity, more abundant species, and a higher dominance of natural enemy insects. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that at the significant level of 0.05, the first and second pairs of canonical correlation coefficients of C. japonicus occurrence characters and insect community characters were 0.9904 and 0.8538, respectively, suggesting that the occurrence of C. japonicus was significantly correlated with the characters of insect community. Community diversity (with the coefficient of 3.4893), species number (with the coefficient of 5.8060), and dominance (with the coefficient of 6.9353) have the most important effects on the occurrence of C. japonicus.


Liu, Z.H., Li, G.T., Wu Z.T., Yu Y.D., Liu, S.T. & Zhu K.K. 2006. Study on the utilization of cochineal insects. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Economic Animal 10(1): 56-59. Notes: The bioecology and manual rearing of cochineal insects (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae), and the processing and commercialization of red pigments obtained from these insects are briefly covered. Prospects for the industry in China are described.


Lopholeucaspis japonica Field 2005. Bulletin OEPP 35(2): 345-347. Notes: Field identification and important characters are provided.


Maconellicoccus hirsutus. 2005. Bulletin OEPP 35(3): 413-415.


Malumphy, C. 2005a. First record of the Afrotropical scale insect, Trijuba oculata (Brain) (Hem., Coccidae), from Asia. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 141(1697): 211.


Mansilla, A.A. Hernandez & Gutierrez, J. Sanchez 2005. [Comparison of Aschersonia aleyrodids Webber populations on different species of coccoidias.] Comparación de poblaciones de Aschersonia aleyrodids (Webber) en diferentes especies de coccoideos. (In Spanish with summary in English.) Fitosanidad 9(2): 33-37. Notes: In order to improve pest management on citrus (Citrus sinensis L), research was undertaken at Ceballo Citric Enterpise, in the province of Ciego de Avila in Cuba from Feb/2003 to Feb/2004, on Valencia orange, to study two Aschersonia aleyrodids Webber populations, one of orange color conidiomas (Pn) and another of white (Pb), on Paralatoria ziziphi L., Lepidosaphes beckii N. and Lepidosaphes gloverii P., which are important citrus pests. To determine coccoideos population levels and to count parasitized hosts decennial samplings were made. The rate of parasitism was also calculated, as well as the distribution and dynamics in each population. Populations were characterized for presenting greater increases from September to February. Pn-P. ziziphi; Pb-P. ziziphi, Pb-L. gloverii and Pb-L. beckii showed similarities among them, but they were significatively different from Pn-L. beckii and Pn-L. gloverii. Orange population infested 47.7% of P. ziziphi, 0.35% of L. beckii and 0.9% of L. gloverii, whereas the white population over-parasited 61, 0.85 and 1.4% of the same species respectively. The species of coccoidias showed greater hyperparasitism of P. ziziphi, with significant differences compared to L. beckii and L. gloverii.


Martinez Hervas, M.A., Soto, A. & Garcia-Mari, F. 2006. Survey of resistance of the citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera: Diaspididae) to chlorpyrifos in Spanish citrus orchards. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 255-257. Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) is an important pest of citrus orchards in Spain. It causes cosmetic damage to the fruit resulting in downgrading in the packinghouses. Several populations of A. aurantii in citrus orchards from Valencia were tested for resistance to the insecticide chlorpyrifos during 2003-2004. All tests were made by bioassays. Fruits infested with first immature stages were dipped for 10 seconds in different concentrations of the chemical between 50 and 20,000 ppm of active ingredient. Mortalities were assessed after 15 days, considering dead those insects that had not developed to the second stage. The estimated CL SUB 50 was used in order to compare the values of susceptibility. The results showed important differences between orchards. Susceptibility was usually correlated with the history of previous treatments made in the plot, with greater degree of resistance in orchards with more previous applications. Some plots showed a high degree of chlorpyrifos resistance, with CL SUB 50 values 250 times higher than those found in the most susceptible plots.


Matile-Ferrero, D. & Williams, D.J. 2006. Description of a new species of Micrococcus Leonardi from Spain (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Micrococcidae). (In English with summary in French.) Revue Française d'Entomologie 28(3): 125-128. Notes: A new species, Micrococcus baeticae, in the family Micrococcidae, is described from the south of Spain.


Matile-Ferrero, D., Williams, D.J & Etienne, J. 2006. The identity of two scale insects described by Alfred Giard in 1897 from Guadeloupe on the roots of coffee (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). (In English with summary in French.) Revue Française d'Entomologie 28(2): 69-70. Notes: The identities of two scale species are established: Ortheziola reynei and Rhizoecus arabicus.


Mauchline, N.A. & Hill, M.G. 2005. Settlement of armoured scale insects on fruit of commercial Actinidia spp. New Zealand Plant Protection 58: 294-298. Notes: [Also, HortResearch, 412 No 1; Proceedings of a conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 9-11 August 2005.] The proportion of greedy (Hemiberlesia rapax) and latania (H. lataniae) scale insect crawlers (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) that settled on fruit of commercial kiwifruit cultivars Actinidia arguta cv. K2D4, A. chinensis cv. Hort16A and A. deliciosa cv. Hayward was quantified at intervals from 20% to 100% final fruit size. In all three cultivars, the proportion of settled crawlers increased as the fruit matured. The settlement of greedy scale was greater than latania on Hort16A fruit, with minimal differences between scale species on other cultivars. Comparisons of scale settlement with scale phenology found fruit of K2D4 was vulnerable to settlement from the first summer generation, with second-generation scale mainly infesting Hayward fruit. Hort16A fruit can be infested by both generations. Implications of these findings for the pest status of scale insects, and customisation of the industry pest-monitoring system (KiwiGreen(R)) for new varieties, are discussed.


McKey, D., Gaume, L., Brouat, C., Di Giusto, B., Pascal, L., Debout, G., Dalecky, A. & Heil, M. 2005. The trophic structure of tropical ant-plant-herbivore interactions: community consequences and coevolutionary dynamics. Pages 386-413 in Burslem, D., Pinard, M. & Hartley, S. (Eds.), Biotic interactions in the Tropics: their role in the maintenance of species diversity. [Ecological Reviews.]. Cambridge, New York, etc.: Cambridge University Press. 564 pp. Notes: Houardia and Paraputo spp. mentioned.


Meng, L. & Li, B.P. 2006. Guild structure and species diversity of insects in saltcedar woodlands in Xinjiang, West China. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Shengtaixue Zazhi 25(2): 189-193. Notes: In this paper, the insects and mites in two different sized saltcedar woodlands in Fukang (larger size) and Hutubi (smaller size) in the northern Xinjiang of West China were surveyed over the season. There were approximately 100 species in 50 families and 11 orders. According to the trophic level and feeding mode, seven guilds were established, i.e., predator, parasitoid, strip-feeder, sap-sucker, gall-maker, flower-and seed feeder, and tourist. The species richness in Fukang was higher than that in Hutubi (81 to 71), with 53 species shared by both sites, but species proportion in each guild was similar at both sites. Predators, strip-feeders and sap-suckers contained more species, with each accounting for 1.15 of total species. Sap-suckers and gall-makers were most abundant, followed by strip-feeders. Most abundant species were Adiscodiapis tamariciocola (Diaspididae), Aceria tamaricis (Eriophyidae, Acarina), and Psectrocema barbatum (Cecidomyidae), whose numbers accounted for > 25% of total individuals for each species, followed by Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Chrysomelidae), Coniatus steveni (Curculionidae) and Ornitholvolva heluanensis (Gelechiidae), whose numbers accounted for 5[approximately]10% of total individuals for each species. The Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices of insect communities were greater in Fukang woodland than those in Hutubi woodland during early and mid seasons, but less than those in Hutubi woodland during the later season. The Berger-Parker dominance index of insect community in Fukang was smaller than that in Hutubi.


Millar, J.G., Midland, S.L., McElfresh, J.S. & Daane, K.M. 2005. (2,3,4,4-Tetramethylcyclopentyl)methyl acetate, a sex pheromone from the obscure mealybug: First example of a new structural class of monoterpenes. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31(12): 2999-3005. Notes: The sex pheromone of the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, consists of (1R*,2R*,3S*)-(2,3,4,4-tetramethylcyclopentyl)meth yl acetate, the first example of a new monoterpenoid structural motif in which the two isoprene units forming the carbon skeleton are joined by 2'-2 and 3'-4 connections rather than the usual 1'-4, head-to-tail connections. This highly irregular terpenoid structure, and the irregular terpenoid structures of related mealybug species, suggest that these insects may have unique terpenoid biosynthetic pathways.


Miller, D.R. 2005. Selected scale insect groups (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the southern region of the United States. (In English with summary in Spanish.) Florida Entomologist 88(4): 482-501. Notes: This publication includes general discussions on the Conchaspididae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Ortheziidae, Pseudococcidae, and Putoidae. Keys are presented for genera in the families Eriococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Pseudococcidae. Material for each family include introduction, field appearance, diagnosis, life history, important references, illustration of a slide-mounted adult female, and a checklist of the species occurring in the Southern Region of the United States and their distribution by state.


Miller, D.R. & Davidson, J.A. 2005. Armored Scale Insect Pests of Trees and Shrubs Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. 442 pp. Notes: Armored scale insects are among the most damaging and least understood of the pests that prey on forest trees, fruit and nut crops, landscape ornamentals, and greenhouse plants. The passage of U.S. plant quarantine laws was prompted by devastation caused by an armored scale in the nineteenth century, and the appearance of new invasive species remains a vital concern at ports of entry and for arborists, farmers, nursery workers, foresters, and gardeners everywhere. This book provides the most comprehensive available information on the identification, field appearance, life history, and economic importance of the 110 economically important armored scale insects that are found in the United States. The authors have devised the first field key to economic armored scales, which will be invaluable to those trying to identify the pests and prevent the introduction of new exotics. (Most of the species covered are not native to the United States but broadly distributed across the globe.) The extensive color plates and highly detailed line drawings surpass anything available in other volumes on armored scale insects, and have not previously been published. Especially noteworthy are the data on distribution, host plants, and the kinds of damage caused by armored scales. The species descriptions include scientific names, synonyms, common names, field characteristics, microscopic characters, affinities, host plants, distribution by state, life history, economic damage, and selected references.


Miller, D.R., Williams, D.J. & Davidson, J.A. 2006. Key to conifer-infesting species of Lepidosaphes Shimer worldwide (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae), with descriptions of two new species and a redescription of L. pallidula (Williams). Zootaxa 1362: 23-42. Notes: Two new species of Lepidosaphes are described, L. caribaeae Williams and Miller from Trinidad and Jamaica and L. murreeana Williams and Miller from Pakistan. Lepidosaphes pallidula (Williams), a non-conifer infesting species, is redescribed so that it can be distinguished from L. pallida (Maskell), a species commonly detected on conifers. A dichotomus key is presented for the identification of the adult females of the 25 species of Lepidosaphes that occur on conifers worldwide and a matrix is provided containing 23 characters considered important in distinguishing the 25 conifer-infesting species.


Minko, D.O. & Bekon, A.K. 2005. [Study of insect fauna associated to the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus Manihoti Matile-Ferrero in Ivory Coast.] Etude de l'entomofaune associee a la cochenille du manioc Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, en Cote d'Ivoire. (In French with summary in English.) Tropicultura 23(3): 136-140. Notes: Within the biocoenosis of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, in Ivory Coast, the presence of many predator and parasite insects is reported. The main predators of the mealybugs are Coccinellidae, particularly Scymnus couturieri. Among the parasites, the most numerous are Encyrtidae. Some, such as Epidinocarsis lopezi [Apoanagyrus lopezi], directly attack mealybugs and are thus useful assistants. Others live as parasites on predators or parasites of mealybugs and so reduce the efficiency of those assistants. In addition, some other insects, whose role is not yet known, are also present. The paper presents the relative abundance of all the collected species.


Mir, G.M. & Wani, M.A. 2005. Severity of infestation and damage to walnut plantation by important insect pests in Kashmir. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 33(2): 188-193. Notes: Pest infestation and damage to walnut plantations in Srinagar and Pulwama districts, Jammu and Kashmir, India, were studied during 2000-01. Among other pests, damage by Quadraspidiotus juglansregiae [Diaspidiotus juglansregiae] was also observed in Kangan and Shopian.


Mitra, T.R. 2005. Taxonomic assessment of insects recorded in Kalidasa's works. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 105(1-2): 97-103. Notes: Kalidasa probably meant following insects of modern taxonomy (Apis, Xylocopa, Tabanus, Oecophylla, Schistocerca, Odontotermes species of Larnpyridae and Coccidae have been discussed.


Moghaddam, M. & Bakht, N.A. 2006. The first report of the genus and species of the scale insect, Exaeretopus tritici (Hem.: Cocciodea: Coccidae), from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 25(2). Notes: Scale insect specimens collected on Hordeum sp. (Poaceae), dated 24. V. 2003 in Khorram Abad, Lorestan province were identified as Exaeretopus tritici Williams. This species, which the genus and species is newly recorded from Iran, is related to E. harpazi Ben-Dov, differing mainly in the number of the stigmatic setae and extension of paraopercular pores.


Mohammad, A.M., El-Khouly, A.S., El-Metwally, E.F. & Shalaby, M.S. 2005. Factors affecting distribution patterns of the soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) in sugar cane fields. (In English with summary in Arabic.) Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83(1): 95-107. Notes: Population estimation of P. tenuivalvata was done in different sites of the cane field, i.e. east, north, south, west and field centre, in Giza, Egypt. Insect density proportionally increased from May to December in all field sites and the scales became intensive throughout September-November. The plants located in the west site intensively harboured the highest population of scales followed by the north site. The number of scales on the plant - east and south sites were approximately similar. Centre site had the lowest number of insects. Plant infestation decreased as the distance between plant location and field border increased, so cane plants nearby the field border were heavily infested than plants far from the field border. At the same time, the lower part of the cane plant seems to be the poorest site for insect location and feeding while the middle was the most favourable site followed by the upper part of the cane plant. P. tenuivalvata preferred the lower surface of cane leaves for settling and feeding. Nymph and adult stages showed clear preference to north-western direction of sugarcane field where its population was always abundant throughout the season.


Mooney, H.A., Mack, R.N., McNeely, J.A., Neville, L.E., Schei, P.J. & Waage, J.K. (Eds.) 2005. Invasive Alien Species: a new synthesis. Washington; Delemont, Switzerland: Island Press; CABI Bioscience Centre.  Notes: Includes a chapter on Best practices for the prevention and management of invasive alien species (Wittenberg & Cock) which discusses the orthezia scale.


Moore, D. 2005. Control of the fruit tree mealybug, Rastrococcus invadens. Outlooks on Pest Management 16(5): 222-224. Notes: This paper describes a mealybug (Rastrococcus invadens) accidentally introduced into Africa (i.e. Ghana, Togo and Benin) and the biological approaches employed for its control (Gyranusoidea tebygi and Anagyrus mangicola parasitoids).


Morse, G.E. & Normark, B.B. 2006. A molecular phylogenetic study of armoured scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Systematic Entomology 31(2): 338-349. Notes: [DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2005.00316.x] Armoured scale insects are economically important parasites of woody plants and grasses. They are promising subjects for the evolutionary study of physiology (no complete gut), genetics (chimerism, paternal genome elimination, frequent parthenogenesis) and coevolution (with host plants, parasitoids, Septobasidium fungi, endosymbiotic bacteria). Little phylogenetic work has been accomplished with armoured scales, and uncertainty surrounds their classification. Here, we report the phylogenetic results of Bayesian and parsimony analyses of 705 base pairs of Elongation Factor 1a and 660 base pairs of 28S from eighty-nine species of armoured scale insects, representing forty-seven genera and five tribes in the subfamilies Diaspidinae and Aspidiotinae, together with two outgroups. 28S was aligned based on a secondary structural model. Our results broadly corroborate the major features of the existing classification, although we do not find perfect monophyly of any of the traditionally recognized subfamilies or tribes. The subfamily Aspidiotinae is paraphyletic with respect to the subfamily Diaspidinae. Diaspidinae consists of two main clades that only roughly correspond to the tribes Lepidosaphidini and Diaspidini. Diaspidini is nearly monophyletic, except that it includes a single aspidiotine species. Other members of the tribe Aspidiotini form a clade, except that the clade includes a single species of Leucaspidini and excludes Maskellia and Pseudaonidia. Our results weakly support the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of the Diaspididae had adult females that were permanently enclosed within the derm of the second instar (the pupillarial habit) and had diploid adult males that eliminated their paternal genomes during spermatogenesis (late paternal genome elimination).


Mugo, H.M. 2005. The potential use of petroleum spray oil, D-D Tron Plus, as a component of integrated pest management in Kenya. Pages 984-991 in Association Scientifique Internationale du Cafe, ASIC 2004. 20th International Conference on Coffee Science, Bangalore, India, 11-15 October 2004. Paris: Association Scientifique Internationale du Cafe.  Notes: A field experiment was conducted during 2000/03 in Kenya to assess the impact of D-C Tron Plus, an oil-formulated insecticide (Petroleum spray oil), on the management of coffee green scale, Coccus alpinus, and to evaluate its ability to sustain and conserve the biological control agents of this pest, particularly the predators (ladybirds) and parasitoids. Three rates of D-C Tron plus; 50, 100 and 200 ml/20 litres of water were assessed. The untreated plots were incorporated as the control. The three rates significantly managed the green scale infestations as compared with the control. The same rates and the control, when compared with the banded coffee trees, showed significantly equal levels of mean number of ladybirds per tree and parasitism, thus indicating the sustainability of the biological control agents. The findings from this study indicated the suitability of D-C Tron Plus as a biorational pesticide in integrated pest management programmes in coffee farming in Kenya.


Muniappan, R., Meyerdirk, D.E., Sengebau, F.M., Berringer, D.D. & Reddy, G.V.P. 2006. Classical biological control of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Republic of Palau. (In English with summary in Spanish.) Florida Entomologist 89(2): 212-217. Notes: The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a pest in Central America and the Caribbean, was noted to have established on Palau in March 2003 and was causing serious damage to papaya, plumeria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki Noyes, Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff, and Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) totaling 24,586 were imported from Puerto Rico and field released in Palau from August 2003 to June 2004. Anugyrus loecki and A. papayae appear to be promising biological control agents of PM in Palau. No field recovery of P. mexicana was made in spite of several field releases. The reduction of the papaya mealybug population density levels below detectable levels was observed in a six-month period following the introduction of these exotic parasitoids. Following the successful implementation of a classical biological control program, the risk of this mealybug spreading to other islands in the Republic of Palau and to neighboring Micronesian Islands has been considerably reduced.


