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Anastrepha grandis (Macquart)

Anastrepha grandis female dorsal habitus, drawingAnastrepha grandis wing, photo
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The adults of A. grandis differ from all other Anastrepha species by the narrow, dark brown dorsocentral vittae on the scutum.  The female is further distinguished by the stiletto-like shape of the aculeus tip, which has 2 V-shaped ridges, one dorsally and one ventrally. Anastrepha grandis also differs from most other Anastrepha species in having a complete S-band that is broadly fused to the C-band along the costa, so that there is no hyaline area in cell r1 distal to the apex of vein R1. It differs from the other species with this type of wing pattern except A. shannoni in having cell r2+3 entirely infuscated, and from A. shannoni in having a hyaline area in cell br, the abdomen without redbrown lateral areas, and in terminalia length (Norrbom 1991).

The third stage larva differs from those of all other Anastrepha species described to date by the number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, 28-37 in A. grandis, no more than 23 in the other species (Steck & Wharton 1988, Steck et al. 1990).

Classification and Evolutionary Relationships
Order: Diptera. Family: Tephritidae. Subfamily: Trypetinae. Genus: Anastrepha. Species: grandis. Author: Macquart.
Relationships among the species of Anastrepha were analyzed by Norrbom et al. (1999) and McPheron et al. (1999). Click here for more detailed discussion of Anastrepha phylogeny. Anastrepha grandis has been placed in the grandis species group.

Names Used for this Species
Tephritis grandis Macquart 1846: 340.
Trypeta (Acrotoxa) grandis: Loew 1873: 231.
Anastrepha grandis: Bezzi 1909: 284.
Anastrepha schineri Hendel 1914a: 69. Synonymy (Fischer 1932: 303).
Anastrepha schineri Hendel 1914b: 15, 19. Preoccupied by Hendel 1914a.
Anastrepha latifasciata Hering: 1935: 227. Synonymy (Lima 1937: 63).
mosca da cucurbitáceas Sul Americana
South American cucurbit fruit fly
Click here to link to fly names database

Type data
T. grandis: Lectotype - Female (UMO), designated by Norrbom (1991: 119), "De la Nouvelle-Grenade [Colombia or Venezuela]. Collection de M. Bigot". The lectotype was the only putative syntype of T. grandis found in the exotic cabinet of the Bigot Collection (UMO). It bears a label with "Tephritis grandis n. sp." in Macquart's writing and "[female symbol], Nov. Granata, Macq. D. Exot. nom." in Bigot's writing. It is missing both wings, but is clearly recognizable as this species by its body color and terminalia, especially the tip of the aculeus, which is slightly projecting as is common in this species and as is shown in Macquart's illustration (Tab. 18, fig. 14). Nueva Granada was the Spanish colony including Colombia and Venezuela.

A. schineri Hendel 1914a: Syntype(s) - Male, number unstated, Bolivia.

A. schineri Hendel 1914b: Holotype - Male (MNM), "aus Bolivia, Coroica" [= La Paz: Coroica]. The holotype has a label with "Bolivia Coroico", a label with "Anastrepha schineri H. typus det. Hendel" in Hendel's writing, and an orange bordered "typus" label.

A. latifasciata: Holotype - Female (PAN), "von Sta. Catharina, Sammler Lüderwaldt." The type locality is the state or perhaps the island of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The holotype has the following labels: "S. Catarina, Lüderwaldt" (green), "Type" (orange), "Anastrepha [female symbol] det. Dr. Enderlein", and "Anastrepha latifasciata m. Type, det. M. Hering 1935". Norrbom (1991) added holotype and determination labels.

