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Anastrepha normalis Norrbom
|Female head, thorax and abdomen, dorsal.||Wing.|
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Anastrepha normalis is one of the species of the serpentina group with a hyaline area in cell br posterior to the pterostigma that is not extended to vein R4+5. It differs from the other species with this character in having a paler wing pattern. In particular, the middle section of the S-band anterior and distal to crossvein R-M is orange brown with only narrow dark brown margins. A. normalis further differs from all of these species, except A. ornata Aldrich and one female of A. anomala Stone (Maranhão, Brazil) in lacking fine serrations on the aculeus tip. It is most likely to be confused with A. anomala or A. pseudanomala Norrbom, from which it further differs in having the aculeus tip less than twice as long as wide. It differs further from A. anomala in lacking the basolateral lobe on the lateral surstylus and from A. pseudanomala in having the distal section of the S-band slightly broader and sometimes touching the apex of vein M.
Classification and Evolutionary Relationships
Order: Diptera. Family: Tephritidae. Genus: Anastrepha. Species: normalis. Author: Norrbom.
Relationships among the species of Anastrepha were analyzed by Norrbom et al. (1999) and McPheron et al. (1999). Click here for more detailed discussion of Anastrepha phylogeny. Anastrepha normalis has been placed in the serpentina species group. Norrbom (2002) analyzed the relationships among the species of the serpentina group (see Phylogeny of the Anastrepha serpentina group), but the position of A. normalis was not well resolved.
Names Used for this Species
Anastrepha normalis Norrbom 2002: 405.
Anastrepha anomala: Stone 1942: 29 [in part].
Anastrepha sp.: Boscán et al.1980: 61.
Anastrepha n. sp. nr. anomala: McPheron et al. 1999: 346.
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Holotype - Female (Museo y Instituto de Zoología Agricola, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay (IZAM), USNM00052943), VENEZUELA: Falcón: Marcillal [11°12'N 68°50'W], 125 m, 7 May 1993, K.P. Katiyar, reared ex fruit Zschokkea panamensis [= Lacmellea panamensis] ("chirica"), MFAPK-00345.
Anastrepha normalis is known from Panama and Venezuela.
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Lacmellea panamensis (Woodson) Markgr. (Apocynaceae) is probably the only known host plant. Boscán et al. (1980) reared an Anastrepha sp. from "chirica", which they reported as Jaquinia revoluta Jacq. (= J. armillaris Jacq.) (Theophrastaceae) and Caraballo (1981) identified these fly specimens as A. anomala without giving a scientific name for "chirica". I reexamined several specimens of this series and found them to be A. normalis. Because chirica is a common name for L. panamensis (see Specimen data), and the related species A. anomala is also known from this host, it seems likely that all of the Venezuelan records pertain to this plant.
Anastrepha normalis is not considered a pest species.
The name of this species is an adjective referring to the more normal color of the wing pattern (i.e., more common in Anastrepha in general) compared to that of the closely related A. anomala.
Key references are listed below. See fruit fly literature database for additional references.
Boscán de Martínez, N., J. R. Dedordy & J. R. Requena. 1980. Estado actual de la distribucion geografica y hospederas de Anastrepha spp. (Diptera-Trypetidae) en Venezuela. Agronomia Tropical (Maracay) 30: 55-63.
Caraballo, J. 1981. Las moscas de frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela. M.S. thesis, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay. 210 pp.
McPheron, B. A., H.-Y. Han, J. G. Silva & A. L. Norrbom. 1999. Phylogeny of the genera Anastrepha and Toxotrypana (Trypetinae: Toxotrypanini) based upon 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA sequences, p. 343-361. In M. Aluja & A. L. Norrbom, eds., Fruit flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and evolution of behavior. CRC Press, Boca Raton.  + 944 p. [phylogeny]
Norrbom, A. L. 2002. A revision of the Anastrepha serpentina species group (Diptera: Tephritidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104: 390-436. [p. 405, description]
Norrbom, A. L., R. A. Zucchi & V. Hernández-Ortiz. 1999. Phylogeny of the genera Anastrepha and Toxotrypana (Trypetinae: Toxotrypanini) based on morphology, p. 299-342. In M. Aluja & A. L. Norrbom, eds., Fruit flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and evolution of behavior. CRC Press, Boca Raton.  + 944 p. [classification & phylogeny]
Stone, A. 1942. The fruitflies of the genus Anastrepha. U. S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Publ. No. 439, 112 pp.
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Content by Allen L. Norrbom. Last Updated: January 17, 2003.