Murdoch, W.W., Briggs, C.J. & Swarbrick, S. 2005. Host suppression and stability in a parasitoid-host system: experimental demonstration. Science 309(5734): 610-613. Notes: We elucidate the mechanisms causing stability and severe resource suppression in a consumer-resource system. The consumer, the parasitoid Aphytis, rapidly controlled an experimentally induced outbreak of the resource, California red scale, an agricultural pest, and imposed a low, stable pest equilibrium. The results are well predicted by a mechanistic, independently parameterized model. The key mechanisms are widespread in nature: an invulnerable adult stage in the resource population and rapid consumer development. Stability in this biologically nondiverse agricultural system is a property of the local interaction between these two species, not of spatial processes or of the larger ecological community.


Muthukrishnan, N., Manoharan, T., Thevan, P.S.T. & Anbu, S. 2005. Evaluation of buprofezin for the management of grape mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Journal of Entomological Research 29(4): 339-344. Notes: Field experiments were conducted in Tamil Nadu, India, during the 2002 and 2003 rabi seasons, to evaluate the performance of buprofezin at 1125 and 1500 ml/ha in controlling the grape mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus). The efficacy of buprofezin, as a foliar spray, was also compared to carbosulfan and chlorpyriphos. Buprofezin reduced the nymphal and adult populations and bunch infestation of M. hirsutus and increased the fruit yield compared to untreated controls and recommended insecticides. As the efficacy of both doses was statistically at par, the lower dose of 1125 ml/ha is sufficient to effectively mitigate mealy bug colonies. There were no phytotoxic symptoms observed on any part of the treated plants due to any of the insecticides.


Nielsen, M.G., Christian, K., Henriksen, P.G. & Birkmose, D. 2006. Respiration by mangrove ants Camponotus anderseni during nest submersion associated with tidal inundation in Northern Australia. Physiological Entomology 31(2): 120-126. Notes: The ant Camponotus anderseni lives exclusively in twigs of the mangrove tree Sonneratia alba, which forms the fringe at the wettest part of the mangrove zone. During inundation, which can last up to 3 h, the entrance hole to the nest cavity is blocked with a soldier's head that effectively prevents flooding, but simultaneously blocks gas exchange with the surroundings. The ants and brood, together with their mutualistic Coccid, Myzolecanium sp. 1, occupy an average of 23% of the volume of the nest cavities (maximum of 50%). Measurements of CO SUB 2 production in the laboratory indicate respiratory rates of 1.90 and 0.41 microL CO SUB 2 h SUP -1 mg SUP -1 live mass at 25(deg)C for workers and larvae, respectively. Measurements of sealed natural nests show that mean respiratory rates decrease to 18.9% and 1.8% of the normoxic rate at CO SUB 2 concentrations of 10% and 25%, respectively. In artificial nests where the initial CO SUB 2 is elevated, the respiratory rates after 1 h are reduced to 48% and 2.3% of the normoxic rate when exposed to CO SUB 2 concentrations of 10% and 25%, respectively. Air samples from natural nests in the field taken more than 12 h after inundation have mean CO SUB 2 concentrations of up to 4-5%, which means that the CO SUB 2 concentration in the parts farthest from the entrance must be much higher. In sealed nests in the laboratory, the O SUB 2 concentration after 1 h decreases by 6.8% and, in the same period, the CO SUB 2 concentration increases by 12.1%, which suggests that the ants have partly switched to anaerobic respiration. The rapid and extreme depression of the respiratory rates of C. anderseni represents an outstanding physiological adaptation that allows their survival under the extreme conditions of tidal inundation.


Niranjan Prasad, Panday, S.K., Kumar, K.K. & Bhagat, M.L. 2006. Design and development of power operated roller type lac scraper. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 37(1): 35-37. Notes: Lac is the hardened resin secreted by the tiny lac insect [Kerria lacca]. Lac insects thrive only on certain trees called lac hosts. Butea monosperma (Palas), Zizyphus mauritiana (Ber) and Schleichera oleosa (Kusum) are the major lac hosts used in India. Lac cultivation involves five major operations which are pruning, inoculation, used up broodlac (phunki) removal, harvesting and lac scraping. Mostly, lac cultivation operations are carried out manually with the aid of locally manufactured traditional tools. Manual lac scraping is a very slow and tedious process. In one method, farmers sit on the ground in a group and scrape lac with the traditional tools like a small scraping knife (dauli) and sickle. In another method, farmers remove lac encrustation by beating lac sticks with bamboo stick. One person scrapes 5-10 kg of lac in a day. As scraping is done on the ground, unwanted foreign materials like sand, soil, and wooden twigs find their way into scraped lac, reducing the price to farmers and creating problems during lac processing in industries. In order to increase the output and reduce the drudgery of lac production, a simple power operated roller type lac scraper was designed and developed. The machine consists of a scraper, separation screen, feed hopper, drive mechanism and machine frame. The machine scrapes lac under the action of shear and compressive forces. One person operates the machine and scrapes approximately 13.5 kg lac stick h SUP -1 with a scraping efficiency of 95%.


Nowierski, R.M. 2005. Development of an early detection and rapid response system for the Pink Hibiscus Mealybug through education, training, and implementation of Integrated Pest Management. Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society 230: U145-U146. Notes: [Proceedings of the 230th National Meeting of the American Chemical-Society, Washington, DC, held August 28 -September 01, 2005.]


Ojha, R.V.S. 2005. A new species of Abgrallaspis azadirachti (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) collected from Kudhi, Shikohabad. Flora and Fauna (Jhansi) 11(1): 11-14. Notes: A new species of armored scale insect, Abgrallaspis azadirachti sp. nov., collected from leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) from the village of Kudhi near Shikohabad, Firozabad, (Agra, Uttar Pradesh), is described. Its distribution is mainly in northern India. Its host perennial tree has economic and medicinal values.


Oyarzun Iracheta, S.M. & Gonzalez, R.H. 2005. [Taxonomy, development and biological observations of the fruit tree mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).] Taxonomía, desarrollo y observaciones biológicas del chanchito blanco de los frutales, Pseudococcus viburni. (In Spanish with summary in English.) Revista Fruticola (Chile) 26(1): 5-12. Notes: Pseudococcus viburni is an important insect pest of fruit trees and vineyards in Chile. Apart from feeding on phloem, additional damage is caused by the development of sooty moulds on secretions. However, the main economic concern is quarantine restrictions on exports to Mexico, Brazil and Peru. External and internal morphology is described to distinguish P. viburni from related species. Nymphs and adult females are characterized and a key is provided to the 3 nymphal stages. Notes on the life cycle and biology are included.


Ozbek, H. & Calmasur, O. 2005. A review of insects and mites associated with roses in Turkey. Acta Horticulturae 690: 167-174. Notes: [Proceedings of the 1st International Rose Hip Conference, Gumushane, Turkey, 7-10 September, 2004, Nybom, H. & Rumpunen, K. (Eds.).] More than 150 species of insects and mites have been recorded feeding on various organs of both wild and cultivated rose plants. The most abundant of these are Tetranychus urticae, Aphis species, Aulacaspis rosae, Lepidosaphes ulmi, Rhynchites hungaricus, Malacosoma franconica, M. neustria, Lymantria dispar, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, Archips rosana [A. rosanus], A. xylosteanus, A. podana [A. podanus], Allantus balteatus, A. basalis, A. didymus, A. viennensis, Rhogogaster chlorosoma, Tenthredo livida, Arge ochropus, Syrista parreyssii, Diplolepis mayri and D. rosae.


Ozcan, E. & Unal, S. 2005. [The insects causing damage in Taskopru nursery.] Taskopru fidanliginda (Kastamonu) zarar yapan boceklerin belirlenmesi. (In Turkish with summary in English.) Gazi Universitesi Kastamonu Egitim Dergisi 13(1): 149-158. Notes: This research has been made to determine the insects causing damage in Taskopru nursery. So, four harmful insect species from four families and three orders were identified. After the research had been made in the nursery, these important insect species causing damage were identified. Melolontha melolontha L.; Rhyacionia buoliana Den. and Schiff and Leucaspis pusilla Loew. The harmful insect species were classified as the period when they damage, how they damage, which plants they damage and how we can fight against them, illustrated by a table.


Ozgen, I. & Karsavuran, Y. 2005. [Investigations on the determination of the natural enemies of Lepidosaphes pistaciae (Archangelskaya) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on pistachio trees.]. (In Turkish with summary in English.) Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 29(4): 309-316. Notes: [Original title: Antepfstg agaclarnda zararl Lepidosaphes pistaciae (Archangelskaya) (Homoptera: Diaspididae)'nin dogal dusmanlarnn saptanmas uzerinde arastrmalar.] A study was conducted in pistachio-growing areas of Mardin and Siirt provinces of Turkey during 2003 and 2004 to determine the natural enemies of L. pistaciae (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Two parasitoid species were determined as Coccobius pistacicolus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Zaomma lambinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). These parasitoids are first records for L. pistaciae existing in Turkey. Similarly, Z. lambinus is a new record in the world. Moreover, 11 coccinellid and one nitidulid species were determined in the pistachio areas. Seven species belonging to Coccinellidae family and one species belonging to Nitidulidae family fed on different stages of L. pistaciae. It is established that, Coccobius pistacicolus, Z. lambinus and Cybocephalus fodori minor (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) are new species of pistachio fauna in the studied areas.


Pandey, Raju R. & Johnson, Marshall W. 2005. Effects of cool storage on Anagyrus ananatis Gahan (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Biological Control 35(1): 9-16. Notes: Studies were conducted to determine the survival and reproduction of Anagyrus ananatis Gahan (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) individuals following cool storage above and below its developmental threshold (T-o) (12.65 degrees C). When immatures were stored at 14.8 degrees C, they had emergence rates comparable to the control after 8 weeks, which indicated high survival rates at that temperature. Storage at 10.1 degrees C was deleterious to parasitoid survival (17-100% mortality), especially when individuals were stored without preconditioning. Preconditioning by exposing the individuals to 14.8 degrees C for 1 week before storage at 10.1 degrees C improved parasitoid survival and fecundity compared to those without preconditioning. Effects were severe when A. ananatis individuals were stored at 10.1 degrees C while in the prepupal stage because most failed to develop further. Individuals that were preconditioned at 14.8 degrees C before being held at 10.1 degrees C experienced no mortality in the prepupal stage. The I week of storage at 14.8 degrees C allowed all prepupae to develop into the pupal stage before they were transferred to 10.1 degrees C. Prepupal to early pupal stages can only be stored for brief periods (< 2 weeks) at 10.1 degrees C because prolonged exposure is lethal.


Pandey, Raju R. & Johnson, Marshall W. 2005a. Effect of pink pineapple mealybug hosts on Anagyrus ananatis Gahan size and progeny production. Biological Control 35(1): 1-8. Notes: Studies were conducted to improve the colony production of Anagyrus ananatis Gahan (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) when reared on the pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Parasitization of large PPM (> 0.85 mm length) by A. ananatis resulted in an almost 3:1 ratio of female:male offspring. A strong positive correlation (r(2) = 0.8935) was found between PPM weight and parasitoid size (i.e., length). Male parasitoids were not as food limited as females when the mealybug host was small. Despite the ability of A. ananatis to parasitize all host stages except crawlers, gravid adult female PPM produced larger parasitoids with higher fecundity. Allowing PPM to continue feeding on squash following parasitization produced larger parasitoids. However, for A. ananatis propagation it is more efficient to remove PPM from squash hosts and size them (via sieving) before exposing them to the parasitoid. Mealybugs > 0.6 mg in weight and > 0.5 mm in size can be used for parasitoid rearing to produce female A. ananatis (> 1.4 min length) that exhibit fecundities similar to those for A. ananatis that developed on PPM that fed on squash following parasitization (similar to 28 progeny per female). Furthermore, to maintain an A. ananatis female-biased sex ratio, PPM hosts > 0.6 mm (medium size) would be preferable for use in parasitoid colony production. The length and width of PPM mummies were good predictors of the sex and body size of the parasitoid contained within, and may be potentially used as important indicators of parasitoid quality and fitness in a mass production system.


Pandey, R.R. & Johnson, M.W. 2006. Weeds adjacent to Hawaiian pineapple plantings harboring pink pineapple mealybugs. Environmental Entomology 35(1): 68-74. Notes: Surveys were conducted to identify the weeds bordering Hawaiian pineapple plantings that could serve as hosts for the pink pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell). Collected mealybugs were held to determine parasitization by the encyrtid Anagyrus ananatis Gahan. Greater than 15 species of weeds were found around pineapple plantings in both disturbed (e.g., mowed, herbicide treated, manual weed removal) and undisturbed areas. Weed diversity was low in the undisturbed areas with guinea grass, Panicum maximum, being the dominant species and free of pink pineapple mealybug. Weed species composition was more diverse in the disturbed areas adjacent to plantings, with routinely mowed areas being more diverse. Although pink pineapple mealybug is a polyphagous mealybug, it was only found in moderate densities on rhodesgrass, Chloris gayana, and wire grass, Eleusine indica, both of which were found in mowed and unmowed weedy areas with the former species being more common. All phenological stages of rhodesgrass were infested with pink pineapple mealybugs, but only mature wire grass plants were infested. None of the pink pineapple mealybugs collected from the weeds produced parasitoids, which suggests that the most common weeds found during these studies did not serve as reservoirs for A. ananatis. Because some common weed species harbored Dysmicoccus mealybugs, weed management could play a significant role in reducing pink pineapple mealybug movement into pineapple plantings.


Pandey Raju, R. & Johnson, M.W. 2006a. Enhanced production of pink pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 16(4): 389-401. Notes: A mass rearing program was developed for the pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dymsicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), to provide host material for producing the encyrtid parasitoid Anagyrus ananatis (Gahan). PPM individuals produce honeydew that accumulates on heavily infested squash and entraps crawlers and older instars. A new protocol was tested to reduce accumulated honeydew with minimal mortality to PPM. Butternut and kobocha squash were placed in rearing containers and covered with coarse vermiculite (> 2.36 mm diameter) after being infested with PPM. Use of vermiculite removed the honeydew from the squash surface. PPM produced using vermiculite were easily harvested from the host squash, but mealybugs produced on squash without vermiculite were embedded within the honeydew. When individual kobocha squash fruit were inoculated with 300-400 mature PPM adults (> 0.6 mm length), about 700 adult PPM (appropriate for A. ananatis production) were produced for each dollar value (USA) of squash fruit (i.e., similar to 1500 PPM per individual squash).


Pandey, R.R & Johnson, M.W. 2006b. Physiological and morphological development of Anagyrus ananatis a constant temperatures. Biocontrol Dordecht 51(5): 585-601. Notes: The lower developmental temperature threshold (T-0) and the Degree Days (DD) required for the encyrtid endoparasitoid Anagyrus ananatis Gahan to develop from egg to adult on the pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were determined. The T-0 was estimated to be about 12.65 degrees C for both females and males. In contrast, females and males required about 275 and 265 DD, respectively, to complete development from egg to adult. Temperatures from 19 to 29 degrees C were optimal for mass rearing of A. ananatis, with the optimal temperature being around 24 degrees C. At this temperature, A. ananatis could complete almost two generations in the time it takes PPM to complete only one generation. Although A. ananatis is a koinobiont, the mealybug host was killed within a few (6-8) days after parasitization. The developmental stages of A. ananatis were described (e.g., appearance, size, color) and their time periods quantified when reared on PPM at 23.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Encyrtiform eggs were inserted through the dorsal surface of the PPM and were attached to the host via a slender stalk. This immature parasitoid remained attached to the host cuticle via the stalk until entering the prepupal stage. The host mealybug mummified during the parasitoid's prepupal stage. First adult eclosion occurred at 24 days post-parasitization.


Pascual, S., Pina, T., Castanera, P. & Urbaneja, A. 2006. Side effects of five acaricides on the predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 187. Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] The effects of 5 acaricides (fenazaquin, clofentezine, tebufenpyrad, fenbutestan [fenbutatin oxide] and mineral oil) on the biological parameters (survival, fecundity, fertility and developmental time) of different stages of the mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, were evaluated under laboratory conditions by direct contact and ingestion. All acaricides were harmless to adults and pupae of C. montrouzieri. All acaricides, except fenbutestan, were slightly harmful to larvae of C. montrouzieri.


Pasiecznik, N.M., Smith, I.M., Watson, G.W., Brunt, A.A., Ritchie, B. & Charles, L.M.F. 2005. CABI/EPPO distribution maps of plant pests and plant diseases and their important role in plant quarantine. (In English with summaries in French and Russian.) EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) Bulletin 35: 1-7. Notes: Never before has the need for accurate distribution data for plant pests been so important. CAB International (CABI) and EPPO are international organizations with a long history and strong involvement in collating and disseminating information on the global distribution of plant pests. Distributions Maps of Plant Pests and Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, first published in 1951 and 1942, respectively, are respected, referenced sources of such data, expertly compiled and validated and used by plant health organizations around the world. They have been joint CABI/EPPO publications since 1997, and provide an essential complement to expanding knowledge on plant pest distribution. The Distribution Maps continue to be the most authoritative sources of information on the presence and extent of specific plant pests, sourced from the 4.5 million records in CAB Abstracts as a basis and numerous other sources. They also feed directly in CABI's Crop Protection Compendium (CPC) and EPPO's Plant Quarantine Data Retrieval System (PQR) databases. Their history, compilation and value are discussed. Maconellicoccus hirsutus is given as an example of one of the pests this service reviews.


Pasqualini, E. & Boselli, M. 2005. [Pear pest control.] La difesa dai fitofagi del pero. (In Italian with summary in English.) Informatore Fitopatologico 55(6): 9-15. Notes: Pest control on pear primarily focuses on containing few species. Cydia pomonella is the most dangerous due to either suitable climatic conditions of the last decade or the occurrence of insect populations resistant to some of the most commonly used insecticides. Cacopsylla pyri and Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus] are also among the most feared pests and are contained by means of specific chemical applications. Other species infest the pear orchard occasionally and insecticide applications are triggered by specific damage threshold. Some of them occur sporadically close to harvest (Lygus rugulipennis and Ostrinia nubilalis) or in orchards where environmental friendly pest control strategies are applied (Stephanitis pyri, Dysaphis pyri, Cossus cossus, Zeuzera pyrina, Euzophera bigella, Caliroa cerasi, Dasineura pyri, Anthonomus pomorum, Contarina pyrivora, Janus compressus and some mite species). Indications on the choice of insecticide and time of application are given.


Paulraj, M.G. & Ignacimuthu, S. 2005. Predatory insect fauna in mixed cropping agroecosystems in Northeastern Tamil Nadu. Insect Environment 11(2): 79-82. Notes: A survey of predatory insect complex was carried out from August 2003 to December 2004 in mixed cropping agroecosystems in 4 areas of northeastern zone of Tamil Nadu, India: Mangadu, Poonamallee, Padappai and Manimangalam. In all these areas, vegetable crops such as bhendi [okra], brinjal [aubergine] and radish were cultivated and border crops such as castor, curry leaf [Murraya koenigii], Sesbania grandiflora, subabul [Leucaena leucocephala] and Hibiscus sp. were grown. Groundnut was intercropped with black gram, cowpea and mung bean. Among the various orders of insect, Coleoptera contributed the maximum number of predators in all the areas, followed by Odonata. Ladybird beetles, followed by dragonflies, were found to be the dominant predatory insects. Cheilomenes sexmaculata and Coccinella transversalis were the predominant ladybird beetles in all types of crops and were found to be feeding on aphids, whitefly nymphs, scale insects and mealy bugs.