Western Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, northern Argentina, and southern Brazil. There is one questionable record from Panama (Stone 1942); the single female in the USNM on which it was probably based was intercepted from a plane or ship from Panama, but it is not certain that the cargo in which it was found originated in Panama. In the Andean countries A. grandis appears restricted to lower elevations of the Andean cordillera and bordering areas. It has not been detected in the lowland coastal melon-growing region of Ecuador (Harper 1987). In Venezuela A. grandis is known from the states of Aragua, Carabobo, Barinas, and Zulia (Caraballo 1981), and in Brazil it has been reported from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul (Norrbom 1991, Malavasi & Zucchi 2000). It has not been reported from the Guianas, eastern Venezuela, Amazonia, and northeastern Brazil. In the latter country it has been collected only as far north as Bahia (Bondar 1950), Goiás, and Mato Grosso (Zucchi 1978) and has not been detected in the north despite extensive surveys (see Malavasi & Zucchi 2000).
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Anastrepha grandis has been reported to attack the fruits of various native and introduced species of Cucurbitaceae (see Norrbom 2000 for full list of host records). The only known hosts native to the Neotropics are Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Duchesne and C. maxima Duchesne (Blanchard 1961, Malavasi et al. 1980, Boscán et al. 1980, Caraballo 1981, Molineros et al. 1992, Souza Filho et al. 2000, Uchôa & Zucchi 2000). In addition, A. grandis has been reported to attack introduced cucurbits such as Cucurbita pepo L. from North America (Lima 1926, Fischer 1932, 1934, Gonçalves 1938, Malavasi et al. 1980, Silva & Malavasi 1993a), and the following species native to the Old World: watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai (= Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.)) (Lima 1926, 1934, Gonçalves 1938, Bondar 1950), melon (Cucumis melo L.) (Korytkowski & Ojeda 1968, Silva & Malavasi 1993a), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) (Lima 1926, 1934, Gonçalves 1938), and calabash gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) (Boscán et al. 1980, Caraballo 1981). Fischer (1934) reared one specimen from a guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.), but considered it an abnormal record because the fruit came from a tree in the middle of a field planted with Cucurbita. Oakley (1950) reported Passiflora alata Curtis as a host, but the source of the record is unclear and this plant is a doubtful host.  Records from Citrus also are doubtful.

Nascimento et al. (1988) and Silva & Malavasi (1993a, b, 1996) studied various biological parameters of this species involving oviposition, mating, and duration of life stages. Females lay eggs in clutches of up to 110, and as in many other species of Anastrepha, after laying eggs in a fruit, the female marks its surface with a pheromone that deters oviposition by other females. There are three larval instars, all of which feed inside the fruit. When mature, the third instars tunnel out of the fruit to pupate in the soil. Silva & Malavasi (1996) found the development time to be 3-7 days for the egg, 13-28 days (mean 17.7 days) for the larvae (3 instars), and 14-23 days (mean 19.7 days) for the pupa. Silva & Malavasi (1993a) found larvae developing in melons to have a higher mortality rate than those in pumpkins.

Economic Significance
Anastrepha grandis is a pest of the fruits of various native and introduced species of Cucurbitaceae in many areas of South America (Norrbom 2000). It is considered a pest of quarantine significance by USDA-APHIS-PPQ, and has received considerable attention in regard to the extent to which it attacks melons (Cucumis melo L.), grown commercially in a number of South American countries (Harper 1987, Silva & Malavasi 1993a).  Several species of Cucurbita, including C. pepo L., are more common hosts, and there are also records of A. grandis attacking watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) (Lima 1926, 1934, Gonçalves 1938, Bondar 1950), and calabash gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) (Caraballo 1981). The main damage is caused by the larvae, which feed inside the fruit. Little has been published on control methods for this species. Malavasi et al. (1990) discussed trapping methods and attractants.

