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Anastrepha striata Schiner
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Anastrepha striata differs from all other species of Anastrepha except A. bistrigata Bezzi in having the dorsal posterior margin of the epandrium with a narrow, V-shaped, medial indentation, and by by the following combination of characters: mesonotum with large, somewhat U-shaped, brown area, often interrupted at transverse suture, but without other brown markings; mediotergite and subscutellum entirely brown or at least brown laterally; thoracic pleuron and abdomen without brown areas; and scutum microtrichose, with broad nonmicrotrichose stripe, sometimes interrupted at transverse suture, on dorsocentral line. These two species share additional characters, including: wing bands, particularly middle section of S-band, mostly orange brown; cell br with hyaline area posterior to pterostigma extending width of cell, reaching vein R4+5; aculeus tip broad, at least 0.17 mm wide, and bluntly triangular; and lateral surstylus with rounded subapical lateral lobe. Anastrepha striata differs from A. bistrigata by the following characters: oviscape less than 2.8 mm long, less than 0.90 times mesonotum length; aculeus less than 2.5 mm long; scutum with brown areas usually interrupted at transverse suture; setulae usually strongly contrasting white and dark brown, absent on narrow area lateral to postsutural nonmicrotrichose area; distal section of S-band slightly narrowed to moderately broad, at apex of vein R2+3 0.44-0.63 times width of cell r2+3; aculeus tip 0.24-0.31 mm long; and lateral surstylus slightly longer and narrower and more or less parallel to the opposite surstylus. The scutal microtrichia are usually denser and whiter in appearance in oblique anterior view than in A. bistrigata, and the wing bands are usually slightly paler.
The third stage larva is very similar to that of A. bistrigata. These two species differ from those of the other Anastrepha species described to date by the following combination of characters: dorsal spinules separate, conical, in fewer than 5-6 rows on meso- and metathorax, but present on first, second, and usually third abdominal segments; anterior spiracle with 12-23 tubules; posterior spiracular processes SP-I and SP-IV with average of 13-23 trunks and 23-49 tips, hair length at least one-third length of spiracular opening (Steck et al. 1990).
Classification and Evolutionary Relationships
Order: Diptera. Family: Tephritidae. Subfamily: Trypetinae. Genus: Anastrepha. Species: striata. Author: Schiner.
Relationships among the species of Anastrepha were analyzed by Norrbom et al. (1999b) and McPheron et al. (1999). Click here for more detailed discussion of Anastrepha phylogeny. Anastrepha striata has been placed in the striata species group.
Names Used for this Species
Anastrepha striata Schiner 1868: 264.
Dictya cancellaria Fabricius 1805: 328. Synonymy (Norrbom et al. 1999a: 82).
guava fruit fly
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Dictya cancellaria: Lectotype (designated by Norrbom 2002: 426) - Female (UZMC), Guyana, Smidt. It bears the following labels: TYPE [red]; and D. cancellaria, ex. Am. Mer. Schmidt [handwritten]. Fabricius described this nominal species from an unstated number of syntypes of unstated sex from America meridionali collected by Smidt. According to Zimsen (1964) and Papavero (1971: 21), the Fabrician specimens with this data originated from the West Indies or Guyana, the latter of which must be the type locality since this species is not known from the Antilles. There is also a female paralectotype in the UZMC collection, which has only the red TYPE label. Both specimens are in good condition. They are unusual in having only one orbital seta, but otherwise fit the concept of this species. The hyaline spot in cell r1 is small, and as in many specimens from the Guianas, the distal arm of the V-band is reduced (absent in cell r4+5). The statements in the original description that the thorax is yellow with two interrupted black lines (Thorax . . . flavescens: lineis duabus antice interruptis, atris), the subscutellum and mediotergite have dark markings (Puncta duo atra sub scutello), and the abdomen and legs are yellow confirm that these specimens are authentic types and that the interpretation of this species as a synonym of Ropalomera clavipes (Fabricius) (Ropalomeridae) by Knutson et al. (1976) was erroneous.
Anastrepha striata: Lectotype - Female (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (NMW)), South America [Venezuela]; designated by inference of holotype by Hardy (1968: 136). Zucchi (1979) redescribed the lectotype and reported its label data.
Mexico (north to southern Sinaloa, Aguascalientes & northern Veracruz) south to Bolivia & Brazil (Amazonas, Roraima, Rondonia, Pará, Amapá, Maranhão, Piauí, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, São Paulo). Specimens are sporadically trapped in the United States (Foote et al. 1993), but those captured in California are clearly adventive and those taken in the Rio Grande Valley of southern Texas (including several specimens since 1995, D. B. Thomas, pers. comm.) questionably represent a breeding population.
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Anastrepha striata has been reported to attack the fruits of various native and introduced species of plants, but especially guavas and other myrtaceous fruits. The reported field hosts include 37 species belonging to 23 genera and 17 families. Of the 16 genera and 26 species that are native hosts, four genera (including Campomanesia, Eugenia, Myrcia, and Psidium) and 12 species belong to the Myrtaceae. See Norrbom (2001) for additional host data. See Aluja et al. (1993, 1999) and included references for information about the behavior of this species. Anastrepha striata is the only species of Anastrepha in which the mating behavior is known to include trophallaxis (passing of a substance from the male to the female via the mouthparts).