Peacock, L., Worner, S. & Sedcole, R. 2006. Climate variables and their role in site discrimination of invasive insect species distributions. Environmental Entomology 35(4): 958-963. Notes: This study investigated the influence of climate variables on insect establishment patterns by using discriminant analysis to classify the climatic preferences of two groups of polyphagous insect species that are intercepted at New Zealand's border. One group of species is established in New Zealand, and the other group is comprised of species that are not established. The discriminant analysis classified the presence and absence of most species significantly better than chance. Late spring and early summer temperatures correctly classified a high proportion of sites containing the presence of both established and nonestablished species. Soil moisture and winter rainfall were less effective discriminating the presence of most of the species studied here. Cold winter air temperature was also a good classifier for the insect species that are not established in New Zealand. This study showed that multivariate statistical techniques such as discriminant analysis can help distinguish the climatic limits of insect distributions over large geographical scales.


Pellizzari, G., Dalla Monta, L. & Vacante, V. 2005. Alien insect and mite pests introduced to Italy in sixty years (1945-2004). Pages 275-276 in Alford, D.V. & Backhaus, G.F. (Eds.), Plant Protection and Plant Health in Europe: Introduction and Spread of Invasive Species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 9-11 June 200 Alton, UK: British Crop Protection Council.  Notes: [Symposium Proceedings NO. 81.] A selected bibliography over a period of 60 years (from 1945 to 2004) was checked to determine how many exotic species of phytophagous insects and mites have been incidentally introduced into Italy. In total, 162 exotic pests have been introduced into the country during this period. Of these, approximately 130 are presently acclimatized and exhibit a different distributional range according to their climatic requirements and host plants. Most are pests of ornamentals (79 species), woody plants (38 species), Citrus (16 species), horticultural crops (15 species), fruit trees and grapevine (14 species). Most of the introduced species are Hemiptera (64%, mainly aphids and scale insects), followed by Coleoptera (12%), Lepidoptera (7%), Diptera (6%), Thysanoptera (3%) and Hymenoptera (2%). Mites account for 6% of the introduced pests. Majority of the alien pests are from the Americas (37%), Asia (29%), Africa (14%) and Australia (6%).


Pemberton, R.W., Nguyen, R., Winotai, A. & Howard, F.W. 2006. Host acceptance trials of Kerria lacca (Kerriidae) parasitoids from northern Thailand on the pest lobate lac scale (Paratachardina lobata) (Kerriidae). Florida Entomologist 89(3): 336-339. Notes: [http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/].


Pennell, C.G.L., Popay, A.J., Ball, O.J.-P., Hume, D.E. & Baird, D.B. 2005. Occurrence and impact of pasture mealybug (Balanococcus poae) and root aphid (Aploneura lentisci) on ryegrass (Lolium spp.) with and without infection by Neotyphodium fungal endophytes. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 48(3): 329-337. Notes: Pasture mealybug (Balanococcus poae) was found infesting two field trials evaluating the performance of selected strains of the endophyte Neotyphodium lolii in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) in Canterbury, New Zealand. Deterioration of endophyte-free plots relative to endophyte-infected plots had been observed. In Trial A, pasture mealybug were sampled in plots of the perennial ryegrass cultivar 'Grasslands Nui', without endophyte (nil), or infected with the wild-type endophyte, or the selected strains, AR1 and AR37. In Trial B, mealybug numbers on six ryegrass cultivars infected with AR1 or wild-type were compared with those on the same cultivars without endophyte. In sampling these trials, the presence of a root aphid, Aploneura lentisci, was also noted. Populations of mealybug in both trials were similar on all endophyte-infected treatments and significantly lower than populations on nil treatments. Neither AR1 nor wild-type appeared to reduce root aphid numbers, while AR37 may have had some effect. The amount of dead grass was significantly greater in nil than in endophyte-infected plots in Trial A, and yield of ryegrass was correlated with numbers of mealybug and root aphid present. Pasture productivity in nil treatments had recovered by spring, in the year of the outbreak. The presence of endophyte, strain of endophyte and cultivar were all significant factors affecting both total dry matter and green yield in Trial B. Pasture mealybug accounted for 55% of the variation in a decline in growth rate that occurred in this trial over the summer-autumn periods between 2000 and 2001, particularly in the nil treatments. Two years after the outbreak there was 25% less ryegrass and persistently lower pasture yields in nil plots. We conclude that pasture mealybug are capable of inflicting severe damage to endophyte-free ryegrass in Canterbury, particularly during dry summer-autumn periods.


Perez, E.P., Sether, D.M., Melzer, M.J., Busto, J.L., Hu, J.S. & Nagai, C. 2006. Characterization and control of pineapple mealybug wilt associated Ampeloviruses. Acta Horticulturae No. 702: 23-27. Notes: [Paper presented at the Fifth International Pineapple Symposium, held April 11-16, 2005, Port Alfred, South Africa.]


Perny, B. 2005. [Scale snout beetle and spruce bud scale - the cuckoo in the aphids home.] Schildlaus-Breitruessler und Fichtenquirlschildlaus - Der Kuckuck im Laeusenest. (In German with summary in English.) Forstschutz Aktuell. November 2005: 26-27. Notes: In the spring 2004, samples of Norway spruce which were heavily infested by the Spruce bud scale (Physokermes hemichryphus) were brought to the Department of Forest Protection. In many of the adult scales either the larvae or the adult beetle of a predator of these scales was found. It was identified as Common scale snout beetle (Brachytarsus nebulosus), also known as an efficient predator of Physokermes spp. Because of the appearance of the predator no measures were recommended. In 2005, no further outbreak was observed.


Petercord, R. 2006. [Wood-boring ambrosia beetles as parasites of European beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.).] Holzbrutende Borkenkafer als Schadlinge der Rotbuche ([Fagus sylvatica L.). (In German with summary in English.) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie 15: 225-229. Notes: Since 2001, the infestation of living beech (F. sylvatica) by the broad-leaved ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron domesticum; Coleoptera, Scolytidae) is observed (in Germany). Anatomical and physiological investigations on the infestation clearly show that there is a susceptibility of beech for the infestation. In the inner bark of infested beech trees, small extensive necroses were found to be present. This tissue damage is made responsible for the attraction of the beetles by alcohol emissions set free. The necroses are the results of feeding damage by the beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga). It is concluded that the infestation process by beetles and the beech bark disease complex are closely linked.


Petty, G.J., Tustin, H.A. & Dicks, H.M. 2006. Control of Black Spot disease / Fruitlet Core Rot in Queen pineapple with integrated mealybug, pineapple fruit mite and fungus control programmes. Acta Horticulturae No. 702: 143-149. Notes: [Paper presented at the Fifth International Pineapple Symposium, held April 11-16, 2005, Port Alfred, South Africa.]


Podsiadlo, E. 2005b. Morphological adaptations for respiration in Coccidae (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 74(4): 423-430. Notes: The size of spiracles, of clypeo-labral shield and their location in relation to each other were analysed in Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche), Sphaerolecanium prunastri (Fonscolombe), Luzulaspis frontalis Green and Scythia festuceti (Seulc). It is suggested that possessing small spiracles results from a considerable share of cutaneous respiration in gas exchange. On the other hand, the presence of large spiracles indicates limited cutaneous respiration or restricted access of air to spiracles. It has been assumed that oxygen deficit intensified the activity of mandibulo-maxillary muscles, which through their contractions and relaxations may stimulate gas exchange. Further, more intensive work of these muscles causes the development (increase in size) of clypeo-labral shield which serves as a means for attaching them. Movement of the mouthparts backwards between anterior and posterior spiracles is probably aimed at more effective ventilating not only the anterior tracheal trunks but also the posterior ones.


Podsiado, E. 2005c. [Instructions for the identification of the scale insects of Kermes Boitard (Hemiptera: Coccinea: Kermesidae) recorded from oaks in Poland.]. (In Polish with summary in English.) Lesnicka Prace Badawcze 4: 41-46. Notes: [Original title: Wskazowki do oznaczania czerwcow z rodzaju Kermes Boitard (Hemiptera: Coccinea: Kermesidae) notowanych na debach w Polsce.] The external characters of the post-reproductive females of the genus Kermes are discussed. The taxonomic characters of the first instar of K. quercus and of K. roboris are listed. It is concluded that identification of these species is satisfactory when based on microscopic characters of slide-mounted first instars.


Podsiado, E. 2006. Morphological adaptations for respiration in Cryptococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccinea) occurring in Poland. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 75(2): 277-281. Notes: The size and location of spiracles and size of clypeo-labral shield were analysed in Cryptococcus fagisuga and Pseudochermes fraxini. In these species, the access of air to spiracles is hindered due to their living in bark crevices of trees. Morphological adaptation to these unfavourable oxic conditions is the location of spiracles in deep cavities of sclerotized wall which, presumably, contain air reserves being the source of oxygen. In both species, the clypeo-labral shields are very large, which is an adaptation to feeding in woody parts of plants and to living in unfavourable oxic conditions.


Prade, C.A., Soglio, F.K. dal, Wolff, V.R. dos S. & Romero, M.Y. de 2005. [Fungi associated to armoured-scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Citrus orchard in the region of Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.]. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Biociências 13(2): 113-117. Notes: [Original title: Fungos associados as cochonilhas-com-escudo (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) em um pomar de citros no municipio de Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.] Fungi associated with armoured-scales (Cornuaspis beckii [Lepidosaphes beckii], Insulaspis gloverii [Lepidosaphes gloverii], Pinnaspis aspidistrae, Unaspis citri and P. pergandii) in orchards of Citrus sinensis var. Valencia in the region of Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied from January to December 2001. Samples were obtained monthly from 10 trees by removing 20 leaves from each plant. The following fungi were recorded: Fusarium coccophilum [Nectria flammea], Tetracrium coccicolum, Myriangium duriaei, Lecanicillium lecanii and Aschersonia species.


Prado, E. & Silva, R.A. 2006. [Principal pests of olive trees: biology and management.] Principais pragas da oliveira: biologia e manejo. (In Portuguese.) Informe Agropecuario 27(2231): 79-83. Notes: The main arthropod pests of olives include the pyralid Palpita persimilis and the coccid Saissetia oleae. Notes are given on the management and control of these pests.


Raguraman, S. & Premalatha, K. 2006. Field evaluation of methomyl against mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) and predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri mulsand in grapes. Pesticide Research Journal 18(1): 28-30. Notes: Bio-efficacy experiments conducted in two concurrent trials from December to April and April to August indicate that methomyl (Lannate(R) 40 SP) at 500-800 g ai ha(-1) was effective in containing the populations of mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus on grapes. Methomyl 300-600 g ai ha(-1) registered higher population of predatory coccinellids than other treatments in both the trials; however, it was not comparable with untreated check. But better recolonization of coccinellids was noticed in methomyl treatments than in dimethoate. Methomyl at 500-800 g ai ha(-1) recorded the maximum fruit yield (14-17.5 t ha-1), which were superior to other treatments including methomyl 300 g and 400 g ai ha(-1) and dimethoate 300 g ai ha(-1). The methomyl treatments at 500, 600, 700 and 800 g ai ha(-1) gave higher returns in grapevine cultivation with cost-benefit ratios of 1:14.8, 1:16.5, 1:16.6 and 1: 16.5, respectively, when compared to dimethoate application and untreated check.


Rani, B.J. & Sridhar, V. 2005. Record of arthropod pests on Kalmegh, Andrographis paniculata - an important medicinal plant. Insect Environment 11(2): 89-91. Notes: A field study was undertaken during 2001-02 in Bangalore, Karnataka, India to record various pests and their seasonal incidence on kalmegh, A. paniculata. Seedlings were raised in June and transplanted in July at a spacing of 60x30 cm in 20 beds of 2x2 m SUP 2 size. Observations on pest incidence and plant parts attacked were recorded from 5 randomly selected beds (5 plants per bed) at 15 days interval. Brown scale, Parasaissetia nigra, was found to be causing significant damage, as the affected plants exhibited stunted growth and drying, followed by semilooper, Panilla sp. nr. albopunctata, which damaged the plants by feeding on young leaves, flower buds and tender pods resulting in foliage loss. This is thought to be the first record of arthropod pests on kalmegh from India.


Ranjan, R. 2006. Economic impacts of pink hibiscus mealybug in Florida and the United States. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment (SERRA) DOI 10.1007/s00477-005-0027-0. Notes: This paper estimates the expected annual impacts of the Pink Hibiscus Mealybug infestation on the economies of Florida and the rest of the United States. The approach involves a Markov chain analysis wherein both short run and long run expected damage from infestation are calculated. Use is made of the CLIMEX model that predicts the potential pest-establishment regions in the U.S. While predictions based upon the CLIMEX model extend the scope of damage beyond Florida, damage is significantly dependent upon the rate of arrival and detection of species in those regions. Damage is significantly higher when a longer time horizon is considered. When nursery owners bear the full cost of quarantines in the form of loss of sales and treatment costs of infected plants, the cost-effectiveness of quarantines as a regulatory tool is diminished. The long run propensity of the system, in terms of the fraction of time spent in the possible 'states' of infestation and control, determines the extent of damage, and not the annual value of crops that could be potential hosts to the pest.


Ravi, V. & Suryakumari, S. 2005. Novel technique to increase the shelf life of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) stems stored for propagation. Advances in Horticultural Science 19(3): 123-129. Notes: Healthy, mature stems approximately 1.2-1.5 m long from 3 cassava cultivars (Sree Prakash, Sree Jaya and H-165) were stored for 5 months under hot, dry weather conditions under seven treatments: T SUB 1 - stems stored vertically under tree shade; T SUB 2 - stems stored vertically under tree shade and watered at 15-day intervals; T SUB 3 - stems stored vertically under tree shade with bottom portion (2-3 cm) buried in sand bed and watered at 15-day intervals; T SUB 4 - stems stored horizontally under tree shade; T SUB 5 - stems stored vertically in the open; T SUB 6 - stems stored vertically in the open and watered at 15-day intervals; and T SUB 7 - stems stored vertically in the open with bottom portion (2-3 cm) buried in sand bed and watered at 15-day intervals. Insecticide chlorpyrifos (active ingredient (a.i.) 20%) was applied to all stems to protect them from termite (Odontotermus sp.) and soft scale (Aonidomytilus albus) infestation. Fungicide carbendazim (a.i. 50%) was applied to stems stored in treatments T SUB 1, T SUB 2, T SUB 3, T SUB 5, T SUB 6 and T SUB 7, whereas mancozeb (a.i. 75%) was applied to stems stored in treatment T SUB 4 to protect them from any fungal infection. Stems of the three cassava cultivars in treatments T SUB 3 and T SUB 7 retained greater moisture content (68.8-71.0%), greater percentage of fresh stem (90.0-91.7%), had greater starch content (256.3-269.9 mg/gram dry stem), and showed greater percentage of sprouting (90.7-95.3%). Plants from these stems showed a lower reduction in storage root yield (2.6-3.6 t/ha) as compared to storage root yield of plants from fresh stems. It is recommended that cassava stems be stored vertically with bottom portion (2-3 cm) buried in sand bed and watered at 15-day intervals under open conditions with appropriate plant protection measures over a period of five months under hot, dry weather conditions.


Rebek, E.J., Sadof, C.S. & Hanks, L.M. 2006. Influence of floral resource plants on control of an armored scale pest by the parasitoid Encarsia citrina (Craw.) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Biological Control 37(3): 320-328. Notes: We tested the hypothesis that control of an herbivorous pest would be improved by providing floral resources for adult natural enemies. The herbivore was euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), a serious pest of woody ornamental plants. The experimental landscape consisted of 3x3 m plots, each containing a central bed of Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) that was infested with the scale. Floral resource plants were cultivars of four species that overlapped in bloom periods to provide a continuous supply of floral resources during summer: Trifolium repens L., Euphorbia epithymoides L., Coreopsis verticillata L. var. 'Moonbeam,' and Solidago canadensis L. var. 'Golden Baby.' Plots contained either low or high densities of all four species, or no resource plants. Densities of euonymus scale were typically lower in plots containing resource plants than in plots without them. Parasitism by Encarsia citrina (Craw.) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was rarely influenced by the experimental treatments, flower biomass, whole-plant biomass, or scale density, but in some cases was inversely correlated with density of scales within a generation and in the subsequent generation. Parasitism occasionally reduced densities of scales in plots containing resource plants, but this effect apparently was related to vegetative, not floral qualities of plants. A steady increase in parasitism rate over the three-year course of the experiment across the entire landscape was associated with decreasing density of scales, suggesting a numerical response by the parasitoid population. These findings suggest that the parasitoid is capable of effectively controlling euonymus scale in ornamental landscapes where environmental conditions are favorable.


Reyes-Aguero, J.A., Aguirre-Rivera, J.R. & Hernandez, H.M. 2005. Systematic notes and a detailed description of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae). Agrociencia 39(4): 395-408. Notes: Opuntia ficus-indica is the cactus species with the highest economic importance worldwide. It is cultivated for its fruits, forage, or as host of the cochineal insect, but only in Mexico are their young cladodes consumed as vegetables. The main goals of this study were: a) to integrate systematic notes about its common nomenclature, origin, reproductive biology and ploidy levels of O. ficus-indica; b) to present a complete botanical description based on specimens collected in north-central Mexico; and c) to discuss the taxonomical relationships with other Opuntia species to which it has been associated. This cactus is native of Mexico, where the highest cultivar richness is found. From a cytogenetic standpoint, specimens with varying ploidy levels have been identified and reproduction is sexual and propagate asexually, the latter being the most extensively used for cultivating. Samples from 72 different cultivars were collected from 17 locations across eight Mexican States. There seems to be evidence to support the fact that O. ficus-indica is a different species from O. amyclae, O. megacantha and O. streptacantha.


