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Euaresta Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Euaresta aequalis adult female, photoEuaresta bella adult female, photo
Adult female, Euaresta aequalis, photo by T. W. Davies, ă California Academy of Sciences; and E. bella, photo by S. A. Marshall.

Recognition
Species of Euaresta may be distinguished from other Tephritidae by the following combination of characters: postocular setae mixed short acuminate and long, lanceolate, white; scutal setulae lanceolate, white; 2 orbital setae, posterior one reclinate; dorsocentral seta closer to transverse suture than to level of postsutural supra-alar seta; parafacial spot absent; 1-2 scutellar setae (if 1, anterior notopleural seta absent); 2 frontal setae (1 in male of E. versicolor); head higher than long; mouthparts not geniculate, labella short; wing reticulate, with extensive markings on basal half; hind femur with anterodorsal and posterodorsal preapical setae; male fore femur swollen (except in E. versicolor); epandrium broad, often (bullans group) with striations on posterior surface.
Foote (1980) and Foote et al. (1993) provided keys by which Euaresta may be separated from other American genera. In E. toba, E. regularis, and E. versicolor, the apical pair of scutellar setae are small or absent, which may cause them to be misidentified as species of Lamproxynella or Dyseuaresta. These three species may be be distinguished from all other American tephritid taxa by the absence of the anterior notopleural seta. Males of Euaresta may be recognized from other Tephritini by their swollen fore femur (except in E. versicolor) and by their broad, often posteriorly striate epandrium. Foote's (1980: 28) comment that these characters occur elsewhere in the Tephritini appears to be incorrect. The species to which he referred in his discussion of Plaumannimyia belong in Euaresta. The male of E. versicolor is unusual in having only one frontal seta and small ocellar and orbital setae.
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Classification and Evolutionary Relationships
Order: Diptera. Family: Tephritidae. Subfamily: Tephritinae. Tribe: Tephritini. Genus: Euaresta. Author: Loew.
The phylogenetic relationships of Euaresta to other fruit flies are not fully understood. The genus has been placed in the tribe Tephritini, but its closest relatives within that group have not been determined. The phylogenetic relationships within Euaresta were analyzed by Norrbom (1993), who recognized two species groups, the toba and bullans groups.
Click here for a fuller discussion of Euaresta phylogeny.

Diversity & Distribution
Euaresta is endemic to the Americas, although two species have been introduced into the Old World. There are 15 currently recognized species. Seven species are known from South America, and nine from North America, including E. bullans which has been introduced from South America to the USA (California, Arizona), southern Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, and Australia. Euaresta aequalis also been introduced to Australia and Fiji. Only one species is known from Central America (one specimen of E. toba from El Salvador), and only one or two species from the Antilles; E. bella was reported from the Bahamas and Lesser Antilles (Foote 1967) and specimens that may be E. bella are known from Cuba and the Dominican Republic (see "Euaresta sp.").
Click here for species identification key.
Click here for list of included species and links to species pages.
Click here for character matrix for species.

Names Used for this Genus
Euaresta Loew 1873: 296, Type species Trypeta festiva Loew, Coquillett 1910: 540 (SD).
Camaromyia Hendel 1914: 95, Type species Trypeta bullans Wiedemann (OD).
Setigeresta Benjamin 1934: 50, Type species Trypeta aequalis Loew (OD).
Camaromyia Hendel 1914: 63, Type species Trypeta bullans Wiedemann (OD). Preocc. Hendel 1914: 95.
Trypeta (Euaresta): Osten Sacken 1878: 194.
Tephritis (Euaresta): Cresson 1907: 99
Euraesta Johnson 1900: 688, missp. Euaresta Loew.
Euraresta Persson 1958: 116, missp. Euaresta Loew.
Camaramyia Foote 1984: 74, missp. Camaromyia Hendel. Attributed to "authors".
Euarestia Elzinga & Broce 1986: 208, missp. Euaresta Loew.
Evaresta Hardy & Foote 1989: 528, missp. Euaresta Loew. Attributed to "authors".
Click here to link to fly names database for full nomenclatural data.

Biology
The biology and behavior of several species of Euaresta have been studied in considerable detail (Foote 1966, Batra 1979, Headrick et al. 1995, Headrick & Goeden 1999). All of the species whose biology is known breed in ragweeds, bursages, and cockleburs of the closely related composite genera Ambrosia L., Xanthium L., and Dicoria (Asteraceae: Heliantheae: Ambrosiinae) (Foote 1984, Goeden & Teerink 1993). The larvae of most species feed in the female flowers or developing seeds of their hosts, although E. stigmatica and bellula also attack male flowers to a lesser extent (Headrick et al. 1995). Foote (1984) summarized most of the known host data for the North American species, and Norrbom (1993) those for the Neotropical species.

