Terms Pertaining to Zoological Nomenclature
- A specimen designated from the type series that is the opposite sex of the holotype.
- Available name
- A name that is correctly proposed according to the International Code of Zoological
Nomenclature. An available name is not necessarily the valid name.
- Any rank within the classification hierarchy, e.g., family, subfamily, subspecies.
- Change of rank
- When a name is moved from one level of the classification system to another, e.g.,
when De Lotto (1955) moved Ceroplastes destructor brevicauda from the
subspecies to the species rank C. brevicauda this was a change of rank.
- A system of nested hierarchical categories used to efficiently store information about
the diversity of life.
- To place a taxon in a classification system.
- A term no longer recognized in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature;
synonymous with syntypes.
- An intentional change to a previously proposed name, e.g., Lindinger proposed the
emendation Hemiberlesea for the armored scale Hemiberlesia
indicating that it was originally improperly formed.
- A specimen that serves as the standard bearer of a species or subspecies name.
- One of two or more scientific names that are identical but pertain to different
organisms, e.g., Eriococcus mancus Ferris, 1955 and Eriococcus
mancus (Maskell, 1897); Onceropyga Ferris, 1955 and
Onceropyga Turner, 1904.
- Incertae sedis
- A name of uncertain identity.
- Junior homonym
- If there are only two homonyms, the junior homonym is the most recently described
homonym; if there are more than two homonyms, the junior homonyms are all but the
oldest described homonym which is the senior homonym, e.g., Eriococcus mancus
Ferris, 1955 is the junior homonym and Eriococcus mancus (Maskell, 1897) is
the senior homonym.
- Junior synonym
- If there are only two synonyms, the most recently described one is the junior
synonym; if there are more than two synonyms, the junior synonyms are all but the
oldest described one which is the senior synonym, e.g., Apiomorpha nux
Fuller, 1896 is the junior synonym and A. pharetrata Scharder, 1863 is
the senior synonym.
- Justified emendation
- An emendation that is correct according to the International Code of Zoological
Nomenclature, e.g., the name susani is proposed as a patronym for a
woman named Susan; according to the Code the name must be changed to susanae
and is a justified emendation.
- A specimen chosen as the standard bearer of a species or subspecies and selected
from the syntype series.
- A citation of a name in the literature that used the incorrect name because the
specimens were improperly determined.
- A citation of a name in the literature that is incorrectly spelled.
- A specimen chosen as the standard bearer of a species or subspecies name for which none
of the original type specimens exist.
- New combination
- When a species is transferred to a different genus for the first time.
- Nomen nudum
- A name that does not fulfill the criteria set by the International Code of Zoological
Nomenclature as a legally described scientific name and therefore cannot be used unless
it is subsequently proposed correctly.
- Nomen obltum
- Latin for "forgotten name" This is a name which has not been used in the scientific community since 1899, and when it is either a senior synonym or a homonym. Once its has formally been declared to be a nomen oblitum, the disused name is to be 'forgotten'. By the same act, the junior name must be declared to be a nomen protectum; from then on it takes precedence. Example: Aspidiotus rosae Bouché, 1833, is a nomen protectum taking precedence over its senior synonym Coccus rosae Virey, 1821 (nomen oblitum). See Article 23.9.2 of ICZN. See nomen protectum below.
- Nomen protectum
- Latin for “protected name" This is a name which has been given precedence over its unused senior synonym or senior homonym. See nomen oblitum above.
- All of the specimens in the syntype series of a species or subspecies other than the
- All of the specimens in the type series of a species or subspecies other than the
- Replacement name
- A name that is assigned to replace a name that is a junior homonym, e.g.,
Onceropyga Turner, 1904 is the valid name and Onceropyga
Ferris, 1955 is the junior homonym and must be replaced; Hoy (1963) proposed the
replacement name Oregmopyga.
- Senior homonym
- The oldest described homonym, e.g., Onceropyga Turner, 1904 is the
senior homonym and Onceropyga Ferris, 1955 is the junior homonym.
- Senior synonym
- The oldest synonym, e.g., Apiomorpha pharetrata Scharder, 1863 is
the senior synonym and A. nux Fuller, 1896 is the junior synonym.
- One of two or more scientific names that are spelled differently but refer to
the same organism, e.g., Apiomorpha nux Fuller, 1896 and
A. pharetrata Scharder, 1863 are names used for the same species of
eriococcid and are synonyms.
- A section of a systematic presentation about an organism that lists all of the
names that have been used for the organism including synonyms, new combinations,
misidentifications, etc. In some cases this section may include only true synonyms.
- The series of specimens used to describe a species or subspecies when the author
did not include a holotype.
- The field of science dealing with the diversity of life and the relationships of
life's component organisms.
- One or more organisms that belong to the same taxonomic unit.
- The field of science that classifies life.
- One or more specimens collected at the same location as the type series
regardless of whether they are part of the type series.
- A term used to describe the nomenclatural importance of various kinds of specimens.
- Type locality
- The geographic location where the primary type was collected.
- Type species
- A species that has been selected as the standard bearer of a genus or subgenus.
- Type genus
- A genus that has been selected as the standard bearer of a tribe, family, or
superfamily and provides the stem of the family-group name.
- Unavailable name
- A name that is incorrectly proposed according to the International Code of Zoological
- Unjustified emendation
- An emendation that is incorrect according to the International Code of Zoological
Nomenclature, e.g., the generic name Hemiberlesea Lindinger is an incorrect
change of Hemiberlesia Cockerell according to the Code and is an unjustified
- Valid name
- The correct name of an organism, e.g., if Apiomorpha nux Fuller, 1896 and
A. pharetrata Scharder, 1863 apply to the same species (and therefore are
synonyms), then by the law of priority (the oldest name prevails) A. pharetrata
Scharder, 1863 is the valid name.
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