Reza, M.W. & Ghatak, S.S. 2006. Bio-efficacy of some commercial organic formulations against guava scale insect, Pulvinaria psidii Maskell (Coccidae: Hemiptera). Environment & Ecology 24(2): 327-331. Notes: The bio-efficacy of two commercial organic formulations neem spray Aza-3000 EC and DC tron-plus, a petroleum product, was evaluated against guava scale insect Pulvinaria psidii [Chloropulvinaria psidii] at a farmer's field in Ghoragachha village in Nadia, West Bengal, India, and compared to Metasystox [demeton-S-methyl] 25 EC widely used by guava farmers to suppress populations of the same pest. Both neem spray Aza-3000 EC and DC tron-plus were given at 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 ml/litre of water, while Metasystox 25 EC was given at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml/litre of water. Befitting with the pest activity, two rounds of sprayings with all the formulations were given, i.e. one on 8 May 2004 and the other on 24 May 2004. Neem spray Aza-3000 EC and DC tron-plus at all rates were as effective as Metasystox 25 EC, producing a remarkable reduction in the population buildup of P. psidii (82.00-93.00%) over the control at 10 days after sowing (DAS). Sooty mould, which developed on the leaves due to the secretion of honeydew by the scale insect, was also eliminated after 7-10 DAS with these two organic formulations. Hence, neem spray Aza-3000 EC and DC tron-plus at 2-3 ml/litre of water may be appropriate for the protection against P. psidii.


Rhizoecus hibisci. 2005. Bulletin OEPP 35(2): 349-352. Notes: Field identification and important characters are provided.


Ricci, C., Primavera, A. & Negri, V. 2006. Effects of low temperatures on Chilocorus kuwanae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) trophic activity. European Journal of Entomology 103(3): 547-551. Notes: Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri is an effective predator of Unaspis euonymi (Comstock), a scale insect harmful to spindle trees (Euonymus europeus L. and E. japonicus Thumb). The feeding behaviour was studied on wild adults, collected from spindle trees in the Botanic Garden of Perugia University, and fed on overwintering U. euonymi females. The insects were exposed to gradually changing constant temperatures (13[degree] [forward arrow]10[degree] [forward arrow] 8[degree] [forward arrow] 6[degree] [forward arrow] 4[degree] [forward arrow] 2[degree] [forward arrow] 13[degree] [forward arrow] 15[degree]C) for a ten day period at each temperature. C. kuwanae adults preyed on the scale also at low temperatures. The number of scales eaten decreased with decreasing temperatures from the initial 13[degree]C to 4[degree]C, and at 2[degree]C the trophic activity of C. kuwanae adults almost stopped although they made brief walks in the petri dishes. At all tested temperatures the ladybirds made holes in or lifted the scale cover and preyed on the female. Sometimes they lifted the scale cover, but did not prey on these U. euonymi females which were destined to die from cold. As the temperature dropped from 13[degree]C to 40[degree]C, the number of females eaten by ladybird males and females did not differ statistically. When the temperature was raised to 13[degree]C and 15[degree]C, the ladybirds resumed feeding. Large differences were recorded between sexes, with females showing a much higher feeding activity than males. Scale cover lifting was most frequent at the beginning of the experiment and then decreased with diminishing temperatures, although no significant difference was recorded among temperatures within the range from 10[degree]C to 4[degree]C. The threshold for trophic activity can be taken as 2[degree]C since we noted that a few (12%) individuals on one day showed predatory activity. At 13[degree]C and 15[degree]C lifting activity rose again but remained at a lower level than at the initial exposure to 13[degree]C. There was no significant difference in activity at 13 and 15[degree]C upon raising the temperature. As for total number of U. euonymi damaged by C. kuwanae the trend in damage revealed the same pattern as for number of scales eaten. At the final exposure to 15[degree]C, 60% of C. kuwanae females laid eggs. Our data demonstrate that C. kuwanae can reduce U. euonymi populations in a submediterranean environment even in winter when the range of temperatures is similar to that tested in this experiment.


Richardson, M.L., Caron, D.M. & Suchanic, D.J. 2006. Degree-days for five ornamental pests from an 11-year field study. Journal of Entomological Science 41(1): 87-89. Notes: Chionaspis pinifoliae is one of the pests studied.


Robertson, H.G. & Cochrane, M.A. 2005. Vincent Booth Whitehead (2 September 1921-11 April 2005 - Obituary). African Entomology 13(2): 386-389. Notes: Mealybug pests are mentioned.


Rocha, K.C.G., Silva, R.A. da, Michelotto, M.D. & Busoli, A.C. 2006. [Biological, morphological and behavioral aspects of Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).] Aspectos biológicos, morfológicos e comportamentais de Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Ciencia Rural 36(2): 363-368. Notes: The average period for fixation of the nymphs was 2.4+/-0.33 h. The first and second stages, after fixation of the nymphs, lasted for 8.3+/-0.06 and 19.4+/-0.11 days, respectively, which amounted to a nymphal phase of 27.9+/-0.11 days. A total of 36 females were observed daily until the end of the cycle. The preproductive and reproductive periods lasted for 17.3+/-0.18 and 68.2+/-4.33 days, respectively. The average total number of nymphs per female was 175.5+/-10.29 and the average number of nymphs per female per day was 2.7+/-0.11. Female longevity was 100.5+/-4.51 days.


Rodriguez, L.C., Faundez, E., Seymour, J., Escobar, C.A., Espinoza, L., Petroutsa, M., Ayres, A. & Niemeyer, H.M. 2005. [Biotic factors and concentration of carminic acid in cochineal insects (Dactylopius coccus Costa) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae).]. (In Spanish with summary in English.) Agricultura Técnica. Chile 65(3): 323-329. Notes: [Original title: Factores bióticos y concentración de ácido carmínico en la cochinilla (Dactylopius coccus Costa) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae).] The cochineal insect Dactylopius coccus develops on the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), and is exploited for its capacity to produce natural dyes such as carminic acid (CAC). Cochineal insects were introduced in Chile in 1989, and exports of dry cochineal began in 1994 and grew to cover 15% of the world market. However, the current price of dry cochineal is nearing production costs. Hence, it is necessary to increase yields without increasing costs. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biotic factors on the concentration of CAC in cochineal insects. CAC was positively affected by the density of cochineal insects around the plant, plant age, and by the nutritional status of the plant, and was negatively affected by the age of the cladode. Additionally, CAC was significantly affected by season: 16.9% of dry weight in the autumn and 19.1% in the spring. This knowledge may be used in designing cultural strategies to increase CAC accumulation in cochineal insects.


Rodriguez, L.C., Pascual, U. & Niemeyer, H.M. 2006. Local identification and valuation of ecosystem goods and services from Opuntia scrublands of Ayacucho, Peru. Ecological Economics 57(1): 30-44. Notes: Opuntia scrublands are important ecological-economic systems in the Andean area. They perform a major role protecting slopes against erosion, improving the soil properties and providing a variety of products employed in the human diet, and in animal feeding, as well as cochineal insects, a highly valued source of dyes. The collection of the insects has represented an important economic activity for the local communities since pre-Columbian times. Current Peruvian production represents between 85% and 90% of the global market, and is mainly based on collection of the insect in natural Opuntia scrublands located in the poorest Andean areas of Ayacucho. Although much is known about the financial benefits of cochineal for exporters and dye manufacturers, information about the value of standing Opuntia scrubs to collectors and the relative contribution of Opuntia scrubs to their household economies is scarce. This paper contributes to the estimation of the use value of Opuntia scrublands to local communities in Ayacucho by initially exploring the cultural domain of Opuntia in order to identify the ecosystem goods and services recognized by peasants, and later presenting empirical estimates of their importance to annual household income.


Roltsch, W.J., Meyerdirk, D.E., Warkentin, R., Andress, E.R. & Carrera, K. 2006. Classical biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in southern California. Biological Control 37(2): 155-166. Notes: A cooperative classical biological control project against the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), infestation in the low-desert region of California was initiated in the fall of 1999. Subsequently, the parasitoids Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Encyrtidae), Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam &amp; Agarwal (Encyrtidae) and Allotropa sp. nr. mecrida (Walker) (Platygastridae) were reared and released for permanent establishment. Population densities of mealybug and percent parasitism were monitored at a number of mulberry tree and carob tree sites for five consecutive years. The population density of M. hirsutus within the first year was reduced by approximately 95%. Over the entire 5-year period of the project, the average regional population density of the mealybug exhibited a continued decline. Anagyrus kamali was the predominant parasitoid, often parasitizing in excess of 50% of the mid-to-late stage M. hirsutus in the first 2 years following the parasitoid's release. Although Gyranusoidea indica was rarely found from spring through early fall, it did represent 40% of the parasitoid species composition during winter. By 2005, the platygastrid parasitoid, Allotropa sp. nr. mecrida did not appear to be established following numerous releases in 2003 and 2004. Hyperparasitism of A. kamali by resident species (Marietta sp.; Chartocerus sp.) was frequently over 35% during 2000. However, hyperparasitism was considerably lower during each successive year, coincident with declining densities of both mealybug and the primary parasitoid host. Field collections of two other species of mealybugs common in Imperial Valley demonstrated that they are not being utilized as alternate non-target hosts by the newly introduced parasitoids.


Sabale, R.N., Thanedar, P.V. & Ingale, A.S. 2005. Model for predicting the ESB pest incidence in Suru sugarcane in the plain and scarcity zones of Maharashtra state. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities 30(3): 301-303. Notes: Field trials to test the incidence of pest and disease were conducted at Pune and Padegaon during 2001 to 2003 for suru and preseasonal conditions to develop a model for predicting the incidence of pests and diseases. It was seen that ESB pest build up started from 11th MW reached its peak in 15th and 17th MW for treated and untreated plots, respectively, for preseasonal crop at Pune. Ranges of different weather parameters, at Pune, for pest build up were Tmax - 34.0 degrees C - 39.0 degrees C. Tmin -17.6 degrees C - 23.2 degrees C, RH 1-51%-69% and RH II - 20% - 22%. soil temperature - 22.0 degrees C - 28.8 degrees C. Linear regression model for 15 MW which predicts the incidence of ESB nearer to the observed values was developed. Mealybugs are among the pests mentioned.


Saighi, H., Doumandji, S. & Biche, M. 2005. [Armoured scale insects from the Algiers botanical garden named Jardin d'Essai du Hamma and their natural enemies (Hemiptera, Diaspididae).] Les cochenilles diaspines du Jardin d'Essai du Hamma (Alger) et leurs ennemis naturels (Hemiptera, Diaspididae). (In French with summary in English.) Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 110(4-5): 429-928. Notes: 28 species were identified from four subfamilies of Diaspididae during research conducted between 1996 and 1998. One new species for Algeria, North Africa and the Palearctic Region (Clavaspis herculeana), was recorded on Asteraceae: Euphoriaceae and Fabaceae. An inventory of natural enemies reveals the presence of parasitoids Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae and predators Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Nitidulidae and Hemiptera: Anthocoridae.


Sandanayaka, W.R.M., Charles, J.G. & Ramankutty, P. 2005. Role of olfaction in host selection by Pseudaphycus maculipennis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). New Zealand Plant Protection 58: 311-314. Notes: The volatile stimuli for host finding by Pseudaphycus maculipennis were examined in a Y-tube olfactometer. The responses of naive female parasitoids (2-3 days old) to two mealybug species, Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug) on sprouting potato were measured. The percentage of parasitoids to choose the odour-laden arm compared to clean air was similar for both mealybug species on potato sprouts (80 to 82.5%). When given a choice between mealybug species on potato sprouts, the parasitoid preferred the obscure mealybug. The parasitoids also responded to an excised sprout from an uninfested potato when compared with clean air. Further choice tests showed that honeydew secreted by either mealybug species was similarly attractive, while honeydew was more attractive than the ovisacs from obscure mealybug. This work shows that P. maculipennis exhibits a strong response to the plant of their host and prefer obscure mealybug to longtailed mealybug despite a similar response to honeydew from both species.


Schaefer, M. 2006. [The fauna of Germany: an identification guide to our native fauna. 22nd revised edition.] Wiebelsheim: Quelle & Meyer Verlag GmbH & Co.. i-xiv, 1-809. Notes: [Original title: Brohmer, Fauna von Deutschland: ein Bestimmungsbuch unserer heimischen Tierwelt. 22., neu bearbeitete Auflage.] Written in collaboration with: Ansorge, H., Fiedler, K., Sattler, K., Scheu, S. and Schmidt, E.


Schuster, T.D., Cobb, N.S., Whitham, T.G. & Hart, S.C. 2005. Relative importance of environmental stress and herbivory in reducing litter fall in a semiarid woodland. Ecosystems 8(1): 62-72. Notes: We examined the impact of soil stress (low water and nutrient availabilities) and two keystone insect herbivores on pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) needle litterfall. We compared trees growing on two distinct soil types: volcanic cinders, which exhibit pronounced water and nutrient limitation, and sandy-loam soils, which have higher water-storage capacity and nutrient availability. Using two long-term herbivore removal experiments (15 and 18 years, respectively), we also examined the effects of the pinyon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus, which attacks juvenile trees) and the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella, which attacks mature trees) on pinyon litterfall. These herbivores reach high densities on cinder soils but are absent or occur at much lower levels on sandy-loam soils. Four years of litterfall measurements showed four major patterns. First, independent of herbivory, needle litterfall was 20% lower under trees on high-stress cinder soils than on sandy-loam soils. Second, in agreement with the negative impact of scales on tree growth (that is, a 30% decline in stem growth), trees with scale infestations had 25% lower litterfall rates than trees resistant to scale; however, 15 years of scale-insect removal did not significantly increase needle litterfall. This implies possible intrinsic differences in litter production between scale-resistant and scale-susceptible trees. Third, in contrast with significant negative effects of moth herbivory on tree growth (that is, a 27% decline in stem growth), moth herbivory had no effect on needle litterfall. This, along with increased stem density in moth-susceptible trees, may be evidence of compensatory production.  Fourth, there were strong year by soil type and year by scale herbivory interactions, such that in some years the effect on litterfall can be obscured or reversed by some other factor. In summary, soil stress has a strong and predictable effect on needle litterfall, whereas the relationship between insect herbivory and need le litterfall is weaker and depends on the individual herbivore. These effects, however, are mediated by other environmental factors that have considerable annual variation.


Seema Dhawan, Mishra, S.C. & Singh, R.B. 2005. Inter and intra-colonial recognition of nest and nest-mates by Microcerotermes beesoni Snyder (Isoptera: Termitidae). Indian Journal of Forestry 28(3): 301-305. Notes: Each colony of the termite has its own peculiar odour. Every member of the colony recognizes this odour and avoids entering in the nests of other colonies. Experiments were undertaken to alter the memory of colony odour of the termite M. beesoni. The memory of colony odour cannot be easily altered, however, if slightly reduced by some technique, resulted in the dullness or death of the termites. Colony odour seems to be genetic in origin and environment probably does not play any role in its development.


Senthilkumar, N. & Barthakur, N.D. 2005. A record of Egyptian fluted scale, Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas) on teak in Assam. Insect Environment 11(1): 31-32. Notes: Teak (Tectona grandis) is an important timber tree and nearly 280 insects have been found associated with teak all over the country. The scale insect Icerya aegyptiaca (Margarodidae; Homoptera) was found on teak during 2003 in Jorhat, Assam, India. A survey was conducted on 50 teak clones collected from various states for any insect pest or disease incidence from April 2003 to December 2004. A sudden incidence of the teak scale insect, I. aegyptiaca, was noticed on several teak clones during July and August 2003. A total of 6 clones were found heavily infested, followed by 8 clones which were moderately infested. Out of 50 clones, 27 clones were found less infested with scale insect as per Rohrmoser severity scale. A total of 9 clones were not infested with the teak scale insect. After 6 months, data were collected on growth parameters, such as length and girth (10 cm above the ground level), to test the performance of different clones. It was found that growth was reduced due to the scale insect infestation.


Shahrudi, J.K., Seyedoleslami, H., Ebadi, R. & Hatami, B. 2006. Laboratory study of life cycle and feeding rate of the beetle Cybocephalus fodori minor (Col.: Cybocephalidae) predator of pistachio oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes pistaciae (Hom.: Diaspididae). (In Persian with summary in English.) Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 10(2): 255-267. Notes: The predatory beetle C. fodori minor has recently been reported in Iran. Also few studies have been reported on life cycle of Cybocephalus beetles, especially on that of C. fodori minor. Thus, the life cycle and feeding rate of this predatory beetle was studied on pistachio oyster shell scale, L. pistaciae, under laboratory conditions (at 25+/-2(deg)C, 65+/-5% relative humidity and 16:8 (light:dark) h photoperiod). The life cycle of C. fodori minor was completed at six stages including egg, three larval instars, pupa and adult. The duration of the development for one generation (not considering preoviposition period) was 43-46 days for males and 38-42 days for females. The developmental time length for the egg, larval instars 1-3, pupa, male and female adults longevity, preoviposition and postoviposition periods was 8.8+/-0.1, 5.2+/-0.1, 34+/-0.1, 6.8+/-0.1, 17.3+/-0.3, 59.2+/-2.2, 65.8+/-3.1, 6.8+/-1.6 and 3.5+/-0.5, respectively. The average fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female per her life time) was 64.7+/-6.2. The sex ratio in the laboratory and in the field was 1:1. The daily feeding rate for the female and male adults, larval instars feeding on adult female scale was 7.1+/-3.5, 6.9+/-2.2, 1.8+/-0.2, 3.7+/-0.2 and 5.9+/-0.3, respectively. These parameters were also determined when those stages were fed on the eggs and second nymphal stages of pistachio oyster shell scale. Adult beetles over 60 days exhibited the highest feeding on this scale.


Sharma, K.K., Kumari, K. & Kumar, M. 2005. Analysis of factors responsible for low yield of lac in India. Journal of Applied Zoological Research 16(1): 95-96. Notes: Though a single lac insect (Kerria lacca) has a potential to multiply by 250 times in one generation, actual seed (broodlac) to yield (lac-produced) ratio is very low. Single cell cultures maintained on Flemingia macrophylla in the laboratory yielded 56-175 times more lac that was reduced to 45-50 times in the field. When the mode of infestation was changed to mass inoculation and the scale of operation was increased, the yield was drastically reduced to 3, 4 and 7 times of the input on Butea monosperma, F. macrophylla and Ziziphus mauritiana, respectively, for rangeeni strain; and 5, 9 and 14 times, respectively, on F. macrophylla, Z. mauritiana and Schleichera oleosa for kusmi strain during rainy/winter season crop under field condition. With up scaling of lac culture operations, quantitative and qualitative loss of broodlac, damage due to pests and management of lac insect population on the host plant became critical factors affecting adversely the lac crop.


