Catalogue Output Description
The catalogue information outputted as part of a scale Valid Name and Catalogue
query is similar both in content and format to most traditionally published taxonomic catalogues.
For any given valid scale species you will have the option of outputting formatted information
for the species, or for its respective genus, or for that genus and all of its included
species. Species catalogue output is described in detail below but output of
Genus catalogues is described only very briefly relative to Species output.
A species catalogue is headed by the currently accepted valid name of the species, with the
author's name in parentheses if that species was described initially in some genus other
than the currently accepted generic placement. After the valid name are some or all of the
Economic Importance and Control,
This section lists all available and unavailable genus/species names (according to the rules
of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature) that have been used in the literature
for the species, including junior synonyms, changes of combination, misidentifications, and
misspellings. Records are outputted chronologically from the oldest, with the originally
cited genus-species combination given along with the author, year(letter), and page number
of the publication.
- The following information is given for each cited-name record attached to type data:
- type locality and host
- type category (e.g., holotype, syntypes, lectotype)
- method of type designation (e.g., original or subsequent) and, if by
subsequent designation, the author and publication reference
- type sex/stage (e.g., female, nymph)
- museum location acronym, with "examined" in parentheses if the type material
was seen by the author of the family database
- The following information may be given for any cited-name record, whether attached to type
data or not:
- sexes described
- whether or not illustrations were included
- status of cited name relative to currently accepted valid name
- author of synonymy or discoverer of taxonomic or nomenclatural "errors" such as nomina
nuda, homonyms, and misidentifications
- notes relating to the specific record
This section gives all of the common names of the species in alphabetical
order and includes the source of the common name as a citation code in
brackets. A complete reference can be obtained by copying the citation
code and pasting it in the citation code field in the
References for a Citation Code query.
This part of the catalogue provides the names of the natural enemies of the
scale. It very often is absent, and when present is not exhaustive.
This section gives the known plant hosts of each scale species. Hosts are outputted
alphabetically by plant family and within family alphabetically by genus, species and
subspecies. A question mark preceding any host record indicates that it is questionable.
Each host record is validated by at least one literature reference in the form of a
citation code between square brackets. Species host information can also be obtained in
tabular form along with citation codes hot-linked to full literature citations
by doing a
Host of a Scale query as explained under
Distribution records are outputted alphabetically by biogeographic realm (Afrotropical,
Antarctic, Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic) and within each
realm alphabetically by country and subpolitical unit (state or province). A question mark
preceding any country or subpolitical unit indicates that the record is doubtful. Each country
or subpolitical unit record usually is validated by at least one literature reference in the
form of a citation code between square brackets. Species distribution information can also
be obtained in tabular form along with citation codes hot-linked to full literature citations
by doing a Distribution of a Scale query as explained under
A summary of the information reported on the life history and other biological
parameters are included in this section.
This section includes any comments that did not fit in other categories of
the catalogue. Very often this section includes information on the best
description of the species.
The content of this part of the catalogue is somewhat variable. It often includes
information on the general appearance of the species in the field. It may
mention some unusual structure.
A discussion of any general issues about the classification and nomenclature
of the species is included in this section of the catalogue.
Economic Importance and Control:
This section gives a summary of the importance of the species as a pest or as a
beneficial organism. A brief synopsis is included on references to control
including chemical and biological control, but this area is not exhaustive.
This section gives references to all published keys that include the species. Also given is
the species name used in the key if different from the currently accepted valid name, the
life stage keyed, and the geographical scope of the key. Key references are outputted in
chronological order from the most recent.
This section consists of an alphabetical listing of citation codes of all publications that
cite the species, the relevant page number(s) within the publication for the species, and
a small number of 'keyword' descriptors that summarize the general contents of each paper.
A listing of all cited publications for a species with full reference data can be outputted
by doing a References for a Scale query as explained under
The output order of a Genus catalogue is similar to that of a Species catalogue except that
it consists only of Nomenclature, Keys, Citations, and one or more of Systematics,
Structure, and General Remarks.
Information given in each section is similar to Species except that data on the type species
rather than type specimens is given in Synonymy, and Keys includes all keys to the species
of the genus.
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