Host plants are known for all Euaresta species except E. meridionalis, versicolor, tapetis and reticulata, although the latter species has been collected on an Ambrosia species.  Of the species with known hosts, E. aequalis, bullans, and philodema breed in Xanthium species. The other species breed in Ambrosia species, with E. bellula reported from one Dicoria species in addition to several species of Ambrosia. The host range of individual species is limited; E. aequalis, bella, festiva, jonesi, regularis, and possibly stelligera are monophagous or at least have only one known host plant; E. bullans and philodema have two reported hosts; whereas E. bellula, stigmatica, and toba have been reported from three to five host plants.

Economic Significance
Because some of their host plants, ragweeds and cockleburs of the composite genera Ambrosia L. and Xanthium L., cause health problems (hayfever and other allergic reactions) and others are agricultural weeds, various Euaresta species have been investigated or introduced as biological control agents (Batra 1979).  The species that have been released as biological control agents in the Old World include: E. aequalis (Loew), introduced to Australia and Fiji to control common cocklebur, or Noogoora burr, X. strumarium L. (= pungens Wallr.); E. bella (Loew), released but not established in eastern Europe for control of common ragweed, A. artemisiifolia L.; and Euaresta bullans (Wiedemann), introduced, in some cases accidentally (Currie 1940), from South America to California, Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, and Australia, where it attacks spiny cocklebur, or Bathurst burr, X. spinosum L.

Comments
Foote et al. (1993) reviewed and keyed the Nearctic species of Euaresta, and Aczél (1952) and Norrbom (1993) revised the Neotropical species. Some species have previously been placed in Camaromyia Hendel, now generally recognized as a synonym of Euaresta.

References
Click here to access fruit fly literature database
Aczél, M. L. 1952. El genero Euaresta Loew (=Camaromyia Hendel) en la region neotropical. Rev. Chil. Entomol. 2: 147-172. [revision of 4 Neotropical spp.]
Batra, S. W. T. 1979. Reproductive behavior of Euaresta bella and E. festiva (Diptera: Tephritidae), potential agents for the biological control of adventive North American ragweeds (Ambrosia spp.) in Eurasia. J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 87: 118- 125. [behavior of 2 spp.]
Berlocher, S. H. 1984. Electrophoretic evidence for the validity of Euaresta stelligera Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57: 354-357.
Coquillett, D. W. 1910. The type-species of the North American genera of Diptera. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 37: 499-647 [= No. 1719]. [p. 540, type species designation]
Currie, G.A. 1940. Some Australian weed problems, pp. 113-130. In R.O. Whyte, ed., The control of weeds. Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops, Aberystwith, Bulletin 27, 168 pp.
Foote, B. A. 1966. Biology and immature stages of eastern ragweed flies (Tephritidae). Proc. North Cent. Br. Entomol. Soc. Am. (1965) 20: 105-106. [p. 105, host]
Foote, B. A. 1984. Host plant records for North American ragweed flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomological News 95: 51-54.
Foote, R. H. 1967. Family Tephritidae (Trypetidae, Trupaneidae). In N. Papavero, ed., A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. Departmento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, Săo Paulo. Fasc. 57, 91 pp.
Foote, R. H. 1980. Fruit fly genera south of the United States. United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1600, 79 pp.
Foote, R. H., F. L. Blanc & A. L.Norrbom. 1993. Handbook of the fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America north of Mexico. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca. xii + 571 p. [review of and key to 8 Nearctic spp.]
Hardy, D. E. & R. A. I. Drew. 1996. Revision of the Australian Tephritini (Diptera: Tephritidae). Invertebr. Taxon. 10: 213-405. [revision of 2 spp. in Australia]
Headrick, D. H. & R. D. Goeden. 1999. Behavior of flies in the subfamily Tephritinae, p. 671-707. In M. Aluja & A. L. Norrbom, eds., Fruit flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and evolution of behavior. CRC Press, Boca Raton. [16] + 944 p. [biology, behavior]
Headrick, D. H., R. D. Goeden & J. A. Teerink. 1995. Life history and description of immature stages of Euaresta stigmatica (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Ambrosia spp. (Asteraceae) in southern California. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 88: 58-71. [immature stages, life history, behavior]
Hendel, F. 1914. Die Bohrfliegen Südamericas. Abhandl. Bericht. Königl. Zool. Anthrop. Ethnograph. Mus. Dresden (1912) 14: 1-84.
Loew, H. 1873. Monographs of the Diptera of North America. Part III. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 11 (Publ. 256): 1-351. [description]
Norrbom, A. L. 1993. New species and phylogenetic analysis of Euaresta Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a key to the species from the Americas south of Mexico. Proc. Entomol.Soc. Wash. 95: 195-209. [key to 7 Neotropical spp., phylogeny]
Quisenberry, B. F. 1950. The genus Euaresta in the United States (Diptera: Tephritidae. J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 58: 9-38. [revision of 8 Nearctic spp.]

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Content by Allen L. Norrbom. Last Updated: January 26, 2001.