Shree, M.P. & Mahadeva, A. 2005. Biochemical studies in the insect pest infested mulberry varieties and their impact on sericulture. Pages 173-186 in Goel, S.C. (Ed.), Advances in Indian entomology: productivity and health (a silver jubilee supplement No.3, Volume I). Muzaffarnagar, India: Uttar Pradesh Zoological Society.  Notes: Silkworms (Bombyx mori) feed on mulberry (Morus spp.) leaves during their entire larval period and utilize the leaf proteins for the biosynthesis of silk. It is therefore clear that mulberry plays dominant role in cocoon production as a source of nutrition to the silkworm. Mulberry foliage is vulnerable to various pathogens and pests. The pests not only reduce the yield but also alter the biochemical components. Although the study undertaken on these aspects is meagre, the findings support the fact that if silkworms are fed with pest-infested leaves of mulberry cultivars, which are obviously nutritionally inferior, it leads to crop failure. Many biochemical components such as total proteins, total soluble sugars, total reducing sugars, starch, free amino acids, photosynthetic pigments and some micro- and macroelements analysed in the pest-infested leaves showed either increase or decrease compared to healthy leaves. The enzymes protease [proteinase], amylase and nitrate reductase showed a significant variation. The growth and development of silkworms were also found to be affected when they were fed with pest-infested mulberry leaves. This review focuses on 5 major pests, i.e. mealy bug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus), spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus disperses), jassids (Empoasca flavescens [ Empoasca vitis]), thrips (Pseudodendrothrips mori) and leaf roller (Diphania pulverulentalis).


Simoes, A.M.A., Cecilio, A., Ilharco, F.A., Aguiar, M.F. & Franco, J.C. 2006. New records of hymenopteran parasitoid species from citrus orchards in Terceira Island (Azores, Portugal). Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 189-193. Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] Samples of parasitized aphids and scale insects were collected in different plant hosts nearby citrus orchards in three different places, in Terceira Island (Azores), namely, Biscoitos, S. Sebastiao and Terra-Cha, aimed at finding plant species that can provide alternative hosts for parasitoids of citrus pests. Emerged parasitoids consisted mainly of braconids, i.e., Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall), and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) from Aphis fabae Scopoli in Pittosporum undulatum and Banksia sp., and Aphidius funebris (Mackauer) from Uroleucon sonchi (Linnaeus), in Sonchus sp. One specimen of both Aphelinus chaonia Walker and Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky) from Coccus hesperidum in Hedera sp. Scutellista obscura emerged from Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) in P. undulatum and also Moranila californica (Howard). Secondary parasitism of the pteromalid Pachyneuron aphidis (Bouche) was also collected from Aphis solanella, in Solanum nigrum L. These parasitoid species are reported for the first time from the Azores.


Simutnik, S.A. 2005. A new finds of encyrtid-wasps of the tribe Quadrencyrtini (Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) in Ukraine. (In Russian with summary in English.) Vestnik Zoologii 39(5): 89-92, 96. Notes: The monotypic genus Quadrencyrtus Hoffer, 1953 is found for the first time in Ukraine. A new locality of Eucoccidophagus breviventris (Kurdjumov, 1912) in Ukraine is pointed. The representatives of tribe Quadrencyrtini in Ukraine fauna are described. Aspects of morphology and systematics of the tribe are discussed.


Singh, S. & Hayat, M. 2005. Description of three new and record of two known species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Northeast India. Entomon 30(1): 57-66. Notes: Three new species, Metaphycus cassiae, Astymachus felix and Cheiloneurella indica are described from Assam and Manipur on hosts including Coccidae. Genus Cheiloneurella is recorded from India for the first time. Clausenia purpurea Ishii and Ooencyrtus corbetti Ferriere are reported for the first time from India. O. corbetti is recorded from a new host, Podontia affinis.


Singh, K. & Singh Ojha, R. 2005. Observations on the behaviour of crawler (first stage larva) of Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead) (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Himalayan Journal of Environment and Zoology 19(2): 209-211. Notes: The behaviour of the crawlers of Aonidiella orientalis on the leaves, fruits and twigs of Dalbergia sissoo was studied along with the dispersal of the crawlers. Weekly counts showed crawlers moving from tree to tree in search of proper host. The crawlers show irregular movement towards light.


Siscaro, G., Longo, S., Mazzeo, G., Suma, P., Zappala, L. & Samperi, G. 2006. Side-effects of insecticides on natural enemies of citrus scale pests in Italy. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 55-64. Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] Laboratory trials were conducted to test the side-effects of 5 insecticides, Etifos M (chlorpyrifos-methyl), Applaud (buprofezin), Admiral (pyriproxyfen), Laser (spinosad) and Biolid E (narrow range mineral oil) on 4 parasitoids of citrus scales: Aphytis melinus, Coccophagus semicircularis, Coccophagus lycimnia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The tests were conducted using a spray Potter Tower following the standard principles accepted by the IOBC/WPRS Working group "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms". Contact toxicity on adults after 24, 48 and 72 h as well as fertility, sex ratio and fecundity of the progeny were observed. A test was also carried out spraying citrus mealybug mummies parasitized by L. dactylopii. Total mortality (100%) of all tested parasitoids due to contact toxicity was observed 24 h after the treatment with chlorpyrifos-methyl and spinosad. The mean levels of mortality obtained after 72 h on C. semicircularis and L. dactylopii were 76 and 58%, respectively, after treatment with mineral oil. Buprofezin after 72 h caused 95, 100, 42 and 76% mortality on C. semicircularis, C. lycimnia, L. dactylopii and A. melinus, respectively. The other IGR (pyriproxyfen) caused lower mortality rates (88% on C. lycimnia, 48% on L. dactylopii and 62% on A. melinus). The average number of progeny per single L. dactylopii surviving female was 13.45+/-4.10 (buprofezin), 13.67+/-9.61 (mineral oil), 10.83+/-5.67 (pyriproxyfen) and 15.09+/-10.35 (untreated control) with no statistically significant differences. The sex ratio of the progeny (M:F) was 0.8:1 (buprofezin), 2.6:1 (mineral oil), 1:1 (pyriproxyfen) and 0.8:1 (untreated control). The surviving A. melinus females produced a mean number of progeny of 3.75+/-0.35 (buprofezin), 36.04+/-4.20 (pyriproxyfen) and 36.44+/-2.42 (untreated control) with the first value significantly different from the others. The sex ratio of the progeny (M:F) was 0.8:1 (buprofezin), 0.6:1 (pyriproxyfen) and 0.6:1 (untreated control). The surviving C. lycimnia females (pyriproxyfen) did not produce any progeny, while 39.98+/-7.59 mean progeny were produced by the untreated control. Semi-field and field trials are needed to better define the compatibility of the tested pesticides with IPM strategies in citrus groves in Italy.


Smith, T.R., Cave, R.D. & Hodges, G.S. 2006. A new North American record for Haliaspis nakaharai (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Diaspididae). Florida Entomologist 89(3): 414-415. Notes: [http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/.]


Snyder, R.E., Borer, E.T. & Chesson, P. 2005. Examining the relative importance of spatial and nonspatial coexistence mechanisms. American Naturalist 166(4): E75-E94. Notes: Much of the work on species coexistence has focused on the presence or absence of single mechanisms. Most theoretical frameworks, however, do not allow one to measure the strength of coexistence mechanisms, and so it has been difficult to determine the relative importance of each mechanism when multiple mechanisms are present. We present a model inspired by the California red scale (Aonidiella aurantii) system, in which two parasitoids coexist on a single, tree-dwelling host-scale insect. Previous work suggests that coexistence may be promoted both by intraguild predation (IGP) and by differing preferences for hosts on stems versus hosts on leaves (habitat preference). By applying an analytic framework that quantifies the strengths of spatial coexistence mechanisms, we are able to measure the individual contributions of IGP, habitat preference, and their interaction to maintaining coexistence. We find that habitat preference is much more effective at promoting coexistence in this model than in IGP. Furthermore, the effects of habitat preference and IGP are not independent. When the two parasitoids prefer different habitats, the coexistence-promoting effects of habitat preference are strengthened by IGP if IGP gives a moderate advantage to the inferior competitor. If IGP either confers an excessive advantage or favors the superior competitor, it can diminish the coexistence region.


Song, J.H, Meats, A.W., Riu, K.Z. & Beattie, G.A.C. 2006. Optimum sample size and spatial dispersion of red scale, Aonidiella aurantii on an orange orchard in Australia. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 9(1): 49-54. Notes: Two-stage sampling and geostatistical techniques for cost-effective and precise sampling were examined using red scale data that were collected from a commercial orange orchard in Kulnura, Australia in mid-summer, 2004 and 2005. The distribution pattern of red scale on a twig and a fruit well followed the negative binomial, and the degree of aggregation was higher on a fruit than a twig. The analysis of variance and two-stage sampling were used to obtain the suitable sample unit (a leaf, a twig including 2 leaves and 15 cm branch and a fruit in this study) and optimum sample size. A fruit was the most suitable than any other sample units, and a twig was better than a leaf. The optimum sample size for twigs and fruits per tree was 4 twigs (2 leaves and 15 cm branch) and 4 fruits (2 directions), respectively. The variance of primary sample unit for fruits was higher than that of secondary sample unit, but that was reversed for twigs. There was a non-linear relationship between 2 years for the density on 40 fruits of the same tree, because the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (0.84) was much higher than the Pearson's (0.29). The spatial continuity for directions of 0[degree], 45[degree], 90[degree], 135[degree], and omni-direction was similar except 90[degree] in which trees were touched with together. The autocorrelation analysis showed that omnidirectional 10m apart from each sampled tree was needed to obtain the independent data.


Stathas, G.J., Bouras, S.L., Eliopoulos, P.A. & Emmanouel, N.G. 2005. Control of diaspidid scales on olive trees by releasing coccinellid predators. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 28(9): 157-166. Notes: [Proceedings of the European meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Protection of Olive Crops", (Kalaitzaki, A., Alexandrakis, V. & Varikou, K., Eds.) Chania, Greece, 29-31 May 2003.] Data are presented on the phenology of the scale insects Aspidiotus nerii, Lepidosaphes ulmi and Parlatoria oleae of olive trees as well as on their potential control with releases of the coccinellid predators Rhyzobius lophanthae and Chilocorus bipustulatus reared in insectaries. P. oleae was studied in southern Greece, while Aspidiotus nerii and L. ulmi were studied in central Greece during November 2001-October 2002. The scales L. ulmi, P. oleae and Aspidiotus nerii completed one, two and three generations during this period, respectively. The hymenopterous parasitoid Aphytis mytilaspidis and the parasitic mite Hemisarcoptes nr. malus were recorded as natural enemies of L. ulmi. Four natural enemies of Aspidiotus nerii were found, namely the parasitic wasps Aphytis melinus and Aphytis chilensis and the coccinelid predators R. lophanthae and C. bipustulatus, while Aphytis maculicornis, C. bipustulatus and R. lophanthae acted against P. oleae. Releases of R. lophanthae and C. bipustulatus were not responsible for the reduction of the population of L. ulmi, which was due to the activity of the local populations of H. nr. Malus. As for Aspidiotus nerii and P. oleae, the reduction of infestation level was credited to the activity of R. lophanthae and C. bipustulatus, respectively.


Stathas, G.J., Kontodimas, D.C., Bouras, S.L. & Economou, L.P. 2005. Life table parameters of Rhyzobius lophanthae Blaisdell (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 28(9): 147-155. Notes: [Proceedings of the European meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Protection of Olive Crops", (Kalaitzaki, A., Alexandrakis, V. & Varikou, K., Eds.) Chania, Greece, 29-31 May 2003.] The fecundity of the diaspidids' predator R. lophanthae, feeding on Aspidiotus nerii, was measured under controlled laboratory conditions at 25(deg)C. The average total fecundity was 633.7 eggs per female and the average longevity was 63.4. Using additional data on the development of the immature stages, a life-fecundity table and a development matrix (Leslie matrix) were constructed and population growth parameters were calculated. The net reproductive rate (R SUB o ) was 346.2 females per female and the intrinsic rates of increase (r SUB m ) were 0.122 females per female per day. In addition, 2 mathematical models, i.e. by Enkegaard and Analytis, were used to compare the data on fecundity. Both models described satisfactorily the experimental data.


Stepaniuk, K. & Lagowska, B. 2006. Number and arrangement variation of submarginal tubercles in adult females Parthenolecanium corni group (Hemiptera, Coccidae) and its value as a taxonomic character. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 75(2): 293-301. Notes: Evidence is provided showing that the number and arrangement of dorsal submarginal tubercles are not a reliable character to separate species or subspecies in the genus Parthenolecanium. A morphometric analysis of 756 adult females of P. corni collected from 22 different host plants shows that dorsal tubercles are highly variable in number and arrangement and this character is of little diagnostic value on the species or subspecies levels.


Sugonyaev, E.S. 2005. [The fauna of parasitic chalcid wasps (Hymenopt., Chalcid.) infesting scale insects (Hom., Cocc.) in Vietnam. IX New species of the genera Microterys Thom., Anicetus How., Metaphycus Merc. And Prochiloneurus Silv. (Encyrt.) with taxonomic notes.]. (In Russian with summary in English.) Entomologicheskoe Obozrenye 84(1): 196-208. Notes: Microterys vladimiri sp. n. differs from M. hesperidum Trjapitzin et Khlopunov in the shape of mandibles, longer marginal vein of fore wings, shape of hind margin of propodeum and base of abdomen which are not closely fitting, and longer body of ovipositor. M. lilyae sp. n. differs from M. speciosus Ishii in the shorter first joint of the funiculus of antennae and oval abdomen, and from M. nietneri Motschulsky (=flavus Howard), in the same shape of abdomen and in the shorter ovipositor which is exerted for 1/5 length of abdomen. Anicetus mysterius sp. n. differs from A. ceroplasis Ishii in the shape of the funiculus joints of antenna with upper margin of 4-6th joints combined more than twice as long as that of 1st-3rd joints. Scutellum with 32-34 bristles only. A. thanhi sp. n. is similar to the preceding species but differs in the wide frontovertex, the shape of sensilla at apical margin of the 3rd joint of the clava (see figs. 15 and 22), and the shape of abdomen. A. korotyaevi sp. n. resembles A. ohgushii Tachikawa but differs in the short upper margin of the 5th funiculus joint of antennae, which is as long as 4th joint, and unusually small number of bristles on scutellum (12). Metaphycus halongiensis sp. n. differs from similar M. dispar Mercet in the presence of wide dark median stripe on the scutum and scutellum, and the sculpture of the scutum, scutellum and tergites, cells of which are covered with fine punctures and wrinkles forming a whimsical pattern. M. monastyrskii Sugonyaev has a similar kinds of sculpture but differs in the 3-segmented maxillary and labial palpi. Prochiloneurus rumaki sp. n. differs from similar P. nagasakiensis Ishii in the absence of a bunch of long bristles at the apex of scutellum and in the even faint infuscation of the fore wings except their basal quarter.


Sun, Y.F., Sun, B., Heng, X.M., Yang, A.H. & Qiao, B.Y. 2005. [Study on the occurrence and control strategy of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Fruit Science 22(5): 570-572. Notes: Results are presented of a greenhouse experiment conducted to determine the occurrence of and optimum insecticide application (rate and date) for Pseudaulacaspis pentagona infesting apricot trees.


Takagi, S. 2005. Further material of Cameronaspis, with other forms (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Insecta Matsumurana 62: 153-174. Notes: Two new species of Cameronaspis, C. dilleniae occurring on Dillenia sp. and C. dicis on flex revoluta, are described from high altitudes on Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah (Borneo Is.), Malaysia, and C. adinandrae is recorded from Sabah and Nepal and from Adinandra sp., Vernonia arborea, and Eurya acuminata. The known species of Cameronaspis are revised, and their status as species is discussed. Two new genera are proposed, based on two new species: Kuchingaspis hopeae occurring on Hopea sp. at Kuching, Sarawak (Borneo Is.), and Larutaspis lithocarpi associated with Lithocarpus wallichianus on Bukit Larut, Malaya. Pinnaspis megaloba Takahashi, 1942, is transferred to Larutaspis on the basis of the original description. Another species was collected in association with Kuchingaspis hopeae, and is tentatively placed in Chionandaspis, but it is not formally named. All the genera treated in this paper belong to the subtribe Chionaspidina, and are similar in the median trullae prominent and set close, appressed together, or fused together and the second trullae reduced to very small pointed processes in the adult female. They distinctly differ in some other details, and may not be closely related to each other in spite of the similarity, which should involve convergence and/or parallelism.


Takagi, S., Hosaka, T. & Okuda, T. 2005. Material of dipterocarp-associated gall-inhabiting coccoids collected in Negeri Sembilan, Malaya (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Insecta Matsumurana 62: 123-151. Notes: Four species of dipterocarp-associated gall-inhabiting coccoids were collected in Negeri Sembilan, Malaya, Malaysia, in 2003 and 2004 in surveys conducted under a project on biodiversity in tropical forests, and taxonomic accounts of them are given in this paper. One of them, Gallacoccus longisetosus, sp. nov., is described on the basis of two female and three male instars. This species is probably rightly referred to Gallacoccus, and yet peculiar among the known species of the genus in having spinous but remarkably elongated setae dorsally on the first-instar female. The other species are also referred to Gallacoccus, but they are not formally named owing to the insufficient material; instead, they are designated by tags coined by combining abbreviations of the collection year, locality, and host plant. One of them is closely similar to G. longisetosus in many adult male characters, whereas the other two resemble Gallacoccos heckrothi in the male nymphs or the adult female. Some features and their characters are discussed with regard to their significance in function and phylogeny: dermal pits in the first-instar female, legs in the first instar male, penial sheath pores and other sensilla, and papillae and claws in the adult male. The discussions remain preliminary, but suggest intricate relationships between function and phylogeny.


Taleb, M.A., Rahman, M.A. & Salam, M.A. 2005. Screening of promising sugarcane clones against insect pests under field condition. Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development (Gazipur) 3(1/2): 93-97. Notes: Seven promising sugarcane clones (I 93-93, I 103-93, I 110-93, I 154-93, I 172-93, I 197-93 and I 204-93), along with one commercial cultivar (Isd 28), were screened for their resistance to different insect pests during 2000-03 in Ishurdi, Pabna, Bangladesh. Mealy bugs [Pseudococcidae] and scale insects [Coccoidea] showed 6.85-22.65% and 15.36-39.82% infestation, respectively.


Tanaka, H. & Amano, H. 2005a. Newsteadia yanbaruensis, a new species from Okinawa Is., Japan (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae). Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology 11(2): 283-286. Notes: Newsteadia yanbaruensis, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae) is described and illustrated from two female specimens collected at Kunigami-son, Yanbaru District, Okinawa Is., Japan, in molded pine needle litter. It resembles the Afrotropical species N. multispina and the Pacific species N. samoana, differing from N. multispina in the antermal setae and dorsomedial abdominal wax plates and from N. samoana in lacking certain pores.


Tang, L., Zhao, Y.M., Tang, C., Zheng, C.G. & Lu, X.J. 2005. Study on functional response of Nephus ryuguus (Kamiya) to Oracella acuta (Lobdell). (In Chinese with summary in English.) Natural Enemies of Insects 27(1): 27-31.