Anastrepha striata is an important pest in the American tropics and subtropics, especially of guavas and other myrtaceous fruits, although it has also been reported to attack mango, mombins, orange, and peach. It is considered a pest of quarantine significance by USDA-APHIS-PPQ and many other regulatory agencies. The main damage is caused by the larvae, which feed inside the fruit.
Norrbom et al. (1999a: 82) noted that the name Dictya cancellaria Fabricius (1805) has priority over Anastrepha striata Schiner (1868), and that usage of the latter would require suspension of I.C.Z.N. rules. However, under the subsequently published fourth edition of the Code (Art. 23.9), A. striata is the valid name due to prevailing usage (nomen protectum), because as noted by Norrbom (2002), cancellaria has not been used as a valid name after 1899. The five uses of the name cited in the synonymy are excluded under Art. 23.9.6. On the other hand, A. striata has been used as the name for this species in dozens, if not hundreds, of publications throughout the last century.
The mesonotal color pattern in this species is the most complex in Anastrepha, with strong contrast in all of the components (cuticle color, microtrichial pattern and density, and setulae color).
Key references are listed below. See fruit fly literature database for additional references.
Aluja S., M., I. Jacome, A. Birke, N. Lozada & G. Quintero. 1993. Basic patterns of behavior in wild Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies under field-cage conditions. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 86: 776-793.
Aluja, M., J. Piñero, I. Jácome, F. Díaz-Fleischer & J. Sivinski. 1999. Behavior of flies in the genus Anastrepha (Trypetinae: Toxotrypanini), p. 375-406. In M. Aluja & A. L. Norrbom, eds., Fruit flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and evolution of behavior. CRC Press, Boca Raton.  + 944 p.
Baker, A. C., W. E. Stone, C. C. Plummer & M. McPhail. 1944. A review of studies on the Mexican fruitfly and related Mexican species. U. S. Dep. Agric. Misc. Publ. 531: 155 p. [p. 130, larva, male and female terminalia, host, Mexico]
Bush, G. L. 1962. The cytotaxonomy of the larvae of some Mexican fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha (Tephritidae, Diptera). Psyche (Camb.) 68: 87-101. [p. 94, karyotype]
Caraballo, J. 1981. Las moscas de frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela. M.S. thesis, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay. 210 pp. [p. 62, redescription in Spanish, hosts, Venezuela, in key]
Emmart 1933. The eggs of four species of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 35: 184-191. [p. 184, egg]
Fabricius, J. C. 1805. Systema antliatorum secundum ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Reichard, Brunsvigae [= Brunswick]. 1 + 373 + 30 p.
Foote, R. H., F. L. Blanc & A. L. Norrbom. 1993. Handbook of the fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America north of Mexico. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca. xii + 571 p. [p. 108, taxonomy, USA]
Greene, C. T. 1934. A revision of the genus Anastrepha based on a study of the wings and on the length of the ovipositor sheath (Diptera: Trypetidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 36: 127-179. [p. 145, taxonomy]
Hardy, D. E. 1968. The fruit fly types in the Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 72: 107-155. [p. 136, type data]
Hernández-Ortiz, V. 1992. El genero Anastrepha Schiner en Mexico (Diptera: Tephritidae). Taxonomia, distribucion y sus plantas huespedes. Instituto de Ecología and Sociedad Mexicana de Entomología, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. 162 p. [p. 85, Mexico]
Keilin, D. & C. Picado. 1920. Biologie et morphologie larvaires d'Anastrepha striata Schiener [sic], mouche des fruits de l'Amerique centrale. Bull. Sci. Fr. Belg. 48: 423-441. [p. 423, larva, host, Costa Rica]
Knutson, L. V., G. C. Steyskal, J. Zuska & J. Abercrombie. 1976. Family Sciomyzidae, 24 p. In N. Papavero, ed., A catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the United States. 64. Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo.
Korytkowski, C. & D. Ojeda Peña. 1968. Especies del genero Anastrepha Schiner 1868 en el nor-oeste peruano. Rev. Peru. Entomol. 11: 32-70. [p. 50, Peru]
Korytkowski, C. & D. Ojeda Peña. 1969. Distribucion ecologia de especies del genero Anastrepha Schiner en el nor-oeste Peruano. Rev. Peru. Entomol. 12: 71-95.
