Description.--Length: 5mm (Minipsyrassa, Curtomerus, Nesanoplium) - 37mm (Aneflus, Romulus, Enaphalodes), typically 10-20mm. Proportions: Elytron length/width: 4 (Romulus, Enaphalodes) - 8 (Psyrassa, Aneflomorpha). Pronotum length/width: 0.7 (Elaphidion, Sphaerion) - 1.5 (Aneflomorpha, Neoperiboeum). Head: Eyes large in most taxa, occupying greater than 50% of head as viewed laterally. Ommatidial size usually coarse. Mandibles stout with incisor region only slightly modified with, at most one or two relatively undifferentiated teeth. Mandibles typically asymmetrical with the left mandible having one more "tooth" or notch corresponding to the teeth on the right mandible. Terminal palpomeres (labial and maxillary) typically with well
defined, apically-positioned digitiform sensillum patch. In some clades, the sensillum is apparently lost from the labial palpi. Terminal palpomeres are typically moderately to strongly expanded apically with the width at apex much greater than the width at base. Palpomere segments are generally short and thick with length typically < 1.5X width. Mesal antennal spines present and acute in most taxa. Antennae of most taxa with single or double carina dorsally. Antennae 11
segmented with rare exceptions. Antennae dimorphic with males having longer antennae than females. Typically the third and eleventh antennomeres are much longer in males than females. Typically, in males, the eleventh antennomere is at least 1.3X length of tenth and is slightly constricted antemedially with long setae serially homologous to those at the apex of preceding antennomeres. In females, the constriction and setae, if present, are much less pronounced and the length is about the same as the tenth, or shorter. Prothorax: Pronotum with various combinations of calli or impunctate regions; glabrous and unornamented in some taxa. Lateral pronotal tubercles absent in most taxa, but well-developed in some. Procoxal cavities either open or closed posteriorly and laterally. In some taxa, there is sexual dimorphism with regard to punctation on the prosternum anterior to the procoxae. In these taxa, males have dense, fine punctation surrounded and differentiated from adjacent punctation by a narrow impunctate border. Females appear to have no modification to their prosternal punctation. The prosternal projection between the procoxae is generally gradually declivous and slightly expanded apically. Mesothorax: Mesocoxae either open or closed laterally. Mesosternum with various modifications to anterior margin and mesosternal process between the mesocoxae. Lateral projections into mesocoxae from mesosternum either present or absent. Mesonotum typically with medial lateral projections rounded. Mesonotum with anterior median projection variously modified; either absent, gradually rounded, abruptly rounded, or acute. Stridulatory region of mesonotum well-developed. Scutellum typically rounded posteriorly and not fused to mesonotum from above. Width of scutellum and base of mesonotum approximately equal, normally. Mesepisternum with variously modified carina. Metathorax: Metasternal notch which receives first ventrite (sternite 3), acute normally. Metasternal groove usually complete to posterior plane of metacoxae, but incomplete in many West Indian taxa. Metepisternum narrow, parallel-sided, with small notch at posterior margin which is variously modified. Metepisternal keel midway positioned and more heavily sclerotized below than above in nearly all taxa. Abdomen: Eight visible tergites and 5 visible sternites. Genitalia: Both males and females with typical chrysomeloid genitalia. Variation in aedeagus is primarily in length of parameres, shape of tergite 8, and length and number of setae on parameres, tergite 8, and sternite 8. Variation in females concerns the position of the stylus of the coxite (apical or anteapical), and the length and number of setae present on the stylus. Legs: Femoral apices usually unarmed, sometimes spinose or dentiform mesally and/or laterally. Femoral shape variously modified from linear to pedunculate. Tibial carinae typically present. Femoral carinae normally absent. Wings: Usually with following veins well developed: Subcosta, Radial bar, Radial cell, Median posterior, Cubitus anterior, Medial spur, and Anals. All elaphidiines have the MP4+CuA1 present (this vein is absent from derived tribes within Cerambycinae). Variation occurs in the length of the MP-CuA and CuA1+2. Elytral apices either rounded, truncate, or variously spined. Elytral costae not visible in most genera.
Distribution and Diversity.--As currently recognized, occurring only in North, Central, and South America and the West Indies and comprising 76 genera and 520 species (nine genera synonomized or transferred herein.)