Key references are listed below. See fruit fly literature database for additional references.
Aguiar-Menezes, E. L. & E. B. Menezes. 2000. [Moscas-das-frutas nos estados brasileiros] Rio de Janeiro, p. 259-263. In A. Malavasi & R. A. Zucchi, eds., Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Holos, Riberão Preto. 327 p. [Brazil]
Bezzi, M. 1909. Le specie dei generi Ceratitis, Anastrepha e Dacus. Bol. R. Scuola Super. d'Agr., Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agr. Portici 3: 273-313. [p. 284, type data, p. 286, in key]
Bezzi, M. 1919a. Una nuova specie brasiliana del genere Anastrepha (Dipt.). Bol. R. Scuola Super. d'Agr., Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agr. Portici 13: 3-14. [p. 4, in key, p. 6, redescription, Paraguay, Brazil]
Bezzi, M. 1919b. Descoberta de uma nova mosca das fructas no Brazil. Chacaras e Quintaes (1919): 373-374.
Blanchard, E. E. 1937. Dipteros argentinos nuevos o poco conocidos. Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argentina 9: 35-58. [p. 41, Argentina]
Blanchard, E. E. 1961. Especies argentinas de género Anastrepha Schiner (sens. lat.) (Diptera, Trypetidae). Revista de Investigaciones Agricolas (Buenos Aires) 15: 281-342. [p. 288, in key, p. 297, redescription in Spanish, Argentina]
Bondar, G. 1950. Moscas de frutas na Bahia. Bol. do Campo 34: 13-15. [hosts, Brazil]
Boscán de Martínez, N., J. R. Dedordy, and J. R. Requena. 1980. Estado actual de la distribucion geografica y hospederas de Anastrepha spp. (Diptera - Trypetidae) en Venezuela. Agron. Trop. 30: 55-63. [p. 55, host, Venezuela]
Caraballo de Valdivieso, J. 1981. Las moscas de frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela. M.S. thesis, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay. 210 pp. [p. 30, in key, p. 46, redescription in Spanish, hosts, Venezuela]
Fernandez Yepez, F. 1953. Contribucion al estudio de las moscas de las frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Trypetidae) de Venezuela. II Congreso de Ciencias Naturales y Afines (Caracas) Cuaderno no. 7: 1-42. [p. 12, in key, p. 19]
Fischer, C. R. 1932. Nota taxonomica e biologica sobre Anastrepha grandis Macq. (Dipt., Trypetidae). Rev. Entomol. (São Paulo) 2: 302-310. [redescription in Portuguese, larva, schineri synonymy, host, Brazil]
Fischer, C. R. 1934. Variação das cerdas frontaes e outras motas sobre duas especies de Anastrepha Dipt. Trypetidae). Rev. Entomol. (São Paulo) 4: 18-22. [redescription in Portuguese, hosts, Brazil]
Foote, R. H. 1967. Family Tephritidae (Trypetidae, Trupaneidae). In N. Papavero (ed.), A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the United States. Depto. Zool., Sec. Agric., São Paulo, Fasc. 57: 1-91. [p. 11, in catalog]
Garcia, F. R. M. & E. Corseuil. 1998. Análise faunística de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) em pomares de pessegueiro em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Rev. Bras. Zool. 15: 1111-1117. [Brazil]
Gonçalves, C. R. 1938. As moscas de fruitas e seu combate. Experiencias e estudos realisados em 1936. Publ. Min. Agric., Dep. Nac. Prod. Veg., Serv. Def. Sanit. Veg. (Rio J.) No. 12: 1-43. [hosts]
Greene, C. T. 1934. A revision of the genus Anastrepha based on a study of the wings and on the length of the ovipositor sheath (Diptera: Trypetidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 36: 127-179. [p. 132, 138, in keys, p. 145, hosts, Paraguay, Brazil; see also A. shannoni]
Harper, J. D. 1987. Final report to ASOFRUT on the Anastrepha grandis project on honey dew in western Ecuador. Unpublished. 8 pp.
Hendel, F. 1914a. Analytische Ubersicht über die Anastrepha-Arten (Dipt.). Wien Entomol. Z. 33: 66-70. [January] [p. 69, schineri description, Bolivia]
Hendel, F. 1914b. Die Bohrfliegen Südamerikas. K. Zool. Anthrop.-Ethnogr. Mus. Abhandl. Ber. (1912) 14: 1-84. [June] [p. 14, in key, p. 15, in catalog, p. 19, description of schineri again as n. sp.]
Hering, E. M. 1935. Neue südamerikanische Bohrfliegen aus dem Stettiner Museum. (9. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Trypetidae.) (Dipt.). Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 96: 225-229. [p. 227, latifasciata description, Brazil]
Kovaleski, A., K. Uramoto, R. L. Sugayama, N. A. Canal D. & A. Malavasi. 1999. A survey of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera, Tephritidae) species in the apple growing area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 43: 229-234.
Korytkowski, C. & D. Ojeda Peña. 1968. Especies del genero Anastrepha Schiner 1868 en el nor-oeste peruano. Rev. Peru. Entomol. 11: 32-70. [p. 37, hosts, p. 43]
Korytkowski, C. & D. Ojeda Peña. 1969. Distribucion ecologia de especies del genero Anastrepha Schiner en el nor-oeste Peruano. Rev. Peru. Entomol. 12: 71-95. [p. 78-79, Peru]
Lima, A. M. da Costa. 1926. Sobre as moscas de frutas que vivem no Brasil. Chacaras Quintaes 34: 21-24. [p. 21, hosts, Brazil]
Lima, A. M. da Costa. 1934. Moscas de frutas do genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Trypetidae). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 28: 487-575. [p. 496, redescription in Portuguese, male terminalia, hosts, Brazil, p. 555, in key]
Lima, A. M. da Costa. 1937. Novas moscas de frutas do genero Anastrepha (Diptera: Trypetidae). O Campo 8: 34-38, 60-64. [p. 63, latifasciata synonymy]