Lima, A. M. da Costa. 1934. Moscas de frutas do genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Trypetidae). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 28: 487-575. [p. 504, Brazil]
Malavasi, A. & R. A. Zucchi, eds. 2000. Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Holos, Riberão Preto. 327 p. [Brazil]
Matioli, S. R., J. S. Morgante, V. N. Solferini & D. Frias L. 1992. Evolutionary trends of alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes in some species of tephritid flies. Rev. Bras. Genet. 15: 33-50. [p. 35, isozymes]
McPheron, B. A., H.-Y. Han, J. G. Silva & A. L. Norrbom. 1999. Phylogeny of the genera Anastrepha and Toxotrypana (Trypetinae: Toxotrypanini) based upon 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA sequences, p. 343-361. In M. Aluja & A. L. Norrbom, eds., Fruit flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and evolution of behavior. CRC Press, Boca Raton.  + 944 p. [phylogeny]
Molineros, J., J. O. Tigrero & D. Sandoval. 1992. Diagnostico de la situacion actual del problema de las moscas de la fruta en el Ecuador. Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, Direccion de Investigaciones, Quito. 53 p. [p. 33, hosts, Ecuador]
Norrbom, A. L. 2002. A revision of the Anastrepha serpentina species group (Diptera: Tephritidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104: 390-436. [p. 424, revision, lectotype designation]
Norrbom, A. L. Host plant database for Anastrepha and Toxotrypana (Diptera: Tephritidae: Toxotrypanini). Diptera Data Dissemination Disc 2 (in press). [host database]
Norrbom, A. L., L. E. Carroll, F. C. Thompson, I. M. White & A. Freidberg. 1999a. Systematic database of names, pp. 65-251. In F. C. Thompson (ed.), Fruit Fly Expert Identification System and Systematic Information Database. Myia (1998) 9, vii + 524 pp. & Diptera Data Dissemination Disk (CD-ROM) (1998) 1. [p. 82, in catalog]
Norrbom, A. L. & K. C. Kim. 1988. A list of the reported host plants of the species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). U. S. Dept. Agric., Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Hyattsville, MD. 114 pp. [p. 62, hosts]
Norrbom, A. L., R. A. Zucchi & V. Hernández-Ortiz. 1999b. Phylogeny of the genera Anastrepha and Toxotrypana (Trypetinae: Toxotrypanini) based on morphology, p. 299-342. In M. Aluja & A. L. Norrbom, eds., Fruit flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and evolution of behavior. CRC Press, Boca Raton.  + 944 p. [phylogeny]
Papavero, N. 1971. Essays on the history of Neotropical Dipterology, with special reference to collectors (1750 - 1905), vol. 1. Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, p. 1-216.
Saravia, G. & A. Freidberg. 1989. Comportamiento de oviposición de Anastrepha striata (Diptera, Tephritidae) en Pakitza (Manu-Perú). Rev. Peru. Entomol. (1988) 31: 91-93. [oviposition behavior]
Schiner, I. R. 1868. Diptera, vi + 388 p. In Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859, unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band. 1. Abtheilung, [Sect.] B, [Art. I]. B. K. Gerold's Sohn, Wien [= Vienna]. [p. 264, description]
Selivon, D. & J. S. Morgante. 1997. Reproductive isolation between Anastrepha bistrigata and A. striata (Diptera, Tephritidae). Brazilian Journal of Genetics 20: 583-585.
Solferini, V. N. & J. S. Morgante. 1987. Karyotype study of eight species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Caryologia 40: 229-241. [p. 238, karyotype]
Solferini, V. N. & J. S. Morgante. 1990. X1X1X2X2:X1X2Y mechanism of sex determination in Anastrepha bistrigata and A. serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae). Rev. Bras. Genet. 13: 201-208. [p. 202, karyotype]
Steck, G. J. 1991. Biochemical systematics and population genetic structure of Anastrepha fraterculus and related species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 84: 10-28. [p. 11, isozymes]
Steck, G. J., L. E. Carroll, H. Celedonio-Hurtado & J. Guillen-Aguilar. 1990. Methods for identification of Anastrepha larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae), and key to 13 species. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 92: 333-346. [p. 343, in larval key]
Steyskal, G. C. 1977. Pictorial Key to Species of the Genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomological Society of America, Washington, D.C. 35 pp. [p. 5, in key]
Stone, A. 1942. The fruitflies of the genus Anastrepha. U. S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Publ. No. 439, 112 pp. [p. 29, revision]
Tigrero, J. O. 1998. Revisión de especies de moscas de la fruta presentes en el Ecuador. Published by the author, Sangolquí, Ecuador. 55 p. [Ecuador]
Weems, H. V., Jr. 1982. Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dep. Agric. Consum. Serv. Div. Plant Ind. Entomol. Circ. 245: 2 p. [review]
White, I. M. & M. M. Elson-Harris. 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: Their identification and bionomics. CAB International, Wallingford, 601 p. [p. 155, taxonomy, pest status, larva]
Zimsen, E. 1964. The type material of I.C. Fabricius. Munksgaard, Copenhagen. 656 p., 2 pl. [p. 494, type data for cancellaria]
Zucchi, R. A. 1978. Taxonomia das especies de Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) assinaladas no Brasil. Ph. D. dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil. 105 pp. [p. 85, redescription in Portuguese, Brazil]
Zucchi, R. A. 1979. Sobre os tipos de Anastrepha parallela (Wied., 1830), de A. striata Schiner, 1868 e de A. zernyi Lima, 1934 (Diptera, Tephritidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 23: 263-266. [p. 265, type data, taxonomy]
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Content by Allen L. Norrbom. Last Updated: January 27, 2003.