Thacker, J.I., Hopkins, G.W. & Dixon, A.F.G. 2006. Aphids and scale insects on threatened trees: co-extinction is a minor threat. Oryx 40(2): 233-236. Notes: Co-extinction is the extinction of a species following the extinction of another species that it used as a resource, such as a food plant in the case of insect herbivores. The magnitude of the global co-extinction threat to two herbivorous insect taxa (aphids and scale insects) was estimated by compiling a list of species in these groups that are dependent on globally threatened trees. Eleven species of aphid (0.69%) and thirteen scale insects (1.15%) have a threatened tree as their sole host. This measure is comparable to recent estimates for insect herbivores, but far less than the published overall estimates of extinction risk for invertebrates, and highlights the dependence of insect herbivores on a wide range of habitat features. Species mentioned include Mascarenococcus, Chileputo, Neoplatylecanium, Paralecanium, Richardiella, Lachnodiopsis, Udinia, Ceroplastes and Dysmicoccus.


Thakur, T., Jain, D. & Shaw, S.S. 2006. Api and lac culture: a boon for tribal farmers of Chhattisgarh, India. Plant Archives 6(1): 79-82. Notes: Honey bee (mainly Apis cerana indica and A. mellifera) culture and lac (a secretion of Laccifer lacca [Kerria lacca]) production by tribal farmers in Chhattisgarh, India, are described. The coupe system of lac production, which is more sustainable than the traditional method, is discussed.


Tindo, M., Doumtsop, A., Goergen, G. & Hanna, R. 2006. Morphological description and illustration of female developmental stages of Stictococcus vayssierei (Homoptera: Stictococcidae). (In English with summary in French.) International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 26(2): 126-133. Notes: The African root and tuber scale S. vayssierei is the only known hypogeal species of the family Stictococcidae. Its wide range of host plants together with concurrently field observed differences in host preference provided evidence of polyphagy or the involvement of more than a single-scale species. To establish the baseline information for future taxonomic studies, newly emerged larvae were collected from infested cassava from three sites in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. A glass binocular magnifier was used to observe morphological changes of live individuals and slide-mounted individuals of all developmental stages were examined with a compound microscope. S. vayssierei females went through three developmental stages, i.e. two larval instars and an adult stage. The first and second instars were purple-red, while the adult was brown. The body size and degree of sclerotization of the dorsal line increased in each developmental stage. White waxy secretions on the basal periphery of the second instar, and both dorsum and periphery of the adults, distinguished them from the first instar, which lacks the white waxy secretions. On slide-mounted specimens, certain aspects of the anal complex (i.e. number of opercular plates and -setae) were found to be the most discriminating features of S. vayssierei life stages. These results are useful for further studies on the diversity of subterranean stictoccocid scales.


Trierweiler, P. & Balder, H. 2005. Spread of horse chestnut scale (Pulvinaria regalis) in Germany. Pages 285-286 in Alford, D.V. & Backhaus, G.F. (Eds.), Plant Protection and Plant Health in Europe: Introduction and Spread of Invasive Species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 9-11 June 200 Alton, UK: British Crop Protection Council.  Notes: [Symposium Proceedings NO. 81.] Results are presented of a nationwide survey conducted by the Plant Protection Service in 2004 on the current status of knowledge regarding the spread, infestation and management of horse chestnut scale (Pulvinaria regalis) in some cities and nurseries in Germany. In recent years, the pest has increased its geographical range and infestations have also become more severe. The pest is no longer restricted to the major cities, but has also spread to smaller ones. The pest occurs mainly in urban locations, rather than in nurseries, where it is an aesthetic problems in green areas such as city parks. Nevertheless, infestations in nurseries appear to be increasing, so commercial problems are to be expected. Pest control on parkland and roadside trees is rarely practiced, even following infestations of horse chestnut scale. Usually, control measures are taken only on high quality trees. In general, recommendations and advice for the adoption of chemical and biological control measures are wanting. Future spread and infestations can be controlled with the adaption of beneficial organisms (parasitoids and predators) and strict monitoring and inspection of traded plants.


Trjapitzin, V.A. & Trjapitsyn, S.V. 2006. A new species of Brethesiella (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from California, USA, a parasitoid of Steatococcus tabernicolus (Hemiptera: Margarodidae). Zootaxa 1167: 1-16. Notes: A new species of the encyrtid wasp genus Brethesiella Porter, 1920 is described from the Mojave Desert in California, USA. The type series of B. Mojave sp. n. was reared from the margarodid scale Steatococcus tabernicolus Ferris on creosote bush, Larrea tridentate. The genus Aztecencyrtus Timberlake, 1926 is synonymized under Brethesiella and its two described species are transferred to the latter as B. flava (Timberlake, 1926) comb. n. and B. iceryae (Howard, 1892) comb. n. A brief review of the encyrtid parasitoids of Margarodidae, a diagnosis of Brethesiella, and an annotated key to its six described species with known females in the New World are provided.


Tschuch, G., Lindemann, P., Rettig, W., Mound, L.A. & Moritz, G. 2005. Structured lipids on a coccid wax (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae). Designer-Lipide auf dem Wachs einer Schildlaus (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae). (In German with summary in English.) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie 15: 143-146. Notes: A thick protective mass of wax filaments covers each female of the sap-sucking bug, Callococcus banksiae (Maskell) (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae). These waxy masses, measuring up to 10 mm in diameter, are sometimes abundant in eastern Australia on the stems of the host plant (Kunzea ericoides), and the wax is of interest biologically for two reasons. First, unlike many coccid species that secrete waxy coverings, ants do not attend C. banksiae despite often walking near them on the plant stems. Second, a particular species of thrips, Teuchothrips fuscipennis (Moulton) (Phlaeothripidae) breeds beneath the waxy mass, and the larvae and adults move quickly and freely between the wax filaments without adhering in any way. The wax surface is the subject of current investigations, for which this report on taylor-made triglycerides provides a base.


Tuda, M., Matsumoto, T., Itioka, T., Ishida, N., Takanashi, M., Ashihara, W., Kohyama, M. & Takagi, M. 2006. Climatic and intertrophic effects detected in 10-year population dynamics of biological control of the arrowhead scale by two parasitoids in southwestern Japan. Population Ecology 48(1): 59-70. Notes: Relative effects of weather and three-trophic interactions were studied for a classical biological control system consisting of the arrowhead scale Unaspis yanonensis, known formerly as a serious pest of the Satsuma mandarin orange Citrus unshiu, and its two introduced parasitoids, Coccobius fulvus and Aphytis yanonensis. Yearly population responses of the three insect species on a per-tree basis for up to 10 years at two orange groves were analyzed by general linear models, with a backward stepwise procedure, to select among abiotic (summer/winter temperature and rainfall) and biotic (densities of the three insect species and orange bearing in the previous years) independent variables. Temperature positively affected the arrowhead scale and the two parasitoids. A negative correlation of rainfall was detected for all three insect species. Mandarin fruiting showed negative delayed density dependence, thereby supporting the observed alternate bearing phenomenon in mandarins, presumably due to physiological imbalance triggered by climatic factors. The arrowhead scale was negatively correlated with fruit production in the preceding years, possibly due to reduced resistance in subsequent years of mast fruiting. We found a negative correlation of the arrowhead scale with Coccobius only in a single grove and none with Aphytis. Thus, it appears that bottom-up forces may be more important than top-down control by the parasitoids in the post-transient phase of this system.


Tumminelli, R., Perrotta, G., Raciti, E. & Colazza, S. 2006. Cellophane tape with adhesive on both sides to monitor the emergence of armoured scale crawlers in Eastern Sicily lemon orchards. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 251-254. Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] Oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii (Homoptera: Diaspididae), is a cosmopolitan pest mainly spread in the Mediterranean basin. This scale insect usually has three generations per year. This corresponds to three waves of emergence of mobile nymphs, which can be assigned to succeeding generations. In the spring-summer of 2003, 2004 and 2005, in lemon cv. Femminello siracusano orchards in eastern Sicily, Italy, we tested transparent cellophane tape with adhesive on both sides to monitor the emergence of first instar scales, called crawlers. The crawlers were captured on the tape as they move across a twig or branch. These tapes were used to confirm the arrival of the new generation and the beginning of crawler activity and predict when to manage the Oleander scale. The first generation started in March-April. Mobile nymphs then moved towards sheltered areas of the tree, settling preferably on the underside of foliage and fruits. This generation developed in 8 to 9 weeks. A second generation then occurred in June, taking a similar amount of time to develop. Insecticide mode of action and formulation are important because the armor covers and protects all stages but the crawler and the adult male. Contact insecticides target the crawler stage, such as more selective horticultural mineral oils. Care must be taken to conserve natural enemies. Populations of other pests, such as whiteflies, may increase if insecticides kill their natural enemies. Spray schedules can be determined by presence of scales in the field rather than by the calendar dates.


Turguter, S. & Ulgenturk, S. 2006. [Biological aspects of Physokermes piceae (Schrank) (Spruce Bud Scale) (Hemiptera: Coccidae).] Physokermes piceae (Schrank) (Yumrulu Ladin Kosnili) (Hemiptera: Coccidae)'nin biyolojik ozellikleri. (In Turkish with summary in English.) Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi 12(1): 44-50. Notes: Physokermes piceae is an important pest of spruce. Some biological aspects of the pest were studied on blue spruce (Picea pungens) in an urban ecosystem in Ankara, Turkey during 2001-03. Physokermes piceae has one generation in a year and overwintered during the second larval stage. These oviparous insects stored their eggs in 2 chambers under their bodies. Oviposition started in May and crawlers appeared in the end of June and beginning of July. The second larval stage occurred in September-May. Adult males and females were observed in the middle of April up to the middle of June. Males mostly infested the lower needle surfaces while females preferred the surfaces of young branches. The ratio of the males in the population was 54.37%, whereas the females comprised 45.62% of the population. The number of egg was 844.63+/-49.09 in 2001 and 925.35+/-49.84 in 2002.


Tyson, J. L., Henderson, R.C., Fullerton, R.A., Jamieson, L.E. & Froud, K.J. 2005. Distribution and new host records for Cosmospora aurantiicola and Cosmospora flammea : entomopathogens of Diaspididae in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection 58: 283-287. Notes: Adventive armoured scale insects (Diaspididae) are of particular concern in New Zealand horticulture due to their polyphagous nature, the damage they can cause, and their implications in biosecurity. Two important species of fungal entomopathogens recorded on armoured scale insects in New Zealand are Cosmospora aurantiicola(Fusarium larvarum) and C. flammea (F. coccophilum). Both have previously been recorded in New Zealand from unidentified Coccoidea; C. aurantiicola has also been recorded on Hemiberlesia lataniae and H. rapax. During 2002-2003, five forays were carried out to provide further information on the host range of the species and to collect strains of the entomopathogens that may have potential as biocontrol agents for armoured scale insects. Aspidiotus nerii, Hemiberlesia sp., Leucaspis brittini, Leucaspis spp., Pinnaspis dysoxyli and Eriococcus cavelli (Eriococcidae) were recorded as new host species for C. flammea. Hemiberlesia lataniae is reconfirmed as a host for both species.


Ulhaq, M.M., Sattar, A. & Salihah, Z. 2006. Effect of different artificial diets on the biology of adult green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea Stephens). Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology Jan-Feb 2006: 1-8. Notes: Chrysoperla carnea (Green lacewing) is voracious predator of insect eggs and varieties of soft-bodied arthropods such as caterpilllars, aphids, jassids and mealy bugs. It is currently mass-reared and used in biological control of insect pests. Experiments were conducted to find out a better and cheaper artificial diet for mass-rearing of adult C. carnea. Three adult diets were tested in the laboratory conditions in comparison with standard diet; that was mixture of yeast extract, casein, honey, sugar and distilled water. Parameters were fecundity, larval period, pupal period and adult longevity. The results revealed that the mixture of egg yolk, milk and honey was better than all other diets.


Urso-Guimaraes, M.V & Scareli-Santos, C. 2006. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pe-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil. (In English with summary in Portuguese.) Brazilian Journal of Biology 66(1B): 357-369. Notes: Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pe-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pe-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.


Valerio, J.R. 2005. [Insect pests on tropical pastures.] Insetos-praga em pastagens tropicais. (In Portuguese.) Informe Agropecuario 26(226): 98-110. Notes: The relationship between insect pests and the process of pasture degradation is discussed. The main insect pests of pastures in Brazil are described. These include: Cercopidae, Scaptocoris spp., Spodoptera frugiperda, Mocis latipes, Blissus leucopterus, Formicidae, the pseudococcid Antonina graminis, Rhammatocerus schistocercoides and scarabaeid larvae (mainly Diloboderus abderrus). Notes on characteristics, biology, damage and control are given for each taxon.


van Lenteren, J.C. 2006. How not to evaluate augmentative biological control. Biological Control 39(2): 115-118. Notes: Pseudococcus calceolariae is among the species discussed.


Vandermeer, J. & Perfecto, I. 2006. A keystone mutualism drives pattern in a power function. Science 311(5763): 1000-1002. Notes: A study was conducted in southern Mexico to investigate the distribution of a scale insect (Coccus viridis) in an organic coffee farm. The data on the frequency distribution of insect number per tree suggested a power function, as shown by the approximately linear nature of the points. Underlying biological processes may account for both the power function and its deviation. High cluster deviation was a consequence of the key mutualism operative in the system (between C. viridis and Azteca instabilis).


Vargas, O.M., Camacho, E.R. & Villalon, E.M. 2005. [Introduction, quarantine and development of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant) in Cuba.] Introducción, cuarentena y desarrollo de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant) en Cuba. (In Spanish.) Fitosanidad 9(3): 69-76.


Varshney, R.K. 2005. Coccid insects in the western Shivalik Himalaya and adjacent areas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Records of the Zoological Survey of India 105(3-4): 141-168. Notes: Altogether 27 species (plus 5 mentioned in Remarks) belonging to 22 genera and 7 families, have been reported from Western part of the Shivalik Himalaya and adjacent areas in Northern India, covering the Indian States of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Some taxonomic citations, distribution in India and host plants are mentioned in each case. San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus) is the earliest known and prominent species. Nine species are known from their original records only, mostly from Himachal Pradesh. One species, Aspidiotus theae, though earlier claimed to occur in Kangra, is not included here, since its host plant (tea) does not occur in this region. Two genera, Humococcus and Drepanococcus, have been reported for the first time here in Indian coccid literature.


Vercambre, B., Goebel, R., Pastou, D., Reumaid, B., Rolet, A. & Jeuffrault E. 2006. [The main sugar cane pests on Reunion Island.] Les sept ravageurs principaux de la canne a sucre a la Reunion: Vegetaux du soleil. (In French with summary in English.) Phytoma 595: 25-28. Notes: The virus vector, Melanaphis sacchari, is among those species mentioned, as well as Aulacaspis tegalensis.


Verma, S.P. & Dinabandhoo, C.L. 2005. Armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) associated with temperate and subtropical fruit trees in Himachal Pradesh. Acta Horticulturae 696: 423-426. Notes: [Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperate Zone Fruits in the Tropics and Subtropics, (Chauhan, J.S., Sharma, S.D., Sharma, R.C., Rehalia, A.S. & Kumar, K.) Nauni, Solan, India, 14-18 October, 2003.] Scale insects are very important pests of fruit trees and they suck the sap from the above ground plant parts thereby causing the injury. The survey work brought to light eleven species of scale insects infesting different fruit trees in nine districts of Himachal Pradesh, India. The infestations of following diaspidids viz., Aonidiella aurantii was recorded on Citrus spp. (hill lemon, rough lemon, sweet lime and sweet orange) and grapes; Aonidiella orientalis on guava, mango and olive; Aulacaspis tubercularis, Chrysomphalus dictyospermi, Hemiberlesia lataniae and Octaspidiotus tripurensis on mango; Chlidaspis asiatica on apple and plum; Morganella longispina on olive and walnut; Parlatoria oleae on apple, apricot, pear, plum and sweet cherry; Pseudaulacaspis manni on walnut; and Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus] (Comstock) on apple, peach, pear and plum. Out of the above mentioned diaspidids C. asiatica is reported for the first time from India, infesting apple and plum besides, Aulacaspis tubercularis, C. dictyospermi, H. lataniae, O. tripurensis, M. longispina and Pseudaulacaspis manni are reported for the first time from Himachal Pradesh. The distribution, host fruit plants and identification key to all these species are discussed.


Vetek, G. & Penzes, B. 2005. The effect of different growing methods on the incidence of cane pests in Hungarian raspberry plantations. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 28(7): 229-232. Notes: [Use of pheromones and other semiochemicals in integrated control. Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS 6th International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production, Cross, J. & Ioriatti, C. (Eds.), Baselga di Pine, Italy, 26-30 September 2004.] A study was carried out in an autumn-fruiting ('Autumn Bliss') and 2 traditional ('Malling Exploit and 'Fertodi Zamatos') raspberry plantations in Nagyrede, Hungary, between 2002 and 2003 to search for pests probably responsible for cane death, and to study the natural enemies controlling the population of the most important cane pests observed. In 'Autumn Bliss', all canes were cut at the end of each vegetation period (annual growing method), while in 'Malling Exploit' and 'Fertodi Zamatos', there were primocanes and fructocanes every year (biennial growing method). The difference between the growing methods and the cultivars played an important role in the incidence of pests. In the plantations, the most frequent pest damaging canes was raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi). The larvae of the pest were parasitized considerably. The reared parasite was a chalcidoid species belonging to the genus Aprostocetus. The life history of this species was also investigated. Another important pest damaging canes was rose stem girdler (Agrilus aurichalceus [ A. macroderus]) in the plantations, but the pest was less dangerous in the annual growing method ('Autumn Bliss'). Further research is needed in connection with the parasite chalcidoid species (Baryscapus agrilorum and Tetrastichus heeringi), which were reared from Agrilus aurichalceus larvae, for their role in the control of the pest population. Other pests (Aulacaspis rosae, Oecanthus pellucens, Atrococcus bejbienkoi and Lasioptera rubi) of raspberry canes were of low significance in contributing to cane death.


Villanueva, R.T., Rodrigues, J.C.V. & Childers, C.C. 2005. Larval Cryptothelea gloveri (Lepidoptera: Psycidae), an arthropod predator and herbivore on Florida citrus. Experimental & Applied Acarology 36(1/2): 83-92. Notes: The orange bagworm (OBW), Cryptothelea gloverii (Packard) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was previously reported feeding on citrus fruit and foliage and preying upon the camphor scale Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Coccidae). In this study using laboratory assays, OBW preyed upon citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and consumed eggs and adults of both P. oleivora and Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), two important pest mites on Florida citrus. OBW was also observed to feed on the purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and on a fungus (Penicillium sp.).


Wada, K., Koda, T. & Aoki, H. 2005. Analytical and preparative separation of Kaoliang and Lac colors by pH-zone-refining CCC.OU. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 28(12/13): 2097-2106. Notes: [3rd International Conference on Countercurrent Chromatography, CCC 2004, Tokyo, Japan, 28-31 August, 2004. Cazes, J. (Ed.)] The natural colouring agents Kaoliang (from Sorghum nervosum [Sorghum bicolor] seed coat) and Lac (from Laccifer lacca [Kerria lacca]) colours were separated using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography (pH-z-CCC) on an analytical or preparative scale. The main components of Kaoliang colour have been reported to be apigeninidin and luteolinidin, however, the structures of other compounds present in the colour have not been elucidated as it is difficult to separate the compounds using conventional chromatographic techniques. Therefore, the separation of this colour was performed by pH-z-CCC that isolated three compounds. LC/MS and SUP 1 H-NMR analyses were used to determine the structures established as a halogenated phenyl compound, p -coumaric acid and methylated apigenin. Lac colour mainly consists of four anthraquinone derivatives, named laccaic acid A, B, C, and E. These four laccaic acids were separated on a large scale by pH-z-CCC. The purified Lac colour (1 g) was submitted to pH-z-CCC with tridodecylamine as a ligand, and produced 790, 41, 109 and 6 mg laccaic acid A, B, C, and D, respectively, with a minimum purity of 96%.


Walter, G.H. & Abeeluck, D. 2006. Confirmation of the existence of alloparasitoids in nature - host relationships of an Australian Coccophagus species that parasitizes mealy bugs. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 118(2): 97-103. Notes: Heteronomous hyperparasitoids are parasitic wasps with sex-related host relationships that are unique to a group of genera in the chalcidoid family Aphelinidae. Females are primary parasitoids of various sedentary bugs (mainly, scale insects, mealy bugs, and whiteflies). Males, in contrast, are hyperparasitic, and they frequently develop at the expense of female conspecifics. Alloparasitoids constitute a special category of heteronomous hyperparasitoids, for their males never develop through female conspecifics. The existence of alloparasitic host relationships and the utility of the category 'alloparasitoid' have both been questioned. Here, we present results that confirm the existence of the alloparasitic way of life among heteronomous aphelinids. We investigated an undescribed species of Coccophagus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), an Australian parasitoid that attacks the introduced lantana mealy bug, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Queensland. A year-long field survey regularly returned large numbers of female Coccophagus spec. near gurneyi individuals from P. parvus (total n=4212), but only few males (n=11). Males emerged from samples only when the encyrtid parasitoid Anagyrus diversicornis (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was present in samples in relatively high numbers. Laboratory oviposition tests confirmed that A. diversicornis is a male host and showed that males do not develop at the expense of conspecific females. Other studies show that males are attracted in numbers to virgin females held in cages above mealy bug-infested Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (Verbenaceae) in the field, demonstrating that they are common in the population as a whole. This confirms that the males need hosts other than conspecific females and that their usual hosts are present outside of the lantana (P. parvus) system. The implications of these results for developing a realistic classification of heteronomous host relationships are discussed.


Wang, C.H., Chen, G.H., Tao, M. & Shi, Y.J. 2006. Studies on the spatial distribution of parasitic wasps on Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green in Kunming. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University 21(3): 311-314. Notes: Five species of wasps (Anicetus ohgushii, Metaphycus pulvinariae, Coccophagus hawaiiensis, Tetrastichus ceroplastae [Aprostocetus ceroplastae] and Pachyneuron bonum) parasitic on Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus were identified under laboratory and field conditions in Kunming, Yunnan, China. A. ohgushii and M. pulvinariae were the most abundant, constituting 88.1% of the population of parasitic wasps. The parasitism rate was 13.4%, on average. The rate of parasitism was higher on the upper than on the lower twigs, and on the shaded portion than on the eutropic or middle portions of Euonymus japonicus. Analysis based on aggregation index, and Taylor's and Iwao's laws revealed that the parasitic wasps showed an aggregated type of distribution.


Wang, Z.H., Huang, J., Lin, Q.Y. & Wang, L.D. 2005. [Investigation and identification of the parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi (Homoptera: Diaspididae).]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University 34(2): 153-157. Notes: The morphological characteristics of Encarsia amicula, E. citrina and Coccobius azumai, which are important parasitoids of H. pitysophila, are described. The distribution and parasitic behaviour of these species are briefly discussed.


Wang, C.H., Tao, M., Chen, G.H. & Shi, Y.J. 2006. [Studies on biological characteristics of Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences 19(2): 239-242. Notes: C. pseudoceriferus infesting ornamental plants grows one generation a year in Kunming, China. The female spawns from mid-April to early May. The nymphs hatch in mid- to late May and develop into adults in August, with the adult females overwintering. Egg development was optimum at 9.46-10.33(deg)C under an effective accumulated temperature of 296.94-319.04 day-degrees.


Wang, Z.L., Wang, S.Y., Ye, S.D., Chen, Y., Feng, Y. & Chen, X.M. 2005. [A study on the relation between the nutritional needs of Ericerus pela (Chavannes) and nutritional component of host plants.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Forest Research 18(4): 421-424. Notes: The relation between the nutritional needs of E. pela and the nutritional components of the host plant (Ligustrum vulgare) was studied. The growth of the female E. pela was correlated with mineral, protein, fat, vitamin and glucose contents of the host plant. Wax secretion of the male E. pela was related to the contents of mineral, water-solubility matter, fibrin and glucose. The total amino acid content of L. vulgare branches decreased by 28.17% due to E. pela. The growth of the female E. pela needed K, Ca and Mn, and the wax secretion of the male E. pela needed K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn.


Wang, P., Wu, J.C., Dong, B., Qiu, Z.H. & Hu, Z.W. 2005. Spatial distribution of Drosicha corpulenta underground. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 42(4): 412-415. Notes: The underground distribution of Drosicha corpulenta population was investigated. The distribution and population of the insect were correlated to distance from the base of tree trunk, mainly distributing in 0 to 5 cm soil depth from the base of tree trunk. The analysis of spatial distribution pattern using various distribution pattern indices indicated L, m */ x and C were greater than 1, and C SUB A and I were greater than 0, demonstrating that the insect had an aggregative distribution.


Wang, H.X., Wu, C.H. & Lin, H.F. 2005. [Experiment of using 25% Arktai pesticide for control of citrus armhead scale.]. (In Chinese.) South China Fruits 1: 14. Notes: An experiment was conducted in China with 14-year-old trees of a Satsuma mandarin cultivar grafted on a rootstock of Poncirus trifoliate. Different concentrations of 25% Arktai water dispersible granules [of unstated composition] and 40% Supracide [methidathion] were used for control of citrus arrowhead scale (Unaspis yanonensis). Results showed that a 4000-6000x diluted solution of 25% Arktai water dispersible granules was very effective at killing the scales. The best time for spraying was at the nymphal stage. Its effectiveness could last for 25 days and was superior to 40% Supracide.


Wang, Z.M. & Xu, X.M. 2006. Biological observation and chemical control of the white wax scale, an invasive alien species in Changchun City. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Jilin Agricultural University 28(2): 152-154. Notes: The biological characteristics of white wax scale (Ericerus pela), and the chemical control measures used on the pest were evaluated. Mated females pass the winter on twigs and small branches of Ligustrum obtusifolium. In Changchun (Jilin, China), females develop in mid-April and produce a large number of eggs from early to late May. Eggs hatch in early June and tiny crawlers begin to move on the leaf surface. In late August, females settle down for winter after mating with males. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin were the most effective in killing nymphs.


Wardhaugh, C.W., Blakely, T.J., Greig, H., Morris, P.D., Barnden, A., Rickard, S., Atkinson, B., Fagan, L.L., Ewers, R.M. & Didham, R.K. 2006. Vertical stratification in the spatial distribution of the beech scale insect (Ultracoelostoma assimile) in Nothofagus tree canopies in New Zealand. Ecological Entomology 31(2): 185-195. Notes: The degree of infestation by New Zealand sooty beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma assimile, Homoptera: Margarodidae) varies dramatically among adjacent southern beech trees (Nothofagus spp., Fagaceae), but has previously been assumed to be uniformly or randomly distributed within individual host trees. In this study, a full-census survey was conducted from ground level to canopy level on 14 naturally occurring, canopy-dominant red beech (Nothofagus fusca) trees (size range 38.7-107.6 cm diameter at breast height) to determine the degree of within-tree heterogeneity in herbivore density. The within-tree distribution of the sooty beech scale was vertically stratified and highly heterogeneous, with the greatest densities occurring on bark surfaces in the canopy rather than on the trunk, and on the lower rather than upper sides of the branches. The spatial distribution was strongly negatively correlated with trunk and branch diameter, and increasing bark thickness (as a function of diameter) provides a plausible explanation for differences in the establishment and population density of sooty beech scale insects with trunk and branch size. Furthermore, there was a significant change in the spatial distribution of scale insect populations on trunks and branches of trees of increasing diameter at breast height. This indicates a strong temporal component to the spatial dynamics of the sooty beech scale insect driven by changing host phenology. Future studies on phytophagous insects infesting large host trees need to consider more explicitly changes in population dynamics through space and time. Because of the high degree of within-tree heterogeneity in population density, the total population size of scale insects on an individual tree could not be predicted from any measure of population density low on the trunk. However, the dry weight biomass of sooty mould fungi growing on the ground beneath infested trees was a remarkably accurate predictor of the total population.


Wardhaugh, C.W. & Didham, R.K. 2005. Density-dependent effects on the reproductive fitness of the New Zealand beech scale insect (Ultracoelostoma assimile) across multiple spatial scales. Ecological Entomology 30(6): 733-738. Notes: Intraspecific competition can be an important factor influencing the individual fitness of organisms. This study reports density-dependent effects on the fecundity of the beech scale insect (Ultracoelostoma assimile, Hemiptera: Margarodidae) on naturally occurring, canopy-dominant red beech (Nothofagus fusca, Fagaceae) trees in New Zealand. For the first time an increasing intensity of intraspecific competition at increasing spatial scales within individual host trees is demonstrated. Beech scale insect 'tests' containing adult female scale insects and eggs were collected from the trunks of 10 red beech trees [17.7-48.5 cm in diameter at breast height (1.4 m), d.b.h.] with varying densities of scale insect infestation. The relationship between individual female fecundity and scale insect density at three spatial scales: local (within 5 cm), lower trunk (below 2 m above ground level), and whole tree, was tested. Beech scale insect fecundity was density dependent, with total female egg load decreasing with increasing scale insect density. The strength of the density-dependent effect increased with increasing spatial scale, suggesting that scale insects are creating a tree-wide drain on the quality of phloem sap, rather than depleting nutrients from localized, high-density areas within trees. These results indicate that at high densities, the New Zealand beech scale insect can have a negative effect on the nutritional quality of the phloem of red beech, thus negatively affecting conspecifics elsewhere on individual host trees. The increasing intensity of the effect with increasing spatial scale within individual trees emphasizes the importance of measuring density-dependent effects at the appropriate spatial scale.


Wardhaugh, C.W. & Didham, R.K. 2006. Preliminary evidence suggests that beech scale insect honeydew has a negative effect on terrestrial litter decomposition rates in Nothofagus forests of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 30(2): 279-284. Notes: Honeydew production by New Zealand beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is widely considered to have a positive influence on native animal abundance and ecosystem functioning. As a first assessment of whether there is a positive relationship between honeydew throughfall and litter decomposition rates, we placed experimental litter bags in each of 10 high and 10 low honeydew plots in mixed southern beech (Nothofagus) forest at each of two sites, Lakehead and Rotoiti, in the Nelson Lakes National Park. High and low honeydew plots were selected using sooty mould biomass on the forest floor as a surrogate for honeydew through fall, as sooty mould biomass was shown to be strongly correlated (r = 0.906) with scale insect population size at the Rotoiti site. Contrary to our expectation, terrestrial litter decomposition was significantly lower in high honeydew plots than in low honeydew plots, at both Lakehead and Rotoiti. The presence of introduced wasps (Vespula spp., Hymenoptera: Vespidae) at the Lakehead site did not appear to have any significant effect on litter decomposition rates, despite the fact that wasps are thought to intercept much of the honeydew produced in this forest. Variance in litter decomposition rates between high and low honeydew treatments was predominantly determined by a direct relationship between sooty mould biomass and litter decomposition rate at the scale of individual litter bags. However, the mechanistic explanation for the observed relationship is unclear. Future studies should be directed towards quantifying the functional relationship between honeydew through fall and growth rates of sooty mould, and their subsequent effects on abiotic conditions, microarthropod community dynamics and microbial activity rates in litter.


Weckel, M., Tirpak, J.M., Nagy, C. & Christie, R. 2006. Structural and compositional change in an old-growth eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis forest, 1965-2004. Forest Ecology and Management 231(1/3): 114-118. Notes: Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) was once relatively common in the northeastern USA. However, recent disturbances - including exotic pests (Adelges tsugae and Fiorinia externa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) overpopulation - have exacerbated declines in eastern hemlock forest in the 20th century. As a previously undisturbed stand, the Mianus River Gorge Preserve (MRGP) in New York provided an ideal site to investigate the potential impact of these factors on the structure and composition of old-growth eastern hemlock forests. The woody vegetation of this forest was first surveyed in 1965 and then again in 2004. The overstorey tree community was similar between the two time periods with eastern hemlock dominant in both samples. Conversely, seedlings, saplings, and transgressives exhibited sharp declines in most species, including eastern hemlock, which resulted in dissimilar community composition and structure for these age classes between 1965 and 2004. Despite relative continuity in the dominance of mature eastern hemlocks, low recruitment due to overbrowsing makes the long-term persistence of eastern hemlock in the old-growth forest of MRGP tenuous.


Wei, K.J. 2006. [Bionomics of Bambusaspis miliaris on bamboo Dendrocalamopsis oldhami.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Kungchong Zhishi 43(3): 400-403. Notes: Bambusaspis miliaris (Boisduval) is a new pest of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami (Munro) Keng f. It has one generation per year in Youxi Region of Fujian Province and overwinters as first-instar nymph and a few eggs on the stalks, branches and leaves of the bamboos. The fecundity was from 10 to 105 per female adult with an average of 43.0 eggs. The peak periods for adult emergence and oviposition were in the third ten-days of May and in the third ten-days of June respectively. By injecting 2 [approximately] 5 mL of 40% Rogor into the bamboo stalk, the scale mortality was above 93.8%.


Whitfield, J.B. 2006. Revision of the Nearctic species of the genus Pholetesor Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Zootaxa 1144: 3-94. Notes: The nearctic species of the microgastrine braconid wasp genus Pholetesor are revised for the first time, based on examination of museum specimens and on the results of a broad rearing survey of leafmining moths (the recorded hosts), especially in the western U. S. Twenty one valid species are recognized. Toumeyella sp. is among the hosts identified.


Wiesenborn, W. D. 2005. Biomass of arthropod trophic levels on Tamarix ramosissima (Tamaricaceae) branches. Environmental Entomology 34(3): 656-663. Notes: Tamarix ramosissima Ledebour (Tamaricaceae) is an invasive shrubby tree naturalized in riparian areas throughout the western United States. Biomasses of arthropod taxa on T. ramosissima branches were quantified as dry mass per plant dry mass on three trees at each of three sites near surface water at Las Vegas Wash, NV, during 2002 and 2003. Biomass of two phytophagous-arthropod taxa, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and Chionaspis spp. (Homoptera: Diaspididae), comprised 97.7% of arthropod biomass and varied among sites and among trees within sites. Their biomass was positively related to percent water of branches. Biomass of O. stactogalus was strongly associated with those of its parasites, Polynema saga (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) and Gonatopus sp. (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), and predatory Dictynidae (Araneae) and weakly associated with those of omnivorous Attalus spp. (Coleoptera: Melyridae) and Formica xerophila M. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Biomass of Chionaspis spp. was only associated with biomass of predatory Cybocephalus californicus Horn (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Biomass of predatory Salticidae (Araneae) was not associated with that of either phytophagous arthropod taxon. Low percentage of secondary-consumer biomass and large fluctuations in biomasses of O. stactogalus and Chionaspis spp. between years suggest populations of phytophagous arthropods on T. ramosissima are not regulated by natural enemies. T. ramosissima branches offer vertebrates arthropod prey with low diversity and highly variable biomass.


Williams, D.J. 2005a. An account of the mealybug genus Paraputo Laing (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in the Pacific region. Journal of Natural History 39(37): 3343-3358. Notes: The mealybug genus Paraputo is discussed from the Pacific region and three new species, P. aracearum sp. no., P. chimbuensis sp. nov., and P. guadalcanalae sp. nov., are described and illustrated. They are discussed with two species. P. kukumi Williams and P. leveri (Green), already known from the area. Most of the species are found on economic plants and one of the mealybugs, P. leveri, has been recorded as possibly invasive. A key to adult females is provided.


Williams, D.J. & Gertsson, C.A. 2005. Linnaeus and his several descriptions of the scale insect Coccus uvaeursi, now known as Eriococcus uvaeursi (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae). Journal of Natural History 39(38): 3419-3422. Notes: The felt scale insect Eriococcus uvaeursi (Linnaeus) was first described under the valid binomen Coccus uvaeursi by Linnaeus (1767), not by Linnaeus (1761) as listed previously in scale insect literature. The name was made valid by a description of the species by Linnaeus (1759), a work originally published in Swedish and translated herein into English.


Williams, D.J., Gullan, P.J., Englberger, K. & Moore, A. 2006. Report on the scale insect Icerya imperatae Rao (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Margarodidae) seriously infesting grasses in the Republic of Palau. Micronesica 38(2): 267-272. Notes: Icerya imperatae Rao (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Margarodidae: Iceryini) is reported as a new pest in the Republic of Palau where it has caused serious damage to grasses used for erosion control. The only previous published record of this scale is from the Philippines but here we also document it for the first time on various species of Poaceae in Australia, Brunei and Malaysia. We also discuss the distribution and pest status of five other species of Iceryini recorded from the Pacific region. These are Icerya aeqyptiaca (Douglas), I. purchasi Maskell, I. seychellarum (Westwood), Crypticerya jacobsoni (Green) and Steatococcus samaraius Morrison.


Williams, D.J. & Henderson, R.C. 2005. A new species of the mealybug genus Rastrococcus Ferris (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) from New Zealand. Zootaxa 1985: 47-60. Notes: A new species of the mealybug genus Rastrococcus Ferris, R. namartini sp. nov., is described from New Zealand. It feeds on Myrsine australis (A. Rich.) Allan and, although it is related to R. asteliae (Maskell), the only other species in the genus known from New Zealand, it seems to be most similar to R. matileae Williams & Watson, described from New Caledonia. In addition to the adult female, the first instar, second-instar male, prepupa and pupa are also described and illustrated. The adult female differs from all other species in the genus in possessing only 10 pairs of distinct cerarii.