Loew, H. 1873. Monographs of the Diptera of North America, pt. III. Smithsn. Misc. Collect. 11 (no. 256): 1-351.
Macquart, J. P. M. 1846. Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Ier Supplément. Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Agric. Arts, Lille (1845) 1844: 133-364 + 20 pls.  [p. 340, description].
Malavasi, A., A. L. A. Duarte & G. Cabrini. 1990. Field evaluation of three baits for South American cucurbit fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) using McPhail traps. Fla. Entomol. 73: 510-512.
Malavasi, A., J. S. Morgante & R. A. Zucchi. 1980. Biologia de "moscas-das-frutas" (Diptera, Tephritidae). I. Lista de hospedeiros e ocorrencia. Rev. Bras. Biol. 40: 9-16. [p. 11, host, Brazil]
Malavasi, A. & R. A. Zucchi, eds. 2000. Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Holos, Riberão Preto. 327 p. [Brazil]
Molineros, J., J. O. Tigrero & D. Sandoval. 1992. Diagnostico de la situacion actual del problema de las moscas de la fruta en el Ecuador. Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, Direccion de Investigaciones, Quito. 53 p. [hosts, Ecuador]
Nascimento, A. S. do, A. Malavasi & J. S. Morgante. 1988. Programa de monitoramento de Anastrepha grandis (Macquart, 1845) (Dip.; Tephritidae) e aspectos da sua biologia, pp. 54-63. In: H. M. L. de Souza (coord.), Moscas-das-Frutas no Brasil, ANAIS. Fundação Cargill, Campinas, SP, Brazil. [biology]
Norrbom, A. L. 1991. The species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a grandis-type wing pattern. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 93: 101-124. [revision]
Norrbom, A. L. 2001. Host plant database for Anastrepha and Toxotrypana (Diptera: Tephritidae: Toxotrypanini). Diptera Data Dissemination Disc 2 (in press). [hosts]
Norrbom, A. L. & K. C. Kim. 1988. A list of the reported host plants of the species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). U. S. Dept. Agric., Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Hyattsville, MD. 114 pp. [p. 28, hosts]
Silva, J. G. & A. Malavasi. 1993a. The status of honeydew melon as a host of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Entomol. 76: 516-519. [hosts]
Silva, J. G. & A. Malavasi. 1993b. Mating and oviposition behavior of Anastrepha grandis under laboratory conditions, p. 181-184. In M. Aluja S. & P. Liedo F., eds., Fruit flies: Biology and management. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance 1990, Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala, October 14-20, 1990. Springer-Verlag, New York. xxxiii + 492 p. [biology]
Silva, J. G. & A. Malavasi. 1996. Life cycle of Anastrepha grandis, p. 347-351. In B. A. McPheron & G. J. Steck, eds., Fruit fly pests: A world assessment of their biology and management. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach. 586 p. [biology]
Souza Filho, M. F. de. 1999. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus parasitóides (Hymenoptera) em plantas hospedeiras no estado de São Paulo. Thesis, Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba. xi + 173 p.
Souza Filho, M. F. de, A. Raga & R. A. Zucchi. 2000. [Moscas-das-frutas nos estados brasileiros] São Paulo, p. 277-283. In A. Malavasi & R. A. Zucchi, eds., Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Holos, Riberão Preto. 327 p. [host, Brazil]
Steck, G. J., L. E. Carroll, H. Celedonio-Hurtado & J. Guillen-Aguilar. 1990. Methods for identification of Anastrepha larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae), and key to 13 species. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 92: 333-346. [in larval key]
Steck, G. J. & R. A. Wharton. 1988. Description of immature stages of Anastrepha interrupta, A. limae, and A. grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 81: 994-1003. [p. 999, description of larvae, egg]
Steyskal, G. C. 1977. Pictorial Key to Species of the Genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomological Society of America, Washington, D.C. 35 pp. [p. 7, in key]
Stone, A. 1942. The fruitflies of the genus Anastrepha. U. S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Publ. No. 439, 112 pp. [p. 12, in key, p. 22, redescription, female terminalia, hosts, Panama]
Tigrero, J. O. 1998. Revisión de especies de moscas de la fruta presentes en el Ecuador. Published by the author, Sangolquí, Ecuador. 55 p. [Ecuador]
Uchôa F., M. A. & R. A. Zucchi. 2000. [Moscas-das-frutas nos estados brasileiros] Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul, p. 241-245. In A. Malavasi & R. A. Zucchi, eds., Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Holos, Riberão Preto. 327 p. [host, Brazil]
White, I. M. & M. M. Elson-Harris. 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: Their identification and bionomics. CAB International, Wallingford, 601 p. [p. 136, review, habitus illustration, host list]
Zucchi, R. A. 1978. Taxonomia das especies de Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) assinaladas no Brasil. Ph. D. dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil. 105 pp. [p. 17, in key, p. 56, redescription in Portuguese, Brazil]
Zucchi, R. A. 2000. Taxonomia, p. 13-24. In A. Malavasi & R. A. Zucchi, eds., Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Holos, Riberão Preto. 327 p. [in key]

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Content by Allen L. Norrbom. Last Updated: August 9, 2000.