Williams, D.J. & Matile-Ferrero, D. 2005a. Mealybugs from Zanzibar and Pemba islands with a discussion of a potential invasive species (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae). (In English with summary in French.) Revue Française d'Entomologie 27(4): 145-152. Notes: This paper provides a list of mealybug species known from Zanzibar and Pemba islands based on specimens in The Natural History Museum, London, and from published records. Trionymus longipilosus (a possible invasive species) is here redescribed and transferred to the genus Crisicoccus. Formicococcus cocotis sp. nov. is described from Zanzibar on coconut. Some species described in the genus Eurycoccus from Africa and neighbouring areas are transferred to Crisicoccus, and all African species formerly included in the genus Planococcoides are transferred to Formicococcus. The name Planococcoides lamabokensis is here synonymized with Planococcoides njalensis syn. nov. and transferred herein to Formicococcus.


Wittenberg, R. & Cock, M.J.W. 2005. Best practices for the prevention and management of invasive alien species. Page p. 232 in Mooney, H.A., Mack, R.N., McNeely, J.A., Neville, L.E., Schei, P.J. & Waage, J.K. (Eds.), Invasive Alien Species: a new synthesis. Washington; Delemont, Switzerland: Island Press; CABI Bioscience Centre.  Notes: Prevention is the first and most cost-effective defense against invasive alien species. The use of species lists in prevention is discussed, and three further principal strategies to reduce introductions (interception, treatment and trade prohibition) are outlined. The value of early detection and the need for contingency plans are covered. Even the most effective prevention and early warning systems have leaks, so control options must be investigated; the factors that a management project dealing with invasive species must address are given. Best practices in eradication, containment and control (including mechanical, chemical and biological control, habitat management and integrated pest management) are outlined. The following examples are given: the Australian Defense Force s efforts to prevent the introduction of species from East Timor by returning troops, public awareness and early detection of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia, eradicating screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax) from North America and North Africa and biological control of the orthezia scale (Orthezia insignis) on St. Helena to save the endemic tree, Commidendrum robustum.


Wolff, V.R.S. & Ketterl, J. 2005. [Phoenicococcus cribiformes sp. n. (Hemiptera, Phoenicococcidae) on Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) (Araucariaceae) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.]. (In Portuguese with summary in English.) Insecta Mundi 19(1/2): 85-87. Notes: [Original title: Phoenicococcus cribiformes sp. n. (Hemiptera, Phoenicococcidae) em Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) (Araucariaceae) no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.] The scale insect Phoenicococcus cribiformes sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides P. marlatti, this is the second known species of the family Phoenicococcidae. The adult female of P. cribiformes differs from P. marlatti showing cribiform plates on the first abdominal segments. It was collected on Araucaria angustifolia, the so-called Parana pine, inside the bark of the tree trunk. An association with ants of Brachymyrmex sp. was observed.


Wright, M.G. & Diez, J.M. 2005. Coconut scale Aspidiotus destructor (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) seasonal occurrence, dispersion and sampling on banana in Hawaii. (In English with summary in French.) International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 25(2): 80-85. Notes: Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (coconut scale) occurs on bananas in Hawaii, infesting leaves and fruit. Seasonal population fluctuations on two banana varieties and a preliminary sampling plan for management decision making are described. There were distinct seasonal variations in A. destructor numbers on bananas in Hawaii and varietal differences in population densities and proportions of plants infested, with cv. Cavendish incurring highest A. destructor populations. An aggregated dispersion was found for A. destructor. A preliminary sequential sampling plan based on a nominal threshold is provided.


Wu, S.A. 2005. [Morphological descriptions on immature stages of Porisaccus jiuhuaensis (Wu) and the origin of bag-like appendage (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Beijing Forestry University 27(6): 89-90.


Wu, S.J. 2006. Description of a new genus and a new species of Asterolecaniidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from Hainan Province. Entomotaxonomia 28(1): 46. Notes: Elagatis tongzaense gen. et sp. nov. is described based on materials collected from Hainan Province, China, during 1995-98. This insect is found on the host plant Sinocalamus sp.


Wu, S.A. & Cheng, G.F. 2006. A description of a new species of genus Neogreenia MacGillivray from China (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Margarodidae). (In Chinese with summary in English.) Scientia Silvae Sinicae 42(4): 62-64. Notes: A new species, Neogreenia sophorica Wu, collected from Beijing inside bark tissue of Sophora japonica is described and illustrated with its adult female, egg, 1st and 2nd instar nymph. The new species can be easily distinguished from other species in genus Neogreenia by claw with 2 minute denticles. A new combination is constructed for Kuwania osmanthus, transferring from genus Kuwania to genus Neogreenia. A key to the world species of genus Neogreenia is also given. All type specimens are deposited in the Insect Collections of Department of Forestry Protection, Beijing Forestry University. Adult female: body elongate with marked segmentation, orange yellowish in colour, 3.75 [approximately] 6.05 mm long and 1.70 [approximately] 2.75 mm wide. Antennae ten-segmented. Mouthpart developed. Leg in 3 pair, at apex of tibia with a tuft of 5 [approximately] 8 digitules acute in form, tarsus bowed distinctly, claw with 2 denticles and 1 pair of acute digitules. Thoracic spiracles each with a group of multilocular pores at inner end of atrium; abdominal spiracles in 6 pairs, all smaller than the thoracic ones, with small amount of multilocular pores within its atrium. Derm bearing 2 types of disc pores: the one being multilocular pore, the other simple disc pore. First instar nymph: body elongate, yellowish in colour, about 0.76 mm long and 0.27 mm wide. Antennae seven-segmented. Mouthpart and legs much developed, claw with 1 denticle at its plantar surface. Abdominal spiracles only 1 pair. Abdominal sternite VI and NI each with a circulus. Second instar nymph (cyst) : body oval, about 3.8 mm long and 2.0 mm wide. Antennae reduced. Legs entirely absent. Abdominal spiracles in 5pairs. Holotype: 1 adult female, Dongcheng District, Beijing; inside hark tissue of Sophora japonica, May 3, 2004; Coll. Cheng Guifang. Paratypes: 10 adult females, 8 1st instar nymphs and 7 2nd instar nymphs, from April 24 to May 3, 2004; other data as holotype.


Xia, C.Y., Zhang, W., Sun, X.Q., Li, H.P. & Dai, G.H. 2005. Observations on biological habits of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell in Shanghai. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University - Agricultural Science 23(4): 439-442. Notes: Ceroplastes rubens annually produces one generation in Shanghai, China. It overwinters as a fertilized female. The peak of hatched eggs is from late-May to early-June while the peak of egg hatching is mid-June. The results are presented of a related experiment conducted to determine the efficacy of insecticides against C. rubens under field conditions.


Xian, J.D., Liang, G.W. & Song, F.Y. 2005. [The life table of experimental population of Chloropuicinaria [Chloropulvinaria] psidii in litchi.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Journal of South China Agricultural University 26(3): 34-36. Notes: The life table of experimental population of Chloropuicinaria psidii Mask. was constructed. The analysis results showed that the intrinsic rate increase (rn) was 0.196, and the finite rate of increase (,l) was 1.22, while mean period of a generation (T) was 20.84 days, and net reproductive rate (Ro) was 59.51. The index of experimental population trend (I) was 59.98. It was expressed that the next population of C. psidii would increase 59.98 times without any interference in the environment.


Xie, Y.P. & Xue, J.L. 2005. [Ultra-morphology and chemical composition of waxes secreted by two wax scale insects, Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius) and C. japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae).]. (In Chinese.) Acta Entomologica Sinica 48(6): 837-848. Notes: The ultra-morphology and chemical composition of waxes secreted by the scale insects, Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius) and C. japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae) were studied with the techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results indicate that the two wax scale insects have a similar waxy secretion and wax test forming process. The scale insects in their first and second instars secreted dry wax that formed a star-shaped test. Every wax horn around the margin of the test consists of two segments. This corresponds to the two developmental instars. Furthermore, each of the two segments of the wax horn included many sub-segments. Meanwhile, wax accumulated into a cap-like structure with many layers on the dorsal region of the body. It was believed that some kind of rhythm existed in the secretion of wax. A lot of striate punctures formed wax glands that are not usually found with on slide specimens of wax scale insects observed under light microscopy. As the scales developed into the 3rd instar and adult stage, the wax secretion changed into "wet state" and formed a waxy test in tortoise shell shape. The wax glands on the dorsal surface mainly are trilocular and quadrilocular pores. Dense wax pores arranged in longitudinal strips were also found on the anal plates. The main chemical compositions of the wax secretions of the two scale insects were determined with GC/MS by the esterification and unesterification. For C. ceriferus, 14 and 14 compounds were determined from its wax secretion with the two methods respectively; while 10 and 25 compounds were determined respectively from the wax secretion of C. japonicus. The main compositions of the wax secretions include a series of long chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohol, esters, and some compounds with ring structures of multi-, macro-, or heterocyclic ring. Their biological functions were discussed.


Xie, Y.P., Xue, J.L. & Zheng, L.Y. 2005. [The ultra-morphology and chemical composition of waxes secreted by a scale insect Physokermes shanxiensis (Homoptera: Coccidae).]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Scientia Silvae Sinicae 41(3): 206-211. Notes: The ultra-morphology and chemical composition of waxes secreted by the scale insect Physokermes shanxiensis (Homoptera: Coccidae) was researched with the techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared absorption spectra (IR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The result indicated that the scale insect secreted wet wax in its nymph stage. The wet wax coagulated into translucent wax covering on the body surface. However, the female adult secreted its wax secretion with white color and long thread form. According to the infrared absorption spectra characteristic of the waxes, it can be known that both waxes either from male nymph or female adult were composed by a series of saturated and unsaturated long carbon chain compounds. But the two waxes are different in the chemical functional group's kind and numbers that composed the compounds, because of the differences in absorption peaks' numbers and forms which appeared in the two infrared spectra from the wave number 1 800 cm-1 to 1 000 cm-1. Through detected with GC/MS, 14 compounds with carbon atom number form C13 to C32 were obtained form the wax of the male scale insect. These compounds included 5 saturated higher fatty acids, 1 unsaturated higher fatty acid, 1 saturated higher fatty alcohol, 1 unsaturated higher fatty alcohol, 1 unsaturated ester, 1 saturated aldehyde. and 4 saturated alkane compounds.


Xu, Z.H., Chen, J.H. & Huang, J. 2005. Notes on two genera of encyrtids newly recorded from China with descriptions of three new species (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 30(3): 609-612. Notes: The present paper describes three new species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea), collected from Jilin and Fujian Provinces, China, i.e. Cerchysiella citricola Xu, sp. nov., Neocladella platicornis Xu, sp. nov., and Schilleriella brevipterus Xu, sp. nov. The first species is a parasitic in the predacious beetle Cybocephalis nipponicus Endr. -Younga. The second species host is unknown, the third species host is mealy bug. The genera Neocladella Girault and Schilleriella Ghesquiere are first recorded from China. The specimens of the three species are deposited in the Institute of Applied Entomology, Agriculture & Biotechnology College, Zhejiang University.


Xu, Z.H. & Lin, X.H. 2005. [Two new species of parasitoids on scale insects on fruit tree (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Scientia Silvae Sinicae 41(2): 96-99. Notes: The paper presents one new species of the genus Coccidencyrtus Ashmead, i.e. Coccidencyrtus longiclavatus Xu sp. nov. collected from Shangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian in China. A key for three species of Coccidencyrtus Ashmead from China is given. One new species of the genus Mayrencyrtus Hincks are presented in this paper, i.e. Mayrencyrtus longiscapus Xu sp. nov. collected from Shanxi, Shaanxi in China. All specimens are deposited in the Institute of Applied Entomology, College of Agriculture & Biotechnology, Zhejiang University. Coccidencyrtus longiclavatus Xu, sp. nov. Host: Quadraspidiotus pernisiosus on pear tree, Lopholeucaspis japonica on Citrus, Diaspids on walnut tree. Distribution: Shangdong (Tai'an) , Jiangsu (Donghai), Zhejiang (Linhai), Fujian (Jianning). This species is similar to Coccidencyrtus exiguous Noyes et Ren, and Coccidencyrtus mandibularis Hayat, Alam et Agarwal 1975, but can be distinguished from the latter by 1) antennal scape 4.6 times as long as wide, 2) the first-fifth funicle segments subquadrate, 3) clava as long as funicle and half pedicel combined, with truncated apex. Mayrencyrtus longiscapus Xu sp. nov. Host: Eulecanium gigantea, Drosicha contrahens. Distribution: Shanxi (Taiyuan), Shaanxi (Yangling). This species is similar to Mayrencyrtus japonicus Tachikawa.


Yang, P.Z., Li, K., Sun, Y.Y. & Chen, Y.Q. 2005. [A study on afforestation and utilization of kusum as a lac host.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Forest Research 18(2): 204-208. Notes: A study was conducted on the sowing technology, afforestation, branch utilization and biological characteristics of Schleichera oleosa as lac (Kerria lacca) host. The results showed that seed germination rate could be increased by removing the capsule. Seedlings were raised in March and planted at the beginning of monsoon (June and the first 10 days of July) in Yunnan Province, China. The land suitable for the tree should be deep and loose soil, and good drainage condition such as in the mid- and low area of hillside. Afforestation effect could be better if the tree was planted at the south side of the hill. Young sapling could grow better with scarification, weeding and fertilizer application. S. oleosa was the best host tree for K. lacca and the output of lac was stable during winter and summer. It was also a favourable tree species for keeping brood and producing lac.


Yang, S., Tulake, T. & Li, J. 2005. [Occurrence and infestation of pest insects on apricot in Xinjiang, China.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences 42(5): 363-365. Notes: Approximately 57 species of insect pests infest apricots in Xinjiang, China, among which 19 are serious ones. Brachycaudus helichrysi, Hyalopterus amygdali, Eutetranychus pruni, Bryobia rubrioculus, Apocheima cinerarium, Orthosia incerta, Malacosoma parallela and Euproctis kargalika mainly attack the leaves. Rhynchites auratus, Laspeyresia pomonella [Cydia pomonella], Grapholita molesta and Eurytoma samsonowi mainly attack the flower, fruit and seed. Sphaerolecanium prunastri, Parthenolecanium corni, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [Diaspidiotus perniciosus], Scolytus seulensis, Scolytus rugulosus and Anarsia lineatella mainly attack the branches and stems.


Yang, X.G., Xie, Y.P., Xue, J.L. & Chang, X.X. 2006. Change in volatiles of Diospyros kaki L. f. damaged by Ceroplastes japonicus Green and their attraction to Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology 12(2) Serial No. 60: 215-219. Notes: Diospyros kaki L. f. (Ebenaceae), which could release volatiles to attract a natural enemy ladybug after damaged by Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae), was studied in this paper. The result showed that 74.17% damaged twigs and leaves were found attracting Chilocorus kuwanae, and the undamaged ones were only 20.00%. The volatiles of D. kaki could be greatly changed and had a higher attractive ability to C. kuwanae when the host plant was damaged by C. japonicus. The compounds and relative contents of two volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrum (GC/MS). The volatiles from undamaged twigs and leaves were found with 29 kinds of compounds and 92.98% relative contents of hydrocarbons, and those from damaged ones with 32 kinds and 97.15%. Furthermore, 3 kinds of alcohol and 2 of hydrocarbon disappeared from the volatiles, and 8 new compounds were found, including 4 kinds of hydrocarbon, 3 of terpene and 1 of ketone. These new compounds possibly possessed biological function in attracting C. kuwanae. D. kaki was shown to release infochemicals to attract natural enemies after it was damaged. The result could be used in ensuring infochemicals, simulating attractant and exploring new approach in biological control.


Yesil, A., Gurkan, B., Saracoglu, O., Zengin, H. 2005. Effect of the pest Marchalina hellenica Gennadius (Homoptera, Margarodidae) on the growth parameters of Pinus brutia Ten. in Mugla Region (Turkey). Polish Journal of Ecology 53(3): 451-458. Notes: Marchalina hellenica Gennadius is a common pest prevalent in Pinus brutia Ten. forests in Mugla province of Mediterranean Region of Turkey (28 degrees 20'03"E; 37 degrees 12'18"N). The pest is known to suck sap from a number of pine tree species, especially Pinus brutia. The goal of this research is to determine whether the pest has a negative impact on the volume increments of Pinus brutia trees and forests. Two areas with identical site conditions are selected for study: one non-infested and one infested with Marchalina hellenica. The effects of site quality and age on the sampled trees have been eliminated. The diameter growth at breast height, basal area (the cross-sectional area of a tree at breast height) and the increment of tree volume are determined separately for both study areas. A t-test applied to volume increments of both infested and noninfested trees of all ages proves that infestation causes significant negative impacts on trees between the ages of 40 and 80 years. The greatest loss of increment in single trees is 2.0% (of the volume of non-infested tree) which occurs at the age of 70 years old. When considering the entire stand, the greatest loss of increment is 3.4% (of the volume of non-infested stand) which occurs at the age of approximately 45 years.


Yu, G.S., Peng, X.L. & Zhang, G.X. 2006. Bionomics of Sonsaucoccus sinensis in the western Henan Province. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Zhongguo Senlin Bingchong 25(2): 9-11.


Zappala, L., Siscaro, G., Saraceno, F., Palmeri, V. & Raciti, E. 2006. Quality control in Aphytis melinus mass rearing for the biological control of Aonidiella aurantii. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 181-186. Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] Laboratory trials were conducted to test the quality of the parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), the main bio-control agent of the California Red Scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Homoptera: Diaspididae), reared in the insectary of the Sicilian Regional Phytosanitary Service. The trials were conducted following the guidelines of the IOBC working group "Quality control of mass reared arthropods", under the following conditions 25+/-2(deg)C, 60+/-10% RH, 16L:18D. The parameters analyzed were the number of adults as specified on the releasing container, the sex-ratio (100 adults from bulk material), survival in transport (1000 adults maintained at 17+/-2(deg)C for 5 days in a container with honey on the lid) and fecundity (observed on 30 females placed individually in contact for 5 days with 100 specimens of Aspidiotus nerii Bouche (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on squash). The data on the number of adults confirmed the quantities indicated on the containers and averaged 5000+/-500 (n=3). The percentage of females was 70.8+/-4.6% (n=5) and the percentage of mortality after 5 days was 9.3 (n=5). The mean progeny produced per single female was 39.67+/-10.63% (n=3).


Zhang, Y.Z. & Huang, D.W. 2006. Species of Caenohomalopoda (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from China. Oriental Insects 40: 213-218. Notes: Caenohomalopoda chinensis, sp. nov., is described from south-westem China. Caenohomalopoda guamensis (Fullaway) is recorded from China for the first time. A key to species of Caenohomalopoda is provided. Scanning electron micrographs and photographs are given to show diagnostic characters of the genus. The type specimens are deposited in the collection of the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Hosts include Odonaspis greeni.


Zhang, A., Liu, Y.S., Zhang, D., Zhi, L.S. & Wang, Q.H. 2005. [The study on bionomics of Aschersonia sp. parasitizing in Asterodiaspis variabile (Russell).]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Natural Enemies of Insects 27(